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Nevada   Nevada Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: February 18, 2021

Overview

Known as the Silver State, Nevada is rich in mineral deposits, particularly gold and silver.1,2 It is also rich in renewable energy resources.3 Nevada is part of the Basin and Range region where iconic buttes and flat-topped mesas are scattered between the mountain ranges that rise from the desert floor.4 The sun-bathed desert provides Nevada with the greatest solar power potential in the nation, and the state has substantial solar energy development.5,6 Geothermal resources are also widespread in Nevada, and the state ranks second in the nation, after California, in electricity generation from geothermal energy.7,8,9 The Sierra Nevada Mountains brush the western edge of Nevada, and open prairie and deep canyons of the Columbia Plateau occupy the northeastern part of the state, but almost all of Nevada is located within the Great Basin, an arid high plateau that has no outlet to the sea.10,11 Although the state has the lowest average annual precipitation in the nation, it has one of the nation's largest hydroelectric facilities, Hoover Dam, which spans the Colorado River between Nevada and Arizona and supplies the region with electricity.12,13 Nevada's mountain slopes are home to the state's few forests, and the mountain ridges have the state's greatest wind power potential.14,15 However, Nevada has only a small amount of electricity generation from wind or biomass.16 The state does not have any significant crude oil, natural gas, or coal reserves and has no nuclear power plants.17

Tourism to Las Vegas and Reno helps make the transportation sector Nevada’s biggest energy consumer.

In 1859, the discovery of silver and gold in the Comstock Lode near Virginia City drew a rush of settlers to Nevada.18 Today, the state's population growth is among the fastest in the nation, but Nevada remains among the 10 least densely populated states in the nation.19,20 About four-fifths of Nevada's land is owned by the federal government—the highest share of any state—almost all of that is administered by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, which manages grazing, mining, and energy development on public lands.21,22 The state is still one of the largest sources of gold in the world, and it accounted for more than three-fourths of U.S. gold production in 2018.23 Although mining for gold, silver, and other minerals remains important, the amount of energy consumed for each dollar of Nevada's gross domestic product (GDP) is below the national average, and the state's economy has grown to include aerospace and defense, information technology, health, manufacturing and logistics, natural resource technologies, and tourism.24,25 Las Vegas and Reno are tourist destinations for gaming and entertainment, and the leisure and hospitality industry was the state's largest employer in 2020 despite the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.26

In part because of tourism, Nevada's transportation sector accounts for almost one-third of the state's end-use energy consumption. The industrial and residential sectors each account for almost one-fourth of the energy used in the state, and the commercial sector consumes the rest.27 About three-fourths of the state's residents live in southern Nevada in Clark County, which borders the Colorado River and includes the city of Las Vegas.28 Despite the heavy use of air conditioning in that part of the state during the long, hot summers, Nevada's per capita energy consumption is less than in about three-fourths of the states and the District of Columbia.29,30,31 However, Nevada ranks sixth-lowest among the states in energy production, and almost seven times as much energy is consumed in the state as is produced there.32

Electricity

Natural gas is the primary source for electricity generation in Nevada. Eight of the state's 10 largest power plants by capacity and 7 of the largest by generation are natural gas-fired.33 In 2019, natural gas fueled almost two-thirds of Nevada's in-state electricity net generation.34 Because Nevada is the driest state in the nation, minimizing the use of scarce water is a priority. The state's largest generating plant, Chuck Lenzie Generating Station, uses high-efficiency natural gas combined-cycle technology and recycles three-fourths of the water it uses. The facility also reduces water use with a dry-cooling system that allows the combined-cycle plant to use only 7% as much water as an equivalent conventional water-cooled power plant.35

Renewable resources fueled three-tenths of Nevada’s large- and small-scale in-state electricity net generation in 2019.

