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Virginia   Virginia Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: August 16, 2018

Overview

Coal is the primary energy resource produced in Virginia.

Virginia is located on the East Coast of the United States, midway between the southern tip of Florida and the northern coast of Maine. The state has substantial energy resources in its rivers, forests, winds, and fossil fuel and uranium deposits. Virginia stretches almost 430 miles west to east and includes the southern tip of the Delmarva Peninsula on the eastern side of the Chesapeake Bay.1 The coastal plain that occupies the eastern part of Virginia includes the site of the first permanent English settlement in North America, several of the state's modern-day population centers, and the nation's largest coal port at Hampton Roads in the Norfolk Customs District.2,3,4,5 To the west, the flat coastal plain meets the rolling hills and basins of the Piedmont region along a boundary typified by rapids and waterfalls.6 Most of the state's hydroelectric power plants are further west, where the rolling hills rise into the Blue Ridge Mountains.7 The valleys and ridges that occupy the western part of the state are parallel to the spine of the Appalachian Mountains and, along with the Appalachian Plateau, contain most of the state's coal, Virginia's primary energy resource in terms of production. The Appalachian Plateau, which cuts across the southwestern corner of Virginia, also holds almost all the state's oil and natural gas fields.8,9,10 Almost two-thirds of Virginia is forested, and the state's widely distributed forests hold abundant biomass potential.11 Virginia has potential offshore wind energy resources as well.12 Uranium, the source for nuclear fuel, has been discovered near the state's southern border. The deposit, although not developed, may be one of the nation's largest.13,14

Energy consumption in Virginia is more than two and a half times greater than the state's energy production.15 The transportation sector is the largest end-use energy-consuming sector in the state.16 Virginia has the third-largest state-maintained transportation network in the nation, including six major interstate highways. More than a dozen railroads operate on 3,500 miles of railway in the state. Virginia has several commercial airports, including two near Washington, DC, that are among the nation's busiest, and one of the nation's largest seaports, the Port of Virginia at Hampton Roads.17,18 The transportation, commercial, and residential sectors each consume much more energy than the state's industrial sector, and Virginia's per capita total energy consumption is below the national average.19,20,21

Coal

Virginia ports are the leading exporters of U.S. coal.

Although Virginia has more than 50 active coal mines, recoverable reserves at the state's producing mines are only about 1% of the nation's total. The state's annual coal production is less than 2% of the nation's total.22,23 However, Virginia ports are the leading exporters of U.S. coal, typically shipping more than one-third of the nation's total coal exports through the Norfolk Customs District, the nation's largest coal port.24 All the coal mined in Virginia is bituminous, and most of that coal leaves the state.25 In 2016, almost three-fourths of Virginia's coal was exported to other nations or sent to other states. The coal that is consumed in-state is used primarily by electric power generators, and some is used at coke plants.26,27,28 Most of the additional coal needed in Virginia is brought into the state from West Virginia and Kentucky.29

Natural gas

Although Virginia holds less than 1% of the nation's total natural gas reserves, the state contains one-fifth of U.S. coalbed methane proved reserves, the third-largest amount of any state.30,31 More than four-fifths of the state's natural gas production comes from coalbed methane wells drilled into coal-rich formations rather than from conventional natural gas reservoirs.32 Two of Virginia's coalbed methane fields are among the nation's top 100 natural gas fields as ranked by proved reserves.33,34 The state's natural gas fields are located in seven counties in the southwestern corner of Virginia.35 Although Virginia's natural gas production, which is only a small fraction of the nation's total, has increased substantially during the past three decades, production still equals only slightly more than one-fifth of state demand.36,37,38 Most of Virginia's natural gas supply is delivered by several major interstate natural gas pipelines.39

More than four-fifths of Virginia’s natural gas production comes from wells drilled into coal-rich formations.

