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Last Updated: February 17, 2022

Washington generates more hydroelectric power than any other state.

Washington is the nation's largest hydroelectric power producer.1 The Columbia River, second only to the Mississippi in volume of water flow among the nation's rivers, enters Washington near the state's northeastern corner and flows in an arc through the eastern half of the state. It forms much of the boundary between Washington and Oregon and drains all of eastern Washington and the western slopes of the Cascade Range south of Mt. Rainier.2 The river provides water for vast hydroelectric projects including Washington's Grand Coulee Dam, one of the largest hydroelectric power plants in the world.3,4 Washington's climate ranges from the rainforest in the extreme western part of the state, where the heaviest precipitation in the continental United States occurs, to near desert conditions in areas east of the Cascade Range.5 Crop residues from Washington's agricultural areas in the east and those from the state's western forests provide ample biomass resources, and many areas of the state are conducive to wind power development.6,7 Even though the state has few fossil fuel resources, it has the only crude oil refining capacity in the Pacific Northwest.8,9,10 Washington also is the only Pacific state other than California that generates nuclear power.11

Washington's economy developed around logging, fishing, and agriculture.12 Today, the state's top industries include: real estate; information and information technology; manufacturing, particularly of transportation equipment; and professional, scientific, technical, and business services.13 Washington is a leader in the energy-intensive forest products industry and in the aerospace industry, including the manufacture of aircraft.14 The transportation sector accounts for about one-third of the state's end-use sector total energy consumption, while the industrial sector accounts for more than one-fourth, and the commercial sector accounts for more than one-sixth.15 Most of Washington's more densely populated areas are west of the Cascade Range where the climate is moderated by the Pacific Ocean and summers are cool and the winters are mild.16,17 The residential sector accounts for almost one-fourth of the state's end-use sector total energy consumption.18 Overall, Washington consumes almost 2.5 times more energy than it produces, but its per capita energy consumption is less than in two-thirds of the states.19,20

Electricity

The Grand Coulee Dam in Washington is the seventh-largest hydroelectric power plant in the world.

In 2020, hydroelectric power accounted for about 66% of Washington's total electricity net generation from both utility-scale and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) facilities.21 Washington typically contributes between one-fifth and one-third of all conventional hydroelectric generation in the nation annually, and 9 of the state's 10 largest power plants by capacity and 8 of the 10 largest by generation are hydroelectric facilities.22,23 Most of those hydroelectric plants are located on the Columbia River, and one of them, the Grand Coulee Dam, is the seventh-largest hydroelectric power plant in the world.24,25 Grand Coulee Dam's hydroelectric plant typically produces more than 21 million megawatthours of electricity each year and supplies power to eight western states and parts of Canada.26 However, in part because of regional drought, it produced less than 17 million megawatthours of electricity in 2019, down from a high of more than 26 million megawatts in 2012.27 Although generation at the dam increased somewhat in 2020, Washington's most intense period of drought since 2000 was in August 2021 and net generation at the dam once again fell in the following months.28,29 The second-largest power plant in the state—Chief Joseph—is also a hydroelectric facility.30 Both of those dams are more than 80 years old and owned and operated by the federal government.31 The Bonneville Power Administration, one of four federal power marketing administrations, distributes the electricity ¬produced at federal dams in Washington.32,33

Natural gas, nonhydroelectric renewable resources (mostly wind), nuclear energy, and coal generate almost all the rest of Washington's in-state electricity. Natural gas is the second-largest source of in-state net generation, and it fueled 12% of the state's total electricity generation in 2020. Renewable resources other than hydroelectric power accounted for about 9% of state generation. Wind was more than four-fifths of that share and biomass fueled almost all the rest. Nuclear provided about 8% of in-state generation, all of it from the Columbia Generating Station, Washington's only operating nuclear power plant.34,35 It is the only nonhydroelectric power plant among the state's 10 largest by capacity. Although the Columbia nuclear plant is the state's fifth-largest power plant by capacity, it is the state's third-largest provider of power.36 In 2020, coal fueled less than 5% of the total electricity generated in Washington, all of it from the TransAlta Centralia plant, the state's only coal-fired power plant.37 One of Centralia's two coal-fired units permanently shut down on the last day of 2020, and the other is scheduled for retirement in 2025.38 Overall, Washington's net generation exceeds state electricity demand and the excess power generated is sent to the Western Interconnection, a regional grid that reaches from British Columbia and Alberta, Canada, to the northern part of Baja California, Mexico, and across all or parts of 14 western states.39,40