Renewable energy resources—mainly solar, geothermal, and hydroelectric power—accounted for three-tenths of Nevada's in-state electricity net generation from utility-scale (1 megawatt of larger) and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) facilities in 2019. Solar thermal and large- and small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) energy together supplied almost one-seventh of the state's power, while geothermal energy provided one-tenth. Hoover Dam, one of the nation's largest hydroelectric dams, is on Nevada's border with Arizona and has power plants in both states.36,37 Hydroelectric power, including Nevada's share of Hoover Dam, supplied about 6% of in-state electricity net generation.38 Coal's share of Nevada's in-state electricity generation declined from more than half in 2003 to less than one-tenth in 2019.39 Two large coal-fired power plants near Las Vegas were permanently closed within the past decade and retirement of the state's last utility-owned coal-fired power plant is scheduled in 2025.40 That power plant supplies electricity to northern Nevada towns.41 The only other coal-fired power plant in Nevada is an industrial facility that provides electricity to gold and copper mining operations in the desert near Elko. That plant sells its excess generation to the regional electric grid.42,43

Electricity consumption in Nevada is fairly evenly divided among the residential, industrial, and commercial sectors, and the state's average price of electricity ranks among the 10 lowest states in the nation.44 The residential sector, where more than one in three households use electricity for home heating, consumes slightly more electricity than the other sectors.45,46 Nevada's transportation sector uses a small amount of electricity, but that is expected to increase as the state continues to add to the Nevada Electric Highway infrastructure.47 As of February 2021, there were 379 public electric charging stations in Nevada, 71 of which are direct current fast-charging stations.48

Nevada's electricity consumption often exceeds in-state generation, and additional electricity supplies are brought into Nevada over high-voltage transmission lines from other states.49 Prior to 2014, two separate transmission grids provided power to Nevada, one in the southern part of the state that supplied the Las Vegas area, and another that supplied communities in the northern part of Nevada, including the cities of Elko and Reno. The One Nevada transmission project, running the length of the state, connected the two grids for the first time in late 2014. That connection, along with other new transmission lines in the state, has facilitated development of renewable-sourced electricity generation projects, with many solar projects in the Las Vegas area and several geothermal projects near Reno. Those transmission lines also allow renewable energy projects in remote parts of Nevada to be linked to the state's population centers.50,51 Another large-scale transmission project in development will be routed through Nevada for the delivery of power generated from renewable resources in Wyoming to California, Arizona, and Nevada.52

Renewable energy

Nevada has a first-of-its-kind hybrid geothermal-solar power plant, which combines geothermal power with solar PV and solar thermal generation.

Almost one-third of the electricity generated in Nevada in the first 11 months of 2020 came from renewable resources at large- and small-scale facilities.53 The share of Nevada's in-state electricity generation from all solar sources nearly tripled between 2015 and 2019.54,55 Utility-scale solar PV facilities generated more electricity than the state's hydroelectric plants for the first time in 2016, and more power than geothermal energy for the first time in 2017. Utility-scale and small-scale solar power together provided almost half of Nevada's in-state generation from all renewable sources in 2019.56 Nevada leads the nation in solar power potential and ranked fifth among the states in total large- and small-scale solar capacity in 2019.57,58

Nevada is one of the few states that has utility-scale electricity generation from geothermal energy, and the state is second in the nation, after California, in geothermal power production.59 Those resources account for about one-third of Nevada's renewable generation from all sources.60 Among the state's electricity generating facilities is a first-of-its-kind hybrid geothermal-solar power plant, which combines geothermal power with solar PV and solar thermal generation. That facility began as a geothermal power plant in 2009, and PV panels were added later, creating a baseload geothermal facility with peaking solar generation in daytime, when air conditioning demand is greatest. In 2015, a solar thermal power plant was added to the facility. Solar thermal energy is used to raise the temperature of the geothermal fluid, which increases the efficiency and amount of generation from the geothermal plant.61

Almost all of the rest of Nevada's renewable generation comes from its hydroelectric power plants, primarily Hoover Dam, the state's third-largest power plant by capacity and fifth-largest by generation.62,63 Built in less than five years during the Great Depression, Hoover Dam has a generating capacity of about 2,080 megawatts, half of which is in Nevada and half is in Arizona. The dam is operated by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and supplies electricity to Nevada, Arizona, and California. It is a National Historic Landmark.64,65,66

