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Nevada   Nevada Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: December 21, 2017

Overview

Known as the Silver State, Nevada is rich in mineral deposits, particularly gold and silver; however, the state has no significant fossil fuel reserves.1,2,3 Most of Nevada’s in-state energy assets are renewable resources. Located almost entirely in the Great Basin, an arid high plateau with no outlet to the sea, Nevada has the lowest average annual precipitation in the nation.4 Much of the state is sun-bathed desert, providing Nevada with the nation’s best solar power potential.5,6 The Sierra Nevada Mountains brush the western edge of Nevada and open prairie and deep canyons occupy the northeastern part of the state. Nevada’s many mountain ranges rise from the desert floor, and some slopes are home to lush forests that give the state a biomass resource.7 The mountain ridges also provide the state with wind power potential.8,9 Nevada has substantial geothermal and solar energy development, as well as a small amount of wind and biomass power generation.10,11 More than four-fifths of Nevada’s land is under federal control—a higher share than any other state—and one of the nation’s largest federal hydroelectric facilities, Hoover Dam, spans the Colorado River between Nevada and Arizona, supplying the region with electricity.12,13 However, most of Nevada's energy comes from out of state.14

Settlers first flocked to Nevada in 1859, after silver and gold were discovered in the Comstock Lode near Virginia City.15 Nevada is still one of the largest sources of gold in the world, providing more than three-fourths of U.S. gold production.16 Although mining for gold, silver, and other minerals remains important, the state’s economy has grown to encompass aerospace and defense, information technology, renewable energy, and tourism.17 Las Vegas and Reno have become tourist destinations for gaming and entertainment. The hospitality industry is the state's largest employer.18

Tourism to Las Vegas and Reno helps make the transportation sector one of Nevada’s biggest energy consumers.

In 2016, Nevada had the second-fastest population growth rate in the nation after Utah.19 The state's population is concentrated around its water resources. Almost three-fourths of Nevada’s residents live in Clark County, which borders the Colorado River and includes the city of Las Vegas.20,21,22 Nearly half of the state's counties have fewer than two residents per square mile.23 In part because of tourism, the transportation sector is the state’s leading end-use energy-consuming sector, using about one-third of the end-use energy consumed in Nevada.24 Overall, the state’s economy is not energy-intensive, and per capita energy consumption is among the lowest one-fifth of states despite the heavy use of air conditioning during the state’s hot summers.25,26,27

Petroleum

Nevada does not have any significant crude oil reserves.28 Petroleum exploration in the state has been sporadic over the past century, and Nevada produces only small amounts of crude oil. Although the first commercial crude oil discovery was made in 1954, most of the production occurred after the discovery of the Grant Canyon Field in 1983. From a high of 4 million barrels per year in 1990, annual crude oil production fell to less than 280,000 barrels in 2016.29,30 Nevada has one small crude oil refinery in Ely that produces asphalt and road oil.31,32

Most of the petroleum products consumed in Nevada are used in the transportation sector.33 Federal regulations require that both the Las Vegas and Reno metropolitan areas use less-polluting, oxygenated motor gasoline during the winter months. Additionally, motor gasoline sold during the summer in Washoe County, including the Reno area, is a reduced volatility blend that lowers the evaporative emissions that contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone.34,35 Ethanol is used as an oxygenate for motor gasoline, but there are no ethanol plants in Nevada.36 Ethanol is shipped into the state by rail for blending with motor gasoline at Nevada terminals.37 On a per capita basis, Nevada is among the lowest petroleum-consuming states in the nation.38,39 Most of the petroleum that is not used in the transportation sector is consumed by the industrial sector.40 Less than 1% of Nevada households use petroleum for heating.41