Natural gas supplies come to Virginia from both the Gulf Coast and the Appalachian regions. Additional supplies have come from overseas by way of Maryland's Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas terminal.40 In the past, the largest share of the state's natural gas supply came from the south. In 2012, however, natural gas movements into Virginia from the south began to decline, and, while the supply arriving through West Virginia remained fairly constant, more natural gas entered the state from the north through Maryland, as natural gas production in Pennsylvania increased.41,42 Planned pipeline expansions will allow more natural gas to flow from Pennsylvania into Virginia.43 Much of the natural gas that enters Virginia exits the state. In 2015, for the first time, the largest share of natural gas leaving Virginia went south, entering North Carolina and Tennessee. A small amount of the natural gas leaving Virginia is distributed to Washington, DC, and the surrounding Maryland suburbs by the local natural gas utility.44,45 Some of the natural gas that enters Virginia is stored in two depleted fields that have a combined total storage capacity of 9.5 billion cubic feet.46,47

Natural gas consumption by Virginia's electric power generators has risen sharply since 2003, increasing more than nine-fold by 2017, when the electric power sector accounted for about three-fifths of the natural gas delivered to consumers in the state. In 2015, the electric power sector consumed more natural gas than all the end-use sectors combined for the first time. The industrial sector is the second-largest natural gas-consuming sector in Virginia, followed by the residential sector, where one in three households use natural gas for home heating. 48,49,50

Petroleum

Virginia has no appreciable crude oil reserves and only a small amount of crude oil production, all of which is from wells in the far southwestern corner of the state.51,52,53 Exploration for oil and natural gas elsewhere in the state has not been successful.54 There are no operating petroleum refineries in the state, and Virginia is not crossed by any major crude oil pipelines. Refined petroleum products arrive in the state by pipeline and at the state's ports. Two major petroleum product pipelines, the Colonial Pipeline and the Plantation Pipeline, deliver refined petroleum products to locations in Virginia.55 The Colonial Pipeline originates in Texas and has several delivery locations in Virginia before reaching its endpoint in New Jersey.56 The Plantation Pipeline brings petroleum products north from Louisiana and Mississippi to its terminus in northern Virginia near Washington, DC.57 Petroleum products also arrive at Virginia ports from overseas.58

Virginia's only petroleum refinery, located at Yorktown, suspended refining operations in 2010 and has been converted into a storage depot and transportation hub for crude oil and petroleum products. The terminal was connected to the Colonial Pipeline system in 2011, and rail and dock facilities were also expanded to accommodate train and tanker deliveries.59,60 Crude oil arrives by rail and is transferred to ships at the terminal docks. Petroleum products arrive by ship, railway, or pipeline and are sent to market by marine vessels or by truck.61

Most of the petroleum consumed in Virginia is used by the transportation sector, and about three-fifths of the petroleum used in the state is consumed as motor gasoline.62 Counties in the northern part of the state are required by Congress and the 1990 Clean Air Act to use motor gasoline blended with ethanol to reduce harmful emissions. Several counties in central and eastern Virginia also require reformulated motor gasoline to reduce smog.63 Less than 3% of the petroleum used in Virginia is consumed in the residential sector, where about 1 in 10 households heat with fuel oil, kerosene, propane, or other petroleum products.64,65

Electricity

Natural gas fuels the largest share of Virginia's electricity generation. Coal-fired power plants had supplied the largest share of the state's net generation until 2009, when coal's contribution fell below that of nuclear power. As coal-fired generation decreased, natural gas-fired generation increased. In 2012, natural gas-fueled generation exceeded that of coal for the first time, and, by 2015, the contribution from natural gas-fired generation surpassed that of nuclear power.66 Natural gas now fuels half of Virginia's net electricity generation. The state's two nuclear power plants supply one-third of Virginia's generation.67 Coal provides most of the rest, although biomass, hydropower, petroleum, solar photovoltaic (PV), and other energy sources also are used to generate electricity. Solar PV contributes a small but increasing amount of distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) and utility-scale electricity generation.68