In 2020, Washington was among the eight states in the nation with the lowest average electricity retail prices.41 Washington's electricity retail sales were about 5% less in 2020 than in 2019, in part because of decreased sales to the commercial and industrial sectors as a result of the decline in economic activity caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The residential sector, where almost three in five households use electricity as their primary heating source, accounted for about two-fifths of Washington's electricity retail sales in 2020.42 The commercial sector accounted for more than three-tenths, and industrial sector sales were slightly more than one-fourth. The transportation sector uses a small but increasing amount of electricity.43 Washington is part of the West Coast Electric Highway, a network of public charging stations for electric vehicles located along Interstate 5 and other major roads in the Pacific Northwest. It is part of the larger West Coast Green Highway that extends from Canada to Mexico.44 Washington has more than 50,000 registered all-electric vehicles, the fourth-most of any state.45 As of February 2022, the state had about 1,600 public electric vehicle charging stations and about 3,900 charging ports.46

Renewable energy

In 2020, Washington produced more than one-tenth of the total renewable-sourced utility-scale electricity nationwide.

Washington leads the nation in electricity generation from hydroelectric power and accounted for about 27% of the nation's total hydroelectric generation in 2020.47 The state was third in the nation, after Texas and California, in utility-scale (more than 1 megawatt) renewable generation from all sources, producing more than one-tenth of total U.S. renewable utility-scale electricity generation in 2020.48,49 Hydroelectric power accounted for almost nine-tenths of the state's renewable power generation, and wind and biomass provided most of the rest.50 Some renewable energy resources are used directly, such as biofuels for transportation and wood and solar energy for space and water heating. About 4% of Washington's households heat with wood.51 When biofuels and thermal energy are included with renewable electricity generation, renewable resources account for about 90% of Washington's total energy production.52

Wind power is the second-largest contributor to the state's renewable electricity generation. It contributed more than 6% of Washington's total electricity net generation in every year since 2013. In 2020, it supplied 8% of the state's power.53 Washington's first utility-scale wind project came online in 2001, and development of the state's wind resources, particularly along the Columbia Gorge, continues.54,55 As of late 2021, Washington had almost 3,400 megawatts of wind-powered capacity.56 The state's largest wind farm is along the Snake River in southeastern Washington. It came online in 2012 and has a capacity of about 343 megawatts.57

In 2020, biomass accounted for 1.2% of Washington's net generation, about 2.5% of the nation's total net generation from biomass.58 Forests cover about half of Washington's land area, and wood and wood-derived fuels are the main sources of biomass used to fuel electricity generation in the state.59,60 Washington also has two wood pellet manufacturing plants with a combined production capacity of about 90,000 tons per year.61

Solar energy powers a small amount of Washington's electricity generation. In 2020, almost all of it came from small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) power installations, such as rooftop solar panels.62 One of the state's wind farms includes a 0.5-megawatt solar array that came online in 2007, but Washington's first utility-scale solar PV project, and largest so far at 19 megawatts, came online in 2018.63 A 150-megawatt solar project is under construction in Klickitat County, and is expected to come online in 2022.64 Other large solar farm projects have been proposed.65