Natural gas

Nevada has no significant natural gas reserves and only a limited amount of natural gas production.42 All of the state’s natural gas is produced from oil wells, and production is much less than natural gas consumption in Nevada.43,44 Interstate pipelines supply Nevada with natural gas from producing regions in nearby states.45 The Las Vegas area receives natural gas primarily by pipeline through Utah from the Opal trading hub in Wyoming. A pipeline crossing Arizona brings natural gas from the Permian Basin in Texas and the San Juan Basin in New Mexico. Other pipeline systems transport natural gas from the Malin trading hub in Oregon and from Idaho to supply the Reno area.46 Almost three-fourths of the natural gas received in Nevada moves on to other states. About half of the natural gas that enters Nevada continues on to California.47 Of the natural gas consumed in Nevada, slightly more than two-thirds is used for electricity generation, and almost half of the rest is consumed by the residential sector.48 Three in five Nevada households use natural gas as their primary home heating fuel.49

Coal

Nevada’s newest coal-fired plant powers gold mining in the desert and sells its excess electricity generation to the regional grid.

There are no commercial coal deposits or coal mines in Nevada.50,51 The state’s two coal-fired power plants are supplied by railroad from mines in Wyoming, with much smaller amounts arriving by rail from Utah and Colorado.52,53 One power plant supplies northern Nevada towns, and the second, newer power plant, an industrial facility, provides electricity to gold and copper mining operations in the northern Nevada desert near Elko. That power plant also sells its excess generation to the regional grid.54,55 A third coal-fired power plant near Las Vegas was the state’s largest, but after 50 years in service, it was permanently closed in early 2017.56 A small amount of coal from Utah and Colorado is also delivered, primarily by truck, to industrial facilities in Nevada.57

Electricity

Natural gas is the primary fuel for power generation in Nevada. Eight of the state’s 10 largest power plants by generating capacity are natural gas-fired, and natural gas fuels nearly three-fourths of Nevada's net electricity generation.58,59 Minimizing the use of scarce water in conventional generation is a priority for Nevada. The state's largest generating plant, NV Energy's Chuck Lenzie Generating Station, uses high-efficiency natural gas combined-cycle technology and recycles three-fourths of the water it uses. It also reduces water use by employing a dry-cooling system that allows the combined-cycle plant to use only 7% as much water as a conventional water-cooled power plant for an equal amount of electricity generation.60,61 Renewable resources, including hydropower, account for more than one-fifth of Nevada’s in-state electric power generation; nearly half of that is from geothermal energy.62 Coal-fired power plants supply almost all of the rest of Nevada’s net generation.63

Until 2006, the largest power plant in Nevada by capacity was the coal-fired Mohave Generating Station. That plant received coal by what was the longest coal slurry pipeline in the nation. Plant operations were suspended in 2005, and the plant was later dismantled, primarily because of environmental concerns that included decreased water supply for the 273-mile-long slurry pipeline that ran from a mine in northern Arizona to the power plant in Nevada.64,65,66 Coal-fired electricity generation in Nevada has declined to about one-ninth of its 2005 level as the state’s coal-fired power plants have been retired.67,68 In compliance with a 2013 state law, Nevada’s largest utility is planning to eliminate most of its coal-fired electricity generation by the end of 2019 and may close the last utility-owned Nevada coal-fired power plant by 2025.69,70,71 Renewable energy resources, mainly geothermal, hydroelectric, and solar power plants, are supplying an increasing share of the state’s net generation and, in 2016, contributed about four times as much of the state’s net electricity generation as coal did.72

Electricity consumption per capita in Nevada is slightly above the national average. The industrial sector is the leading electricity-consuming sector, followed closely by the residential sector, where about one in three households use electricity for home heating.73,74,75 Nevada’s electricity consumption often exceeds in-state generation, and additional electricity enters Nevada over high-voltage transmission lines from other states.76

Prior to 2014, two separate transmission grids provided power to Nevada, one in the southern part of the state that supplies the Las Vegas area, and another that supplies communities in the northern part of Nevada, including the cities of Elko and Reno.77 The One Nevada transmission project, running the length of the state, connected the two grids for the first time in late 2013.78,79 That connection, along with other new transmission lines in the state, has facilitated development of electricity generation projects fueled by renewable sources. Renewable energy projects in remote parts of Nevada can now be linked to the state’s population centers.80,81 Another large-scale transmission project that is in development will be routed through Nevada for the delivery of renewable power from Wyoming to the states of California, Arizona, and Nevada.82

Renewable energy

Nevada gets almost half of its renewable power generation from geothermal resources.