Nevada's wind power potential is widely scattered across the state.67 Because the federal government owns and manages four-fifths of the land in the state, most large-scale wind projects need federal approval.68,69 The state's first utility-scale commercial wind farm opened in 2012. The 150-megawatt wind farm is the only wind project online in the state. No new utility-scale wind projects were proposed as of 2019.70

Nevada first enacted a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) in 1997. It was subsequently revised, and, as of 2009, 25% of electricity sales from investor-owned utilities and retail electricity suppliers were required to come from renewable resources by 2025. Additionally, the RPS required that solar power provide 5% of the renewable requirement by 2015 and a minimum of 6%—equal to 1.5% of the state's total net generation—by 2016 and thereafter.71,72 That requirement, which includes customer-sited, small-scale generation, was exceeded each year, and 14% of the total state net generation was solar-powered in 2019.73 In 2020, Nevada voters gave final approval of a ballot initiative that amends the state constitution and requires electric utilities to acquire at least 50% of their electricity from renewable sources by 2030.74,75

Petroleum

Nevada does not have any significant crude oil reserves and has only a small amount of production.76,77 Petroleum exploration in the state has been sporadic over the past century. The first commercial crude oil discovery was made in 1954, but the second did not occur until 1976. Although a few small fields were discovered after that, most of the state's production occurred after the discovery of the Grant Canyon Field in 1983.78 Nevada's crude oil production reached a high of more than 4 million barrels per year in 1990, but annual crude oil production in the state decreased after that.79 In 2019, annual production was 267,000 barrels, less than 0.01% of U.S. total crude oil production.80 Nevada has one crude oil refinery. It can process about 2,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day and produces only asphalt and road oil.81,82

Petroleum products arrive by pipeline in Las Vegas from Salt Lake City, Utah, and in the Reno area from northern California.83,84 More than four-fifths of the petroleum products consumed in Nevada are used in the transportation sector.85 Federal regulations require that both the Las Vegas and Reno metropolitan areas use oxygenated motor gasoline during the winter months. Additionally, motor gasoline sold during the summer in Washoe County, including the Reno area, is a reduced volatility blend that lowers the emissions that contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone.86,87 Ethanol is used as an oxygenate for motor gasoline, but there are no ethanol plants in Nevada.88 Ethanol is shipped into the state by rail and blended with motor gasoline at Nevada's petroleum product terminals.89

On a per capita basis, Nevada is among the lowest one-fifth of petroleum-consuming states.90 Most of the petroleum that is not used in the transportation sector is consumed by the industrial sector, which accounted for about 12% of state petroleum consumption in 2018. The commercial sector used about 3% of the petroleum consumed in Nevada. The residential sector, where only 3 in 100 Nevada households use petroleum products, mostly propane, for home heating, accounted for 1% of state consumption.91,92

Natural gas

Nevada has no significant natural gas reserves and only a limited amount of natural gas production.93 Almost all of the state's natural gas is produced from oil wells, and production is much less than natural gas consumption in the state.94,95 Interstate pipelines bring natural gas supply to Nevada. In 2019, almost all of the natural gas came through Utah and about half of the total natural gas that entered the state continued on to California. An additional one-fourth was delivered to Oregon and the remaining one-fourth was consumed in Nevada.96 In 2019, 65% of the natural gas delivered to Nevada consumers was used by the electric power sector. Another 16% was consumed by the residential sector, where nearly three in five households use natural gas as their primary home heating fuel.97 The commercial sector used 12%, and the industrial sector used 7%. A small amount of natural gas was used as vehicle fuel.98

