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Nevada   Nevada Profile

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Last Updated: March 17, 2022

Overview

Tourism to Las Vegas and Reno helps make the transportation sector Nevada’s biggest energy consumer.

Known as the Silver State, Nevada is rich in mineral deposits, particularly gold and silver.1,2 It is also rich in renewable energy resources.3 Almost all of Nevada is within the Great Basin, an arid area with no outlet to the sea that extends into six of the western United States. The Sierra Nevada Mountains brush the western edge of Nevada, and the open prairie and deep canyons of the Columbia Plateau occupy the northeastern part of the state. However, almost all of Nevada is part of the Basin and Range region where iconic buttes and flat-topped mesas are scattered between the mountain ranges that rise from the desert floor.4,5 The sun-bathed desert provides Nevada with the greatest solar power potential in the nation, and the state has substantial solar energy development.6 Geothermal resources are also widespread in Nevada, and the state ranks second in the nation, after California, in electricity generation capacity at geothermal power plants.7,8,9 Although Nevada has the lowest average annual precipitation in the nation, it has one of the nation's largest hydroelectric facilities, Hoover Dam, which spans the Colorado River between Nevada and Arizona and supplies the region with electricity.10,11 Nevada's mountain slopes are home to the state's few—mostly juniper and pinyon pine—forests, and the mountain ridges have the state's greatest wind power potential.12,13 However, Nevada has only a small amount of electricity generation from wind or biomass.14 The state¬¬¬¬ does not have any significant crude oil, natural gas, or coal reserves and has no nuclear power plants.15 However, the state is the nation's only lithium producer, an element used in batteries.16 A new lithium deposit discovered in northern Nevada is thought to be the largest lithium deposit in North America.17

Nevada mines about three-fourths of the gold produced in the United States and is one of the largest sources of gold in the world.18,19 In 1859, the discovery of silver and gold in the Comstock Lode near Virginia City drew a rush of settlers to Nevada.20 Today, the state's population growth is among the fastest in the nation, but Nevada remains among the 10 least densely populated states.21,22 The federal government owns about four-fifths of Nevada's land, the largest share of any state. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management manages grazing, mining, and energy development on most of those public lands.23,24 Although mining for gold, silver, lithium, and other minerals remains important, the state's economy now includes aerospace and defense, information technology, health, manufacturing and logistics, natural resource technologies, and tourism.25 Las Vegas and Reno are tourist destinations for gaming and entertainment, and the leisure and hospitality industry is the state's largest employer despite a sharp, but temporary, drop in early 2020 as a result of the economic effects of COVID-19 pandemic.26,27

In part because of tourism, Nevada's transportation sector accounts for more than one-third of the state's total end-use sector energy consumption. The industrial and residential sectors each account for more than one-fifth of the total energy used in the state, and the commercial sector consumes one-fifth.28 About three-fourths of the state's residents live in southern Nevada in Clark County, which borders the Colorado River and includes the city of Las Vegas.29 Despite the heavy use of air conditioning in that part of the state during the long, hot summers, Nevada's per capita energy consumption is less than in almost three-fourths of the states, and the amount of energy consumed for each dollar of GDP is well below the national average.30,31,32,33 Overall, Nevada ranks sixth-lowest among the states in energy production, and uses almost seven times as much energy as is produced in the state.34

Electricity

Nevada’s largest power plant is natural gas-fired and recycles three-fourths of its water it uses.

Natural gas is the primary fuel for electricity generation in Nevada, and 8 of the state's 10 largest power plants by capacity and 7 of the 10 largest by generation are natural gas-fired.35 In 2021, natural gas fueled 61% of Nevada's total in-state electricity generation, from both utility-scale (greater than 1 megawatt capacity) and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt capacity).36 Because Nevada is the driest state in the nation, minimizing the use of scarce water is a priority. The state's largest generating plant, the 1,100-megawatt Chuck Lenzie Generating Station near Las Vegas, uses high-efficiency natural gas combined-cycle technology and recycles three-fourths of the water it uses. The facility also reduces water use with a dry-cooling system that allows the combined-cycle plant to use only 7% as much water as an equivalent conventional water-cooled power plant.37