Electricity consumption is greater than electricity generation in Virginia, and the state receives additional power from the PJM Interconnection.69 All but a few counties in Virginia are within the PJM Interconnection, a regional transmission organization that coordinates the movement of electricity in all or parts of 13 Mid-Atlantic and Midwestern states plus the District of Columbia.70 The four counties in southwestern Virginia that are not served by PJM are supplied by the Tennessee Valley Authority.71,72 Retail electricity sales in Virginia are highest to the commercial sector, followed closely by sales to the residential sector.73 Most Virginia households have air conditioning, and more than half of all state households use electricity for home heating.74,75 Virginia has a voluntary energy efficiency resource goal for investor-owned utilities to reduce electricity consumption by 10% from 2006 levels by 2022.76,77

Renewable energy

Virginia’s Bath County Pumped Storage Station is the largest pumped hydroelectric storage facility in the world.

Hydroelectric power, including pumped hydroelectric storage, is the renewable resource with the greatest generating capacity in Virginia; however, biomass fuels more of the state's electricity generation annually. In 2017, biomass fueled almost 5% of the state's total net electricity generation. Wood and wood waste, municipal solid waste, and landfill gas are the most common forms of biomass used in Virginia.78,79 Hydroelectric generation is variable and typically contributes less than 2% of Virginia's net electricity generation. The state has both conventional and pumped hydroelectric facilities.80 Virginia's Bath County Pumped Storage Station, with a net generating capacity of 3,003 megawatts, is the largest pumped hydroelectric storage facility in the world.81 During periods of low demand, inexpensive power is taken from the electric power grid to pump water from the lower reservoir to the upper reservoir. During periods of high demand, the water is released from the upper reservoir and flows to the lower reservoir. Electricity is generated as the water flows through turbines that are located between the reservoirs. Although the plant uses more power than it generates, it supplies power in periods of peak demand when electricity prices are highest.82

In October 2016, the largest solar farm in the mid-Atlantic region at that time went into service on Virginia's Eastern Shore.83 The 80-megawatt installation helped to more than double Virginia's solar PV generation from the previous year.84 More than 260 megawatts of additional utility-scale solar capacity, including a 100-megawatt facility, became operational by late 2017 and resulted in a more than seven-fold increase in solar generation that year.85 The largest share of solar PV generation in Virginia is provided by utility-scale facilities.86

Virginia has large areas with wind energy potential off its Atlantic coast and in the Chesapeake Bay, and more limited resources onshore on Virginia's western mountain ridges.87 However, the state does not have any wind-powered utility-scale electricity generation.88 Several small wind projects have been installed at host schools in Virginia as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind for Schools program.89 An offshore wind demonstration project was in development on a Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) federal lease in waters off Virginia, but funding was withdrawn in 2016, and activities were suspended indefinitely.90,91,92 A test project, Coastal Virginia Offshore Wind, is in development 27 miles off Virginia Beach adjacent to the earlier project area. Installation of two 6-megawatt turbines is planned by 2020.93,94,95

Virginia's biofuels industry includes one commercial ethanol plant and five biodiesel refineries. The ethanol plant in Hopewell, Virginia, uses corn as a feedstock and can produce 60 million gallons each year.96 Virginia's five biodiesel plants use a variety of feedstocks and have a combined capacity of about 15 million gallons per year.97 Virginia also has nine operating wood pellet producing plants.98 Wood pellets are referred to as densified biomass. Densified biomass fuel is used for heating in residential wood pellet stoves and in large-scale boilers in commercial buildings. Wood pellets are also used for generating electricity.99

Virginia has established a voluntary renewable portfolio goal that encourages investor-owned utilities to acquire 15% of base year 2007 sales from eligible renewable technologies by 2025.100 Virginia also enacted an incentive program called the "Mandatory Utility Green Power Option" in 2007, which gives electric utility customers the option to purchase 100% of their electricity from renewable energy sources. If a utility does not offer a program that meets the 100% renewable energy requirement, its customers can purchase renewable power from any licensed retail supplier.101