Coal

There are no commercial coal deposits or coal mines in Nevada.99 The state's only remaining utility-owned coal-fired power plant receives coal shipped by rail from mines in Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. An industrial coal-fired power plant receives the coal it needs by rail and truck from Utah and Colorado.100 Annual total coal consumption in Nevada declined from about 3.6 million tons in 2010 to 1.8 million tons in 2019.101

Energy on tribal lands

Nevada has 19 federally recognized tribes and is home to about 32,000 Native Americans.102,103 There are a total of 32 reservations or tribal colonies in the state.104 The largest of the state's federal reservations covers almost a half million acres, but most of Nevada's reservations are small, and tribal areas in the state cover only about 1.2 million acres, less than 2% of the state.105

Tribal lands, like most of Nevada, have abundant solar resources, and solar energy is the primary energy resource used by the state's tribes.106 Nevada's Moapa River Indian Reservation is the site of the nation's first utility-scale solar power plant built on tribal land. Construction on the 250-megawatt Moapa Southern Paiute Solar Project—located about 30 miles northeast of Las Vegas—began in 2014 and was completed in 2016.107,108,109 The Moapa Band of Paiutes leased the land and will receive revenues for the life of the project. The project's solar power is sold to the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power.110 A second, larger, solar power plant is under construction on the reservation. The 380-megawatt Eagle Shadow Mountain project is scheduled to come online at the end of 2021 and will be the largest solar installation built on any U.S. tribal lands to date.111,112 Two other large solar projects are planned on the Moapa reservation.113 Other Nevada tribes have pursued development of smaller solar projects on their reservations in the past.114 The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California installed seven ground-mounted solar PV projects in three communities, offsetting electricity costs.115 The Yerington Paiute Tribe created an energy plan and has installed many solar panels as it works toward a goal of energy self-sufficiency. Most of the commercial and government buildings on the tribe's reservation are powered by solar energy.116

Additional renewable energy potential exists on Nevada's tribal lands. The Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe's reservation near Reno, the largest reservation in Nevada and the Walker River reservation are ranked among the top five reservations in the nation with the greatest potential for geothermal-sourced electricity generation.117 The Pyramid Lake tribe has investigated their reservation's geothermal resources. Although the reservation is in an area where other non-tribal geothermal power plants are located and the reservation has geothermal resources, no projects have been developed on tribal land thus far.118,119,120