In 2021, renewable energy resources—mainly solar, geothermal, and hydroelectric power—accounted for 33% of Nevada's total in-state electricity net generation. Solar thermal and utility- and small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) energy together supplied about 18% of the state's total, while geothermal energy provided 9%. Hoover Dam, one of the nation's largest hydroelectric dams, is on Nevada's border with Arizona and has power plants in both states.38 Hydroelectric power, including Nevada's share of Hoover Dam, provided less than 5% of the state's total electricity net generation in 2021.39

Coal's share of Nevada's in-state electricity generation declined from more than half in 2003 to about 6% in 2021.40 Two large utility-scale coal-fired power plants near Las Vegas closed within the past decade and the state's last utility-owned coal-fired power plant is scheduled to retire in 2025.41 That power plant supplies electricity to northern Nevada towns.42 The only other coal-fired power plant in Nevada is an industrial facility that began operating in 2008. It provides electricity to gold and copper mining operations in the desert near Elko. That plant sells its excess generation to the regional electricity transmission company.43,44

Total electricity consumption in Nevada is usually fairly evenly distributed among the state's residential, industrial, and commercial sectors, and its average electricity retail price ranks among the lowest in the nation.45 The residential sector, where more than one in three households use electricity for home heating and most use air conditioning, consumes slightly more electricity than the other end-use sectors.46,47 In 2020 and 2021, residential use increased to historic highs as more workers stayed home because of the COVID-19 pandemic.48,49,50 Nevada's transportation sector uses a small amount of electricity, but consumption is expected to increase as the state continues to add to the Nevada Electric Highway infrastructure.51,52 As of March 2022, there were more than 470 public electric charging stations in Nevada, more than 80 of which are direct current fast-charging stations.53

Nevada's electricity consumption often exceeds in-state generation, and additional electricity supplies enter Nevada over high-voltage transmission lines from other states.54 Prior to 2014, two separate transmission grids provided power to Nevada, one in the southern part of the state that supplied the Las Vegas area, and one in the northern part of the state that supplied many communities, including Elko and Reno areas. The One Nevada transmission project runs the length of the state and connects the two grids. That connection, along with other new transmission lines in the state, helped develop renewable electricity generation projects, including many solar projects near Las Vegas and several geothermal projects near Reno. The new transmission lines also connect renewable energy projects in remote parts of Nevada to the state's population centers.55,56 Another large-scale transmission project in development will cross through Nevada allowing delivery of power generated from renewable resources in Wyoming to market centers in California, Arizona, and Nevada.57,58

Renewable energy

In 2021, renewable energy sources generated about one-third of the total electricity generated in Nevada from utility- and small-scale facilities. Since 2016, the share of Nevada's in-state electricity generation from all solar sources increased significantly and has more than doubled. Utility-scale solar PV facilities generated more electricity than the state's hydroelectric plants for the first time in 2016, and more power than geothermal energy for the first time in 2017. Utility-scale and small-scale solar power—including from solar thermal power plants—provided more than half of Nevada's in-state generation from all renewable sources in 2021.59 Nevada leads the nation in solar power potential.60 In 2021, more solar capacity was installed in Nevada than in any previous year, and the state ranked sixth in the nation in total solar capacity and generation.61,62

Nevada has a first-of-its-kind hybrid geothermal-solar power plant, which combines geothermal power with solar PV and solar thermal generation.

Nevada is one of seven states that has utility-scale electricity generation from geothermal energy, and the state is second in the nation, after California, in geothermal power production.63 Those resources account for almost three-tenths of Nevada's generation from all renewable sources.64 Among the state's electricity generating facilities is a first-of-its-kind hybrid geothermal-solar power plant, which combines geothermal power with solar PV and solar thermal generation. That facility began as a geothermal power plant in 2009, and PV panels were added later, creating a baseload geothermal facility with peaking solar generation in daytime, when air conditioning demand is greatest. In 2015, the facility added a solar thermal power plant, which raises the temperature of the geothermal fluids, increasing the efficiency and amount of generation from the geothermal power plant.65

Almost all of the rest of Nevada's renewable generation comes from its hydroelectric power plants, primarily Hoover Dam, the state's third-largest power plant by capacity and sixth-largest by generation.66,67 Built in less than five years during the Great Depression, Hoover Dam has a generating capacity of about 2,080 megawatts, half of which is in Nevada and half is in Arizona. The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation operates the dam, which supplies electricity to Nevada, Arizona, and California. Hoover Dam is a National Historic Landmark.68,69,70