Endnotes

1 World Atlas, Virginia, Geography Statistics of Virginia, accessed July 30, 2018.
2 NETSTATE, Virginia, The Geography of Virginia, updated February 25, 2016.
3 NETSTATE, Virginia, The Commonwealth of Virginia, updated June 28, 2017.
4 U.S. Census, American FactFinder, Virginia, Metro/Micro Statistical Area (or part) within State, 15 selected, Table B01003, Total Population2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
5 "Hampton Roads Leads Nation In Big Beautiful Coal Exports," The Republican Standard (April 29, 2018).
6 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2017 (April 2018), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District.
7 Bailey, Chuck, "Fall Zone," The Geology of Virginia (August 6, 2016).
8 U.S. EIA, U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 3-1 Generator Y2017, 2017 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
9 NETSTATE, Virginia, Virginia Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
10 Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, Division of Geology and Mineral Resources, Economic Resources, accessed July 20, 2018.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates, 1960 through 2016, Tables P2, P5A, P5B.
12 Virginia Department of Forestry, Virginia Forest Facts, accessed July 20, 2018.
13 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Virginia, Virginia 90 m Offshore Wind Speed, accessed July 20, 2018.
14 Virginia Energy Resources, Coles Hill, Virginia (Uranium), accessed July 20, 2018.
15 Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, Division of Geology and Mineral Resources, Economic Resources, accessed July 20, 2018.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates, 1960 through 2016, Table P3.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates, 1960 through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016) (June 2018), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
18 McDonnell, Bob, "The Commonwealth of Virginia—Staying Competitive in Today's Global Marketplace," Trade & Industry Development (July 18, 2013).
19 The Port of Virginia, 2017 Trade Overview, accessed July 20, 2018.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates, 1960 through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016) (June 2018), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates, 1960 through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016) (June 2018), Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
22 Hayden, Bruce P., and Patrick J. Michaels, Virginia's Climate, Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, ‘State Climates' Series, accessed July 20, 2018.
23 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2016 and 2015.
24 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2016 and 2015.
25 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2017 (April 2018), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District.
26 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2016.
27 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Virginia Table OS-27, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2016.
28 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2016.
29 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2016 and 2015.
30 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Virginia Table DS-43, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2016.
31 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2011-16.
32 U.S. EIA, Coalbed Methane, Proved Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Annual, 2011-16.
33 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Virginia, Annual, 2011-16.
34 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2, Top 100 U.S. gas fields as of December 31, 2013.
35 Virginia Oil and Gas Association, Virginia Natural Gas Facts, Coalbed Methane in Virginia, accessed July 21, 2018.
36 Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, 2014 Virginia Energy Plan (October 1, 2014), Section 3, Natural Gas, p. 1.
37 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2011-16.
38 U.S. EIA, Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 1967-2016.
39 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Virginia, Annual, 2012-16.
40 U.S. EIA, Virginia Profile Overview, Natural Gas Inter/Intrastate Pipeline Map Layer, accessed July 21, 2018.
41 Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, 2014 Virginia Energy Plan (October 1, 2014), Section 3, Natural Gas, Table 3.2.
42 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Virginia, 2011-16.
43 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Maryland, 2011-16.
44 Williams, Atlantic Sunrise, Overview, accessed July 21, 2018.
45 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Virginia, 2011-16.
46 Washington Gas, Company Profile, accessed July 21, 2018.
47 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2011-16.
48 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, 2011-16.
49 U.S. EIA, Virginia Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 2002-17.
50 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Virginia Annual, 2012-17.
51 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Virginia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
52 Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, Division of Geology and Mineral Resources, Energy Resources, Oil, accessed July 20, 2018.
53 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual 2012-17.
54 U.S. EIA, Proved Nonproducing Reserves, Virginia, 2011-16.