Washington has several biogas and biofuel projects. Anaerobic digesters capture methane from dairy cow waste to fuel electricity generation. There are at least eight dairy farms in Washington that generate electricity using anaerobic digesters.66 The state also has two biodiesel manufacturing facilities, one operating and the other undergoing expansion. When complete, the state will have the capacity to produce more than 150 million gallons of biodiesel each year, more than six times Washington's annual biodiesel consumption.67,68 In 2019, Washington's biodiesel production was less than 80 million gallons. State law requires that biodiesel must be at least 20% of all diesel used in state agency vehicles, vessels, and construction equipment, and 2% of all diesel fuel sold in the state.69 There are no commercial fuel ethanol producers in Washington.70 However, the state requires the use of oxygenated motor gasoline blended with fuel ethanol.71

Although Washington does not generate electricity from geothermal sources, those resources provide heat. Some of the state's geothermal resources heat buildings, greenhouses, and water. Several of Washington's natural hot and mineral spring spas use their hot waters to provide space heating.72

Washington's Energy Independence Act, enacted in 2006, established a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and an energy efficiency resource standard (EERS). The law requires that utilities with at least 25,000 retail customers obtain at least 15% of their electricity from qualified new renewable resources by 2020. Utilities may use qualifying renewable resources or renewable energy credits to meet the standard.73 The state's EERS requires utilities to undertake cost-effective energy conservation that is reliable and feasible74 In 2019, Washington updated its RPS with the Clean Energy Transformation Act (CETA). CETA requires utilities to phase out coal-fired electricity from their energy mix by 2025 and to make all their electricity supply greenhouse gas emissions neutral by 2030. By 2045, 100% of the electricity sold to in-state customers must come from renewable or non-emitting sources.75

Petroleum

Washington has the fifth-largest oil refining capacity in the nation.

Washington does not have any crude oil reserves or production.76 Early oil exploration activities in the state began in 1900. Although drillers found small amounts of crude oil, the state has not produced any oil since the early 1960s.77 Nonetheless, Washington is a major crude oil refining center with the fifth-largest oil refining capacity in the nation.78 Washington's refineries receive crude oil supplies by pipeline from Canada, by ship at the state's extensive port facilities, and by rail.79,80 The state's five refineries process domestic and foreign crude oils, primarily from Canada, North Dakota, and Alaska.81,82 Collectively, Washington's oil refineries can process about 650,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day, from which they produce a wide variety of refined products including transportation fuels. The largest refinery, Cherry Point in the northwestern part of the state, can process about 242,000 barrels of crude oil per day. That refinery is also one of the few in the country that can produce renewable diesel from biomass-based feedstocks. The plant plans to more than double its renewable diesel production capacity to about 2.6 million barrels per year in 2022.83,84,85

Washington's total petroleum consumption is among the top 15 states, but its per capita consumption of petroleum is less than in half the states.86 The transportation sector accounts for about four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in Washington. Motor gasoline, which all five of the state's refineries produce, accounts for more than two-fifths of Washington's petroleum consumption, and distillate fuel oil (diesel) accounts for one-fifth.87,88 Washington is also the 11th-largest jet fuel consumer in the nation.89 Major aviation manufacturers and several large military installations in the state contribute to the substantial amount of jet fuel consumed.90,91 The industrial sector is the second-largest petroleum consumer and accounts for about one-sixth of the state's consumption.92 The commercial sector uses 2%, and the residential sector, where about 1 in 20 households heat with petroleum products, uses less than 2%.93,94

Natural gas

Canada supplies most of the natural gas that Washington uses.

Washington has no natural gas reserves or production.95 However, the state has one underground natural gas storage field, the Jackson Prairie Gas Storage Facility located in western Washington. It has a total storage capacity of about 47 billion cubic feet and is the 14th-largest natural gas storage field in the nation.96,97,98 Canada supplies most of the natural gas that Washington uses. About three-tenths of the natural gas that enters the state comes directly from Canada, and almost all the rest comes from Canada by way of Idaho.99 Canada's Sumas Center, near the border between Washington and British Columbia, is a major natural gas trading and transportation hub.100 Nearly two-thirds of the natural gas that enters Washington continues south to Oregon and California.101