Nevada's wind resource potential is on scattered mountain ridges across the state.71 Because the federal government owns and manages four-fifths of the land in the state, most utility-scale wind projects need federal approval.72,73 The state's first utility-scale commercial wind farm opened in 2012. The 150-megawatt wind farm is the only utility-scale wind project online in the state. No new utility-scale wind projects were in development as of December 2021.74

Nevada first enacted a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) in 1997 and modified it several times since, most recently in 2019. It now requires electric utilities to acquire at least 50% of the electricity they sell from renewable sources by 2030. The incremental goal for 2022-23 is 29%, which includes 6% from solar energy.75,76 In 2020, the state did not import any electricity from other states, and 31% of in-state generation was from renewable energy, including about 16% from solar energy.77 In 2021, about 33% of in-state generation was from renewable resources and 18% was from solar energy.78

Petroleum

Nevada does not have any significant crude oil reserves and has only a modest amount of production.79,80 Petroleum exploration in the state was sporadic during the past century. The first commercial crude oil discovery occurred in 1954, but the second did not happen until 1976. Although a few small fields came online after that, most of the state's production occurred after the discovery of the Grant Canyon Field in 1983.81 There are only about 120 producing oil wells in the state.82 Nevada's crude oil production reached a high of more than 4 million barrels per year in 1990, but annual crude oil production in the state decreased after that.83 In 2021, the state's crude oil wells produced about 200,000 barrels, less than 0.01% of the nation's total.84 Nevada has one crude oil refinery. It can process about 2,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day and produces only asphalt and road oil.85,86 Las Vegas receives refined petroleum products like motor gasoline and diesel fuel by pipeline from refineries in Salt Lake City and Los Angeles, and the Reno area receives petroleum products from refineries in the San Francisco Bay area.87,88

Nevada's transportation sector consumes more than 85% of the petroleum products used in the state.89 Federal regulations require that both the Las Vegas and the Reno metropolitan areas use oxygenated motor gasoline during the winter months. Additionally, motor gasoline sold during the summer in Washoe County, including the Reno area, is a reduced volatility blend that lowers the emissions that contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone.90,91 Ethanol is used as an oxygenate for motor gasoline, but there are no ethanol plants in Nevada.92 Ethanol is shipped into the state by rail and blended with motor gasoline at Nevada's petroleum product terminals.93 The industrial sector consumes most of the petroleum that is not used in the transportation sector. It accounted for about 11% of the state's consumption in 2019. The commercial sector used about 3% and the residential sector accounted for 1% of state petroleum consumption. About 3 in 100 Nevada households use petroleum products, mostly propane, for home heating.94,95 On a per capita basis, Nevada uses less petroleum than almost two-thirds of the states.96

Natural gas

Nevada has no significant natural gas reserves and only a limited amount of natural gas production.97 Almost all of the state's natural gas is produced from oil wells, and all of that natural gas is used in the fields where it is produced.98,99,100 Interstate pipelines bring natural gas supply to Nevada consumers. In 2020, almost all of the natural gas came through Utah. Nevada consumers used slightly more than one-fourth of the natural gas that entered the state. The rest continued on primarily to California and some went to Oregon.101 In 2020, the electric power sector used 69% of the natural gas delivered to Nevada consumers. The residential sector, where nearly three in five households use natural gas as their primary home heating fuel, consumed 16% of the state's natural gas deliveries.102 The commercial sector used about 9% of the natural gas delivered to Nevada consumers, down from the pre-COVID-19 pandemic value of about 12% in 2019. The industrial sector accounted for less than 7%. The transportation sector used a small amount of natural gas as compressed natural gas vehicle fuel.103

Coal

There are no commercial coal deposits or coal mines in Nevada.104 The state's two coal-fired power plants, both located in northern Nevada, are among the 10 largest power plants by generation in the state.105 The North Valmy Generating Station is Nevada's only remaining utility-owned coal-fired power plant. It receives coal shipped by rail from mines in Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. The TS Power industrial coal-fired power plant receives the coal it needs by truck and rail from Utah and Colorado.106,107 Annual total coal consumption in Nevada declined from about 3.6 million tons in 2010 to less than 1.4 million tons in 2020.108