55 Milici, Robert C., and Michael L. Upchurch, Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, Oil and Gas, Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, revised March 2014.
56 U.S. EIA, Virginia Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline, Petroleum Refinery, Petroleum Port, Petroleum Product Pipeline, and Petroleum Product Terminal Map Layers, accessed July 21, 2018.
57 Colonial Pipeline Company, About Colonial, System Map, accessed July 21, 2018.
58 Kinder Morgan, Products Pipelines, Plantation Pipe Line Company (PPL), accessed July 21, 2018.
59 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, accessed July 21, 2018.
60 Kerr, Amanda, "Western Refining selling Yorktown refinery," Daily Press (December 1, 2011).
61 "Plains All American to construct oil rail facilities in Colorado and Virginia," Railway, Track & Structures (August 6, 2012).
62 Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, Statement of Legal And Factual Basis, Plains Marketing L.P., Yorktown, Virginia, Permit No. TRO-60116 (October 12, 2017).
63 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates, 1960 through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016) (June 2018), Tables C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, C9.
64 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed July 21, 2018.
65 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates, 1960 through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016) (June 2018), Tables C4, C5.
66 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Virginia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
67 U.S. EIA, Virginia Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
68 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Virginia, accessed July 22, 2018.
69 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.5.B, 1.7.B, 1.9.B, 1.10.B, 1.12.B, 1.13.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
70 U.S. EIA, Virginia Electricity Profile 2016, Table 10, Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2016.
71 PJM, Who we are, accessed July 22, 2018.
72 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO)/Independent System Operators (ISO), accessed July 22, 2018.
73 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA in Virginia, Fiscal Year 2017 (October 2016-September 2017), accessed July 22, 2018.
74 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 5.4.B.
75 U.S. EIA, 2009 RECS Survey Data, Table HC7.10, Air Conditioning in Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009.
76 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Virginia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
77 American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Energy Efficiency Resource Standards, updated July 2018.
78 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Virginia Energy Efficiency Resource Goal, updated October 11, 2016.
79 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.15.B.
80 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 3-1 Generator Y2017, 2017 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
81 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.12.B.
82 Dominion, Bath County Pumped Storage Station, accessed July 23, 2018.
83 U.S. EIA, "Pumped storage provides grid reliability even with net generation loss," Today in Energy (July 8, 2013). c
84 Dominion Energy, "Dominion Announces Significant Expansion of Solar Energy in Virginia in Collaboration With Amazon," Press Release (November 17, 2016).
85 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.17.B.
86 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 3-1 Generator Y2017, 2017 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
87 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.17.B.
88 U.S Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Virginia, updated June 13, 2014.
89 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.14.B.
90 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Wind for Schools Portal, accessed July 23, 2018.
91 U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, "BOEM issues first wind energy research lease in Federal offshore waters," Press Release (March 24, 2015).
92 U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project (VOWTAP), accessed July 23, 2018.
93 Davidson, Ros, "VOWTAP shelved 'indefinitely,'" Wind Power Offshore (September 23, 2016).
94 Dominion Virginia Power, Annual Report to the State Corporation Commission on Renewable Energy (November 1, 2017), p. 21-23.
95 Dominion Virginia Power, "Dominion Energy Moving Forward on Offshore Wind Project with Global Market Leader DONG Energy as Partner," Press Release (July 10, 2017).
96 McGowan, Elizabeth, "Does Virginia have the pieces in place for an offshore wind boom?" Energy News Network (June 25, 2018).
97 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, All Plants," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated July 13, 2018.
98 "U.S. Biodiesel Plants, operational," BioDiesel Magazine, updated December 13, 2017.
99 "U.S. Pellet Plants, operational," Biomass Magazine, updated July 19, 2018.
100 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, About the Densified Biomass Fuel Report, accessed August 6, 2018.
101 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Virginia Voluntary Renewable Energy Portfolio Goal, updated June 12, 2018.
102 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Mandatory Utility Green Power Option, Virginia, updated November 11, 2014.