Washington consumes less natural gas than about half the states, and uses less per capita than all but four other states and the District of Columbia.102 In 2019, the electric power sector became Washington's largest natural gas consumer for the first time.103 In 2020, renewable energy's contribution to power generation increased, and natural gas use by the electric power sector declined by 9%.104 Even so, the electric power sector remained the largest natural gas user in the state, and 30% of the natural gas delivered to consumers was for power generation. The residential sector, where more than one-third of households rely on natural gas as their primary heating fuel, was the second-largest natural gas-consuming sector and accounted for 27% of deliveries.105 The industrial sector accounted for 25% of the natural gas delivered to consumers. Industrial sector natural gas use has remained relatively unchanged for more than a decade.106 The commercial sector consumed 18%, and the transportation sector used less than 0.1% as compressed natural gas vehicle fuel.107

Coal

In 2020, Seattle was the fourth-largest coal export center in the United States.

Washington has nearly 700 million tons of estimated recoverable coal reserves, but there are no longer any active coal mines in the state.108 The last coal mine closed in 2006. That mine provided most of the coal used at the state's only coal-fired power plant near Centralia. Currently, coal from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana supplies the Centralia power plant, but the power plant's last coal-fired unit is scheduled to retire in 2025.109 Industrial facilities in the state also receive small amounts of coal.110 Coal from several western states is exported through Washington's Seattle Customs District. In 2020, Seattle was the fourth-largest coal export center in the nation, and accounted for about 7% of U.S. total coal exports.111 U.S. coal moves from Seattle to nearby export terminals in Canada for shipment overseas.112,113

Energy on tribal lands

Washington is one of only seven states with more than 200,000 Native American residents, and Native Americans make up almost 3% of the state's population.114 The 29 federally recognized tribes in Washington control almost 6% of the state's land area.115,116 Washington's tribal lands do not have fossil fuel resources.117 However, several of the state's tribal lands are in areas with substantial renewable resources.118

Washington’s tribal lands have abundant biomass resources.

The tribal lands in western Washington have abundant biomass resources. The 12 tribes on the Colville Reservation and those on the Yakama Reservation—the two largest reservations in the state—have substantial forestry industries.119,120,121 The Yakama and Coeur d'Alene tribal lands in Washington are also among the top five reservations in the nation for potential electricity generation from biomass.122 The Quinault Indian Nation on Washington's Pacific coast has abundant woody biomass and uses sustainable forest practices. In addition to timber sales and cedar harvests, the tribe explored the feasibility of a wood pellet manufacturing facility on the reservation to manage forest slash.123,124 In 2008, an agricultural cooperative, a salmon habitat restoration organization, and the Tulalip tribe joined together to form an electric cooperative. The cooperative generates electricity from methane produced in an anaerobic biodigester. The project uses manure and agricultural waste from local farms to reduce runoff that would otherwise enter and pollute nearby salmon streams.125,126

Land that was once part of two Washington reservations—the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation and the Spokane Tribe Indian Reservation—is now the site of Grand Coulee Dam, the nation's largest hydroelectric power producer.127,128 Today, the Yakama reservation, the second-largest reservation in the state, has some of the best hydropower potential of any reservation in the nation.129 The Yakama tribe is developing electric generation projects that will use solar and woody biomass resources and is exploring opportunities to develop its wind resources as well.130 Yakama Power, a tribal-owned utility, has worked toward acquisition of ownership interests in transmission facilities that serve the reservation.131 The Spokane Nation of eastern Washington also is developing its solar resources. The tribe constructed a 643-kilowatt community solar facility and plans to build a 100-megawatt solar facility.132 In 2020, the Spokane Tribe received funding for 140 customer-sited solar PV installations from the U.S. Department of Energy.133 Some tribal lands also have geothermal resource potential.134