Energy on tribal lands

Nevada has 19 federally recognized tribes and is home to more than 32,000 Native Americans.109,110 There are a total of 32 reservations or tribal colonies in the state.111 The largest of the state's reservations covers almost a half-million acres, but most of Nevada's reservations are small, and tribal areas in the state cover about 1.2 million acres, less than 2% of the state.112

Tribal lands, like most of Nevada, have abundant solar resources, and solar energy is the primary energy resource used by the state's tribes.113 Nevada's Moapa River Indian Reservation is the site of the nation's first utility-scale solar power plant built on tribal land. Construction of the 250-megawatt Moapa Southern Paiute Solar Project—located about 30 miles northeast of Las Vegas—began in 2014 and became fully operational in 2017. It is among the largest solar installations in Nevada.114,115,116 The Moapa Band of Paiutes leased the land and will receive revenues for the life of the project. The project's solar power is sold to the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power.117 A second, larger, solar power plant is under construction on the reservation. The 380-megawatt Eagle Shadow Mountain project, scheduled for completion in late 2022, will be the largest solar installation built on any U.S. tribal lands.118,119,120 Two other large solar projects on the Moapa reservation are in development. The 300-megawatt Southern Bighorn Solar Project received final approval and the 200-megawatt Arrow Canyon Solar Project is under construction.121,122,123 Other Nevada tribes have built solar projects on their reservations. The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California installed seven ground-mounted solar PV projects in three communities, offsetting electricity costs.124 The Yerington Paiute Tribe created an energy plan and installed solar panels as it works toward a goal of energy self-sufficiency. Ground-mounted solar panels provide power to several buildings as well as to well pumps used for irrigation and at a water treatment plant on the reservation.125,126

Additional renewable energy potential exists on Nevada's tribal lands. The Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe's reservation near Reno, the largest reservation in Nevada, and the Walker River reservation are ranked among the top five reservations in the nation with the greatest potential for geothermal-sourced electricity generation.127 The Pyramid Lake tribe investigated their reservation's geothermal resources. Although the reservation is in an area where other non-tribal geothermal power plants are located and the reservation has geothermal resources, there are no geothermal projects on tribal land.128,129,130