More than one-fifth of Nevada’s electricity generation is fueled by renewable energy. Nevada is one of the few states that has utility-scale electricity generation from geothermal resources, and those resources account for almost half of the state's renewable generation.83 Nevada is second in the nation, after California, in geothermal power production and has the country’s largest geothermal energy potential.84,85

Almost all of the rest of Nevada's renewable generation comes from solar photovoltaic (PV) and hydroelectric power plants, primarily the Hoover Dam, the state’s third-largest power plant by capacity.86,87 Built in less than five years during the Great Depression, the Hoover Dam also supplies electricity to Arizona and California and is a National Historic Landmark.88,89 A rapidly increasing share of Nevada's electricity generation is from solar resources, particularly several large-scale solar thermal and solar PV projects. In 2016, utility-scale solar generation exceeded the amount from hydroelectric power for the first time.90 Nevada leads the nation in solar power potential and was ranked among the top five states nationally in installed solar electric capacity in 2016.91,92 Electricity generation from solar PV almost tripled between 2014 and 2016, and solar thermal electricity generation more than doubled.93,94 Among the state’s electricity generating facilities is a first-of-its-kind hybrid geothermal-solar power plant, which combines geothermal power with solar PV and solar thermal generation.95 That facility began as a geothermal power plant in 2009, and PV panels were added later, creating a baseload geothermal facility with peaking solar generation. In 2015, a solar thermal power plant was added to the facility.96

Nevada has a first-of-its-kind hybrid geothermal-solar power plant, which combines geothermal power with solar PV and solar thermal generation.

Nevada also has wind power potential along the state’s mountain ridges.97 Because the federal government controls much of the land in the state, most large-scale wind projects need federal rights-of-way.98,99 The state's first utility-scale commercial wind farm opened in 2012. It is the only wind project online in the state, and no new large wind projects are currently under construction.100

Nevada’s renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requires that annually increasing percentages of the electricity sold to retail customers in Nevada come from renewable resources, reaching 25% of retail electricity sales by 2025. Additionally, the RPS required that 6% of the renewable requirement, 1.5% of the state’s total net generation, had to come from solar power by 2016. That requirement was exceeded and more than one-third of the state’s renewable generation—about 7% of the total state net generation—was solar-powered in 2016.101 Up to one-fourth of the overall RPS goal can be met by energy efficiency measures, but half of those measures must be installed at residential customers’ locations.102

Energy on tribal lands

Nevada’s tribal lands, like most of Nevada, have abundant solar resources.

There are 32 Indian reservations and tribal colonies in Nevada, including 19 federally recognized Indian tribal entities.103,104 Although about 80% of Nevada is federally controlled land, tribal lands cover only a little more than 1.2 million acres, less than 2% of Nevada.105,106 However, those lands, like most of Nevada, have abundant solar resources.107 Nevada’s Moapa River Indian Reservation is the site of the nation’s first utility-scale solar power plant built on tribal land. Construction on the 250-megawatt Moapa Southern Paiute Solar Project—located about 50 miles northeast of Las Vegas—began in 2014. 108 The project became operational in early 2017.109 The Moapa Band of Paiutes leased the land and will receive revenues for the life of the project. An agreement has been signed to sell the project’s solar power to the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power for the next 25 years.110 A second utility-scale solar power plant on the Moapa River Indian Reservation was approved by the U.S. Department of the Interior in 2014, and a third solar project on the reservation was approved in 2016.111,112