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electric Power Annual, 2020, Table 3.14, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Hydroelectric (Conventional) Power.
2 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, Rivers, accessed January 4, 2022.
3 U.S. EIA, "The Columbia River Basin provides more than 40% of total U.S. hydroelectric generation," Today in Energy (June 27, 2014).
4 "The 10 biggest hydroelectric power plants in the world," Power Technology, updated July 27, 2020.
5 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, accessed January 4, 2022.
6 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Biomass Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, U.S. Biomass Resource Maps, accessed January 4, 2022.
7 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Washington 80-Meter Wind Resource Map (October 5, 2010).
8 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas Resources, accessed January 4, 2022.
9 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Coal, Metallic and Mineral Resources, Coal, Coal in Washington, accessed January 4, 2022.
10 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, Annual as of January 1, 2021.
11 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual, 2020, Table 3.13, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Nuclear Energy.
12 Washington State Department of Commerce, Choose Washington, A brief history of Washington's economy, accessed January 4, 2022.
13 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Washington, All statistics in table, 2020.
14 Washington Department of Commerce, Key Industries in Washington, Key Sectors Bring Focus to High Growth Industries, accessed January 4, 2022.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
16 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Washington Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
17 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Washington, Western Washington, accessed January 4, 2022.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
21 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Washington, Annual, 2020.
22 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Conventional hydroelectric, United States, Washington, Annual, 2001-20.
23 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2020, Tables 2A and 2B.
24 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 2, Plant Data.
25 "The 10 biggest hydroelectric power plants in the world," Power Technology, updated July 27, 2020.
26 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Grand Coulee Dam Statistics and Facts, revised December 2021.
27 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Plant Level Data, Grand Coulee, Annual, 2001-20.
28 Drought.Gov, Drought in Washington from 2000-Present, accessed January 5, 2022.
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Plant Level Data, Grand Coulee, Monthly, January 2019-November 2021.
30 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2020, Tables 2A and 2B.
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
32 U.S. Department of Energy, Offices, Power Marketing Administration, accessed January 6, 2022.
33 Bonneville Power Administration, BPA Facts, DOE/BP-5172, updated August 2021.
34 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, updated March 19, 2020.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
36 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2020, Tables 2A, 2B.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
38 TransAlta, Centralia, accessed January 7, 2022.
39 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile, 2020, Table 10.
40 Western Electricity Coordinating Council, About WECC, accessed January 7, 2022.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Average retail price of electricity, All sectors, All states, Annual, 2019-20.
42 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Washington, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation, Other, Annual, 2001-20.
44 West Coast Green Highway, West Coast Electric Highway, accessed January 7, 2022.
45U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Electric Vehicle Registrations by State (June 2021).
46 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Electric Vehicle Charging Station Locations, Washington, accessed January 27, 2022.
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, United States, Washington, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2020.
48 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, United States, Washington, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Annual, 2001-20.
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2020.
51 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
52 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P2, Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019, Washington.
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, All fuels, Wind, Annual, 2001-20.
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
55 U.S. EIA, Washington Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed January 17, 2022.
56 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (December 2021), Table 6.2.B.
57 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Wind Technology Data' (Operable Units Only).
58 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, United States, Washington, All fuels, Biomass, Annual, 2001-20.
59 Washington Forest Protection Association, Forest Facts & Figures, accessed January 17, 2022.
60 U.S. EIA, Washington Electricity Profile 2020, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2020.
61 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, September 2021.
62 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-20.
63 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Solar Technology Data' (Operable Units Only).
64 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of November 2021.
65 Bertram, Jacob, "Second solar farm planned," Columbia Gorge News (June 23, 2021).
66 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, AgStar, Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database, accessed January 17, 2022.
67 "U.S. Biodiesel Plants List," (operational and under construction), Biodiesel Magazine (December 14, 2021).
68 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