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, The State of Nevada, updated July 28, 2017.
2 NETSTATE, Nevada Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Nevada Profile Data, Environment, accessed February 15, 2022.
4 NETSTATE, Nevada, The Geography of Nevada, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
5 National Park Service, Great Basin National Park, Nevada, The Great Basin, updated December 19, 2020.
6 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, accessed February 15, 2022.
7 Roberts, Billy, Geothermal Resource of the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
8 NV Energy, Geothermal Resources, accessed February 15, 2022.
9 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 6.2.B.
10 Nag, Oishimaya Sen, "States That Receive the Least Amount of Rain," World Atlas (April 29, 2019).
11 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Hoover Dam, Frequently Asked Questions and Answers, Hydropower at Hoover Dam, updated August 1, 2018.
12 United States Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, Nevada Forest Overview, accessed February 15, 2022.
13 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy In Nevada, accessed February 15, 2022.
14 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Tables 1.14.B, 1.15.B.
15 U.S. EIA, Nevada Profile Data, Reserves, accessed February 15, 2022.
16 U.S. Geological Survey, USGS Online Publications Directory, Lithium, accessed March 9, 2022.
17 Dentzer, Bill, "Nevada's Next Boom, High Demand Poised to Spur Silver State's Lithium Production," Las Vegas Review-Journal (October 2, 2021).
18 NETSTATE, Nevada Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
19 Nevada Mining Association, Data and Analysis, Nevada Mining Production, Nevada Mining Production: Gold, 2020, accessed February 15, 2022.
20 Online Nevada Encyclopedia, Comstock Lode, accessed February 16, 2022.
21 World Population Review, Fastest Growing States 2022, accessed February 16, 2022.
22 Statista, Population density in the U.S. by federal states including the District of Columbia in 2020, accessed February 16, 2022.
23 Congressional Research Service, Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data, updated February 21, 2020, p. 7-10.
24 U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management, BLM Nevada, accessed February 16, 2022.
25 Nevada Governor's Office of Economic Development, Key Industries, accessed February 16, 2022.
26 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Economy at a Glance, Nevada, December 2021.
27 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Databases, Tables & Calculators by Subject, Nevada, 2011-21.
28 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
29 U.S. Census Bureau, QuickFacts, Clark County, Nevada, Nevada, United States, Population, Census, April 1, 2020.
30 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2015 RECS Survey Data, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.8.
31 Thompson, Jeff, "Nevada's Extremes Reign Supreme," The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, accessed February 16, 2022.
32 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
33 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
34 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
35 U.S. EIA, Nevada Electricity Profile 2020, Tables 2A, 2B.
36 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Nevada, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2021.
37 NV Energy, Chuck Lenzie Generating Station, updated May 2017.
38 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Hoover Dam, Frequently Asked Questions and Answers, Hydropower at Hoover Dam, updated August 1, 2018.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Nevada, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Geothermal, All solar, Utility-scale photovoltaic, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Utility-scale thermal, Annual, 2001-21.
40 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Nevada, All fuels, Coal, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-21.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of December 2021 and Inventory of Operating Generators as of December 2021.
42 NV Energy, Our Power Supply, NV Energy-Owned Generating Resources, accessed February 17, 2022.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of December 2021.
44 Peltier, Robert, "TS Power Plant, Eureka County, Nevada," POWER Magazine (October 15, 2008).
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Nevada, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation, Other, Annual, 2020-21.
46 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2015 RECS Survey Data, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.8.
47 U.S. Census Bureau, Nevada, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Nevada, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation, Other, Annual, 2001-21.
49 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 5.4.B.
50 Reeves, Richard V., et al., "You never know": Work and precarity in Las Vegas before and during COVID-19, Brookings (July 20, 2021).
51 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F20, Electricity Consumption Estimates, 2020.
52 Nevada Governor's Office of Energy, Nevada Electric Highway (May 16, 2019).
53 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Electric Vehicle Charging Station Locations, Nevada, Electric, Public, Charger Type-All and DC Fast Charging, accessed March 9, 2022.
54 U.S. EIA, Nevada Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020.
55 NVEnergy, NV Energy's Clean Energy Commitment, updated November 30, 2020.
56 NVEnergy, "One Nevada Transmission Line Begins Serving Customers," Press Release (January 23, 2014).
57 TransWest Express LLC, Critical grid infrastructure to connect the West, accessed February 17, 2022.
58 TransWest Express LLC, Schedule and timeline, accessed February 17, 2022
59 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Nevada, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Geothermal, All solar, All utility-scale solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Utility-scale thermal, Annual, 2010-21.
60 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, accessed February 18, 2022.
61 Solar Energy Industries Association, State Solar Spotlight, Nevada, updated December 14, 2021.
62 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 6.2.B.
63 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 1.16.B.
64 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Nevada, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Small-scale photovoltaic, Geothermal, Annual, 2021.
65 Stark, Scott, "This Hybrid Power Plant Combines 3 Clean Energy Sources in One," Press Release, U.S. Department of Energy (October 19, 2016).