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, The State of Nevada, updated July 28, 2017.
2 NETSTATE, Nevada Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Nevada Profile Data, Environment, accessed January 19, 2021.
4 NETSTATE, Nevada, The Geography of Nevada, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
5 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, updated March 11, 2010.
6 Solar Energy Industries Association, Nevada Solar, Data Current Through: Q3 2020.
7 Roberts, Billy, Geothermal Resource of the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
8 NV Energy, Geothermal Resources, accessed January 19, 2021.
9 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (January 2021), Table 6.2.B.
10 NETSTATE, Nevada, The Geography of Nevada, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
11 National Park Service, Great Basin National Park, Nevada, The Great Basin, updated December 19, 2020.
12 Nag, Oishimaya Sen, "States That Receive the Least Amount of Rain," World Atlas (April 29, 2019).
13 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Hoover Dam, Frequently Asked Questions and Answers, Hydropower at Hoover Dam, updated August 1, 2018.
14 United States Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, Nevada Forest Overview, accessed January 19, 2021.
15 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy In Nevada, accessed January 19, 2021.
16 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.14.B, 1.15.B.
17 U.S. EIA, Nevada Profile Data, Reserves, accessed January 22, 2021.
18 Online Nevada Encyclopedia, Comstock Lode, accessed January 19, 2021.
19 World Population Review, Fastest Growing States 2020, accessed January 19, 2021.
20 Statista, Population density in the U.S. by federal states including the District of Columbia in 2020, accessed January 29, 2021.
21 Congressional Research Service, Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data, updated February 21, 2020, p. 7-10.
22 U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management, BLM Nevada, accessed January 19, 2021.
23 Nevada Mining Association, Data and Analysis, Nevada Mining Production, Nevada Mining Production: Gold, accessed January 19, 2021.
24 Nevada Governor's Office of Economic Development, Key Industries, accessed January 19, 2021.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
26 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Economy at a Glance, Nevada, November 2020.
27 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
28 U.S. Census Bureau, QuickFacts, Clark County, Nevada, Nevada, United States, Population Estimates July 1, 2018.
29 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2015 RECS Survey Data, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.8.
30 Thompson, Jeff, "Nevada's Extremes Reign Supreme," The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, accessed January 19, 2021.
31 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
32 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
33 U.S. EIA, Nevada Electricity Profile 2019, Tables 2A, 2B.
34 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Nevada, Fuel Type (check all), 2019.
35 NV Energy, Chuck Lenzie Generating Station, updated May 2017.
36 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
37 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Hoover Dam, Frequently Asked Questions and Answers, Hydropower at Hoover Dam, updated August 1, 2018.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Nevada, Fuel Type (check all), 2019.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Nevada, All fuels, Coal, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, 2001-19.
40 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Retired and Cancelled Units Only) and (Operable Units Only).
41 NV Energy, Our Power Supply, NV Energy-Owned Generating Resources, accessed January 20, 2021.
42 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
43 Peltier, Robert, "TS Power Plant, Eureka County, Nevada," POWER Magazine (October 15, 2008).
44 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.6.B.
45 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F20, Electricity Consumption Estimates, 2019.
46 U.S. Census Bureau, Nevada, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
47 NV Energy, Nevada Electric Highway, accessed January 20, 2021.
48 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Electric Vehicle Charging Station Locations, Filter by Nevada, All Electric Public Charging Stations, DC Fast Charging Stations, accessed January 20, 2021.
49 U.S. EIA, Nevada Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
50 NVEnergy, NV Energy's Clean Energy Commitment, updated November 30, 2020.
51 NVEnergy, "One Nevada Transmission Line Begins Serving Customers," Press Release (January 23, 2014).
52 TransWest Express LLC, Critical grid infrastructure to connect the West, accessed January 20, 2021.
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Nevada, All Fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Monthly, January-November 2020.
54 Solar Energy Industries Association, State Solar Spotlight, Nevada, updated December 15, 2020.
55 Solar Energy Industries Association, Concentrating Solar Power, accessed January 20, 2021.
56 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Nevada, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, All solar, Utility-scale photovoltaic, Utility-scale thermal, Geothermal, Biomass, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual 2001-19.
57 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, accessed January 21, 2021.
58 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 6.2.B.
59 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (January 2021), Table 1.16.B.
60 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Nevada, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Geothermal, Monthly, January 2020-November 2020.
61 Stark, Scott, "This Hybrid Power Plant Combines 3 Clean Energy Sources in One," Press Release, U.S. Department of Energy (October 19, 2016).
62 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Nevada, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, All solar, Utility-scale photovoltaic, Utility-scale thermal, Geothermal, Biomass, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual 2001-19.
63 U.S. EIA, Nevada Electricity Profile 2019, Tables 2A, 2B.
64 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Hoover Dam, Hoover Dam Historical Information, updated February 8, 2017.