69 U.S. Department of Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Biodiesel Laws and Incentives in Washington, Renewable Fuels Standard, accessed January 17, 2022.
70 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2019.
71 Larson, B.K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements as of January 2018, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
72 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program Washington, DOE/GO-102004-2035 (February 2005).
73 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Washington, Renewable Energy Standard, updated March 11, 2020.
74 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Washington, Energy Efficiency Resource Standard, updated November 19, 2015.
75 Washington State Department of Commerce, Overview, Clean Energy Transformation Act (CETA), accessed January 17, 2022.
76 U.S. EIA, Washington Profile Data, Reserves and Supply & Distribution, accessed January 17, 2022.
77 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas Resources, Oil and Gas in Washington, accessed January 17, 2022.
78 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity as of January 1, 2021.
79 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries as of January 1, 2021.
80 U.S. EIA, Washington Profile Overview, Petroleum Refinery, Crude Oil Rail Terminal, Petroleum Port, and Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layers, accessed January 17, 2022.
81 U.S. EIA, Crude Imports, Imports of all grades from World to Washington, accessed January 17, 2022.
82 Marathon, Anacortes Refinery, accessed January 17, 2022.
83 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2021 (June 2021), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2021, p. 20.
84 BP United States, Cherry Point Refinery, accessed January 17, 2022.
85 "BP invests $270 MM to expand renewable diesel production at Cherry Point refinery," Hydrocarbon Processing (October 4, 2021).
86 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption Estimates, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
87 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Tables, C4, Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019, and C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
88 Washington Research Council, Economic Profile, The Economic Contribution of Washington State's Petroleum Refining Industry in 2019 (June 2021), p. 3.
89 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F1, Jet Fuel Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2020.
90 Spokane Valley Economic Development, Aerospace, accessed January 18, 2022.
91 MilitaryBases.com, Washington Military Bases, accessed January 18, 2022.
92 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Tables, C4, Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019, and C7, Industrial Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
93 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
94 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Tables, C4, Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019; C5, Residential Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019; and C6, Commercial Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
95 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, 2020, Dry Natural Gas, Annual.
96 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, 2020, Washington.
97 Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas Resources, accessed January 18, 2022.
98 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2020, Washington.
99 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Washington and Idaho, Annual, 2020.
100 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Imports by Point of Entry, Pipeline Volumes, 2020.
101 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Washington and Oregon, Annual, 2020.
102 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
103 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Washington, Annual, 2015-20.
104 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Washington, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
105 U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
106 U.S. EIA, Washington Natural Gas Industrial Consumption, 2008-20.
107 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Washington, Annual, 2015-20.
108 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
109 TransAlta, Centralia, accessed January 7, 2022.
110 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 2021), By Coal Destination State, Washington, Table DS-40.
111 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report (April 2021), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District.
112 Columbia Riverkeeper, Coal Exports Demise, Press Release (June 28, 2021).
113 Kerr, James "Canada should not be shipping coal overseas for the U.S.," Vancouver Sun (February 15, 2019).
114 World Population Review, Native American Population 2020, accessed January 18, 2022.
115 National Conference of State Legislatures, Federal and State Recognized Tribes, accessed January 18, 2022.
116 U.S. Forest Service, Forest Service National Resource Guide to American Indian and Alaska Native Relations, Appendix D: Indian Nations, The American Indian Digest (April 1997) p. D-3.
117 U.S. EIA, Washington Profile Overview, Map Layers/Legend: Indian Lands plus Fossil Resources, accessed January 18, 2022.
118 U.S. EIA, Washington Profile Overview, Map Layers/Legend: Indian Lands plus Solid Biomass Resources, Geothermal Potential, Solar Resources, and On Shore 50 Meter Tower Wind Potential, accessed January 18, 2022.
119 Washington Tribes, The Tribes of Washington Map, accessed January 18, 2022.
120 Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, Integrated Resource Management Plan 2015, p. 78-95.
121 Yakama Forest Products, accessed January 18, 2022.
122 U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy, Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands, DOE/IE-0015 (April 2013), p. 36.
123 Quinault Department of Natural Resources, A Primer On Timber Sale Process and Forest Growth Cycle Management, accessed January 18, 2022.
124 U.S. Forest Service, Wood to Energy Grants, Quinault Indian Nation Pellet Manufacturing Facility Engineering & Design, accessed January 18, 2022.
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