66 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Nevada, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, All solar, Geothermal, Biomass, Annual 2021.
67 U.S. EIA, Nevada Electricity Profile 2020, Tables 2A, 2B.
68 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Hoover Dam, Hoover Dam Historical Information, updated February 8, 2017.
69 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Hoover Dam, Frequently Asked Questions and Answers, Hydropower at Hoover Dam, updated August 1, 2018.
70 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), Hoover Dam (AZ) and Hoover Dam (NV).
71 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Nevada 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed February 19, 2022.
72 Congressional Research Service, Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data, updated February 21, 2020, p. 7-9.
73 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Rights-of-Way, accessed February 19, 2022.
74 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of December 2021 and Inventory of Planned Generators as of December 2021.
75 State of Nevada Public Utilities Commission, Renewable Portfolio Standard, accessed February 19, 2022.
76 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Nevada Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated May 19, 2021.
77 U.S. EIA, Nevada Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10.
78 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Nevada, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual 2020 -21.
79 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Annual, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2015-20.
80 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2016-21.
81 University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Oil & Gas Historical Summary, accessed February 19, 2022.
82 Magill, Bobby, "Nevada Becoming Wild West for Oil Speculation," Bloomberg Law (August 5, 2019).
83 U.S. EIA, Nevada Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981-2021.
84 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2016-21.
85 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Nevada, Annual (as of January 1), 2016-21.
86 U.S. EIA, Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries, Nevada, Annual (as of January 1), 2016-21.
87 Holly Energy Partners, UNEV Pipeline, accessed February 19, 2022.
88 Kinder Morgan, Products Pipelines, SFPP and CALNEV Pipeline, accessed February 19, 2022.
89 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
90 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, State Winter Oxygenated Fuel Program Requirements for Attainment or Maintenance of CO NAAQS, EPA420-B-08-006 (January 2008).
91 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, accessed February 19, 2022.
92 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Production Capacity: January 2021, Excel file.
93 U.S. EIA, Movements of Crude Oil and Selected Products by Rail between PAD Districts, Fuel Ethanol, Annual, 2016-21.
94 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
95 U.S. Census Bureau, Nevada, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
96 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
97 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, 2015-20, Dry Natural Gas.
98 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Nevada, Annual, 2015-20.
99 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Nevada, Annual, 2016-21.
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105 U.S. EIA, Nevada Electricity Profile 2020, Table 2B.
106 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of December 2021.
107 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), Nevada, Table DS-23, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
108 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Total Consumption, Nevada, Annual, 2010-20.
109 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, "Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs," Federal Register, Vol. 87, No. 19 (January 28, 2022), p. 4636-41.
110 Suburban Stats, Population demographics, Current American Indian Population demographics in Nevada 2020, 2019 by gender and age, accessed February 19, 2022.
111 Nevada's Indian Territory, Map of Nevada Tribes, Indian Reservations and Colonies of Nevada, accessed February 19, 2022.
112 U.S. Forest Service, Forest Service National Resource Guide to American Indian and Alaska Native Relations, Appendix D: Indian Nations, The American Indian Digest (April 1997) p. D-2, D-3.
113 Roberts, Billy J., Direct Normal Solar Irradiance, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
114 Lott, Melissa C., "First utility-scale solar project on tribal land breaks ground in Nevada," Scientific American (April 5, 2014).
115 Gagiuc, Anca, "Moapa Southern Paiute Solar Project Begins Operation," Commercial Property Executive (March 22, 2017).
116 Solar Energy Industries Association, State Solar Spotlight, Nevada, updated December 14, 2021.
117 First Solar, Projects, Moapa Southern Paiute Solar Project, accessed February 21, 2022.
118 "8minutenergy and NV Energy Announce Largest Solar Project on Tribal Land," Renewable Energy Magazine (May 31, 2018).
119 8minute, "Capital Dynamics and 8minute Solar Energy Collaborate on 387MWdc Eagle Shadow Mountain Solar Project," Press Release (January 9, 2020).
120 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of December 2021.
121 Oxendine, Chez, "Moapa Band of Paiute Indians moves forward with Southern Bighorn Solar Project," Tribal Business News (June 7, 2021)
122 Ludt, Billy, "Utility commission approves 1,190 MW of new Nevada solar+storage projects," Solar Power World (December 5, 2019).
123 U.S. Department of the Interior, "Interior Department Advances Two Solar Energy Projects on Tribal Lands," Press Release (July 16, 2021).
124 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, Project Reports for Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California, 2015 Project, Washoe Tribe Clean Energy Project, Final Technical Report (March 18, 2016).
125 Yerington Paiute Tribe Energy Plan (March 2014), p. 2.
126 Black Rock Solar, Installations, Search, Results For: Yerington Paiute Tribe, accessed March 9, 2022.
127 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy, Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands, Data and Resources for Tribes, DOE/IE-0012 (December 2012), p. 26.
128 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office 2013 Peer Review, Comprehensive Evaluation of the Geothermal Resource Potential within the Pyramid Lake Paiute Reservation (April 23, 2013).
129 Noel, Donna Marie, "Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe Geothermal Energy Project," accessed February 21, 2022.
130 U.S. EIA, Nevada Profile Overview, Indian Lands and Geothermal Power Plant Map Layers, accessed February 21, 2022.