Other Nevada tribes have been evaluating opportunities for developing renewable energy projects on their lands.113 The Pyramid Lake and Walker River reservations are ranked among the top five tribal lands in the nation by potential for geothermal capacity and generation.114 The Pyramid Lake Indian Reservation near Reno, home to the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, is the largest reservation in Nevada. That tribe has been evaluating the reservation’s geothermal resources.115,116 The Te-Moak tribe’s Battle Mountain Colony undertook a solar PV feasibility study between 2012 and 2014 and has pursued project development.117 The Washoe Tribe in Nevada has a goal of meeting all of the tribe’s energy needs with renewable sources by 2025. The Washoe Tribe has installed several solar PV projects.118,119

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, The State of Nevada, updated July 28, 2017.
2 NETSTATE, Nevada Economy, updated February 25, 2016.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Nevada Profile Data, Reserves and Supply, accessed November 2, 2017.
4 National Park Service, The Great Basin, updated January 29, 2017.
5 NETSTATE, The Geography of Nevada, updated February 25, 2016.
6 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, updated March 11, 2010.
7 Online Nevada Encyclopedia, Nevada Vegetation Overview, accessed November 2, 2017.
8 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy In Nevada, accessed November 2, 2017.
9 American Wind Energy Association, Nevada Wind Energy, accessed November 2, 2017.
10 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.16.B, 1.17.B, 1.18.B.
11 Solar Energy Industries Association, State Solar Policy, Nevada Solar, accessed November 2, 2017.
12 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Hoover Dam, The Story of Hoover Dam, updated October 23, 2015.
13 Vincent, Carol Hardy, Laura A. Hanson, and Carla N. Argueta, Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data, Congressional Research Service 7-5700 R42346 (March 3, 2017), p. 7–9.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2015, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2015.
15 ONE, Online Nevada Encyclopedia, Comstock Lode, accessed November 2, 2017.
16 Nevada Mining Association, Nevada Mining Production: Gold, accessed November 2, 2017.
17 Nevada Governor's Office of Economic Development, Key Industries, accessed November 2, 2017.
18 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Economy at a Glance, Nevada, accessed November 2, 2017.
19 U.S. Census Bureau, “Utah is Nation’s Fastest-Growing State, Census Bureau Reports,” Press Release Number CB16-214 (December 20, 2016).
20 Nevada State Legislature, 2010 Population of Counties in Nevada, accessed November 2, 2017.
21 U.S. Census Bureau, State and County QuickFacts, Nevada, Clark County, 2016 Population Estimate, accessed November 2, 2017.
22 Thompson, Jeff, “Nevada’s Extremes Reign Supreme,” Nevada’s Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates’ Series, accessed November 2, 2017.
23 USA.com, Nevada Population Density County Rank, accessed November 2, 2017.
24 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C12, Total Energy Consumption, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2015.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C13, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
27 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2009 RECS Survey Data, Table HC7.11, Air Conditioning in Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009.
28 U.S. EIA, Nevada Profile Data, Reserves and Supply, accessed November 2, 2017.
29 U.S. EIA, Nevada Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981–2016.
30 University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Oil & Gas Historical Summary, accessed November 2, 2017.
31 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2017 (June 2017), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State and Individual Refinery as of January 1, 2017, p. 14.
32 U.S. EIA, Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries, Nevada, accessed November 3, 2017.
33 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015, accessed November 3, 2017.
34 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, State Winter Oxygenated Fuel Program Requirements for Attainment or Maintenance of CO NAAQS, EPA420-B-08-006 (January 2008).
35 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, accessed November 3, 2017.
36 Ethanol Producer Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, all platforms, operational, updated September 23, 2017.
37 U.S. EIA, Movements of Crude Oil and Selected Products by Rail between PAD Districts, Fuel Ethanol, accessed November 3, 2017.
38 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2015.
39 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01).
40 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
41 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Nevada, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
42 U.S. EIA, Nevada Profile Data, Reserves and Supply, accessed November 4, 2017.