65 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Hoover Dam, Frequently Asked Questions and Answers, Hydropower at Hoover Dam, updated August 1, 2018.
66 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), Hoover Dam (AZ) and Hoover Dam (NV).
67 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Nevada 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed January 22, 2021.
68 Congressional Research Service, Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data, updated February 21, 2020, p. 7-9.
69 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Rights-of-Way, accessed January 22, 2021.
70 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only) (Proposed Units Only).
71 State of Nevada Public Utilities Commission, Renewable Portfolio Standard, accessed January 22, 2021.
72 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Nevada Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated June 22, 2018.
73 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Nevada, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, All utility-scale solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, 2019.
74 Corbin, April, "‘Yes on 6' calls on 2019 Legislature to raise renewable standard," Nevada Current (November 14, 2018).
75 Ballotpedia, "Nevada Question 6, Renewable Energy Standards Initiative (2020)," accessed January 22, 2021.
76 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Annual, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2014-19.
77 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2014-19.
78 University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Oil & Gas Historical Summary, accessed January 20, 2021.
79 U.S. EIA, Nevada Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981-2019.
80 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2014-19.
81 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Nevada, Annual (as of January 1), 2015-20.
82 U.S. EIA, Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries, Nevada, Annual (as of January 1), 2015-20.
83 Holly Energy Partners, UNEV Pipeline, accessed January 20, 2021.
84 Kinder Morgan, Products Pipelines, SFPP, accessed January 20, 2021.
85 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
86 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, State Winter Oxygenated Fuel Program Requirements for Attainment or Maintenance of CO NAAQS, EPA420-B-08-006 (January 2008).
87 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, accessed January 20, 2021.
88 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Production Capacity: January 2020 Excel file.
89 U.S. EIA, Movements of Crude Oil and Selected Products by Rail between PAD Districts, Fuel Ethanol, Annual, 2014-19.
90 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
91 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
92 U.S. Census Bureau, Nevada, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
93 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, 2014-19, Dry Natural Gas.
94 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Nevada, Annual, 2014-19.
95 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Nevada, Annual, 2014-19.
96 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Nevada, Annual, 2014-19.
97 U.S. Census Bureau, Nevada, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
98 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Nevada, Annual, 2014-19.
99 Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Oil and Gas Resources, Coal, accessed January 20, 2021.
100 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), Nevada, Table DS-26, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
101 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Total Consumption, Nevada, Annual, 2010-19.
102 National Conference of State Legislatures, Federal and State Recognized Tribes, accessed January 22, 2021.
103 Suburban Stats, Population demographics, Current American Indian Population demographics in Nevada 2020, 2019 by gender and age, accessed January 22, 2021.
104 Nevada's Indian Territory, Map of Nevada Tribes, Indian Reservations and Colonies of Nevada, accessed January 22, 2021.
105 U.S. Forest Service, Forest Service National Resource Guide to American Indian and Alaska Native Relations, Appendix D: Indian Nations, The American Indian Digest (April 1997) p. D-2, D-3.
106 Roberts, Billy J., Direct Normal Solar Irradiance, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
107 Lott, Melissa C., "First utility-scale solar project on tribal land breaks ground in Nevada," Scientific American (April 5, 2014).
108 Gagiuc, Anca, "Moapa Southern Paiute Solar Project Begins Operation," Commercial Property Executive (March 22, 2017).
109 Solar Energy Industries Association, State Solar Spotlight, Nevada, updated December 15, 2020.
110 First Solar, Projects, Moapa Southern Paiute Solar Project, accessed January 22, 2021.
111 "8minutenergy and NV Energy Announce Largest Solar Project on Tribal Land," Renewable Energy Magazine (May 31, 2018).
112 8minute, "Capital Dynamics and 8minute Solar Energy Collaborate on 387MWdc Eagle Shadow Mountain Solar Project," Press Release (January 9, 2020).
113 Ludt, Billy, "Utility commission approves 1,190 MW of new Nevada solar+storage projects," Solar Power World (December 5, 2019).
114 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, Project Reports for Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone: Battle Mountain Colony, 2012 Project, Final Report (September 30, 2014).
115 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, Project Reports for Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California, 2015 Project, Washoe Tribe Clean Energy Project, Final Technical Report (March 18, 2016).
116 Yerington Paiute Tribe Energy Plan (March 2014), p. 2.
117 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy, Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands, Data and Resources for Tribes, DOE/IE-0012 (December 2012), p. 26.
118 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office 2013 Peer Review, Comprehensive Evaluation of the Geothermal Resource Potential within the Pyramid Lake Paiute Reservation (April 23, 2013).
119 Noel, Donna Marie, "Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe Geothermal Energy Project," accessed January 22, 2021.
120 U.S. EIA, Nevada Profile Overview, Indian Lands and Geothermal Power Plant Map Layers, accessed January 22, 2021