43 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Nevada, Annual, 2011–16.
44 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Nevada, Annual, 2011–16.
45 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Nevada, Annual, 2011–16.
46 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Mapping System, Natural Gas Market Hub and Natural Gas Inter/Intrastate Pipeline Layers, accessed November 4, 2017.
47 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Nevada, Annual, 2011–16.
48 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Nevada, Annual, 2016.
49 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Nevada, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
50 U.S. Geological Survey and Nevada Bureau of Mines, Mineral and Water Resources of Nevada, Nevada Bureau of Mines Bulletin 65 (1964), p. 5.
51 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2016 and 2015.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
53 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Nevada, Table DS-27, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2016.
54 NV Energy, Our Power Supply, accessed November 4, 2017.
55 Peltier, Robert, "TS Power Plant, Eureka County, Nevada," POWER Magazine (October 15, 2008).
56 Brean, Henry, and Sean Whaley, “Reid Gardner plant closes after half-century of producing coal-fired power,” Las Vegas Review-Journal (March 15, 2017).
57 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Nevada, Table DS-27, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2016.
58 U.S. EIA, Nevada Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2A. Ten largest plants by capacity, 2015.
59 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.7.B.
60 U.S. EIA, Nevada Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2A. Ten largest plants by capacity, 2015.
61 NV Energy, Chuck Lenzie Generating Station, updated May 2017.
62 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.16.B.
63 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
64 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles 2006 (November 27, 2007) Nevada, Table 2, Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2006, p. 141.
65 "Environmental quandary shuts Mohave plant," POWER Magazine (March 15, 2006).
66 Randazzo, Ryan, "Mohave Generating Station to be demolished," The Arizona Republic (June 11, 2009).
67 U.S. EIA, Nevada Electricity Profile 2015, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2015.
68 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Retired and Cancelled Units Only).
69 Legiscan, Nevada Senate Bill 123, 2013, 77th Legislature, Enrolled (June 11, 2013).
70 DiSavino, S., "NV Energy Proposes to Shut Nevada Coal-fired Power Plants," Reuters (April 4, 2013).
71 Sonner, Scott, “Idaho Power Wants to Speed Closure of Nevada Coal Plant,” U.S. News (May 4, 2017).
72 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.16.B, 1.17.B, 1.18.B.
73 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F21, Electricity Consumption Estimates, 2015.
74 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01).
75 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Nevada, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
76 U.S. EIA, Nevada Electricity Profile 2015, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2015.
77 U.S. Department of Energy, Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, State of Nevada, Energy Sector Risk Profile, p. 2, accessed November 22, 2017.
78 Totten, Kristy, "Officials dedicate line connecting Northern, Southern Nevada electricity grids," Las Vegas Review-Journal (January 24, 2014).
79 NVEnergy, “One Nevada Transmission Line Begins Serving Customers,” Press Release (January 23, 2014).
80 NVEnergy, NV Energy’s Clean Energy Commitment, updated April 18, 2017.
81 NVEnergy, “One Nevada Transmission Line Begins Serving Customers,” Press Release (January 23, 2014).
82 TransWest Express LLC, TransWest Express Transmission Project, updated January 13, 2017.
83 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.16.B, 1.17.B, 1.18.B.
84 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.16.B.
85 U.S. Department of Energy, Geothermal Energy, heat from the earth, Nevada, DOE/GO -102001-1432 (October 2001).
86 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.16.B, 1.17.B.
87 U.S. EIA, Nevada Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2015.
88 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Hoover Dam, Hoover Dam Historical Information, updated February 8, 2017.
89 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Hoover Dam, Frequently Asked Questions and Answers, Hydropower at Hoover Dam, updated February 7, 2017.
90 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.17.B, 1.18.B.
91 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, updated March 11, 2010.
92 Solar Energy Industries Association, Nevada Solar, accessed November 5, 2017.
93 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Table 1.17.B, 1.18.B.
94 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.17.B, 1.18.B.
95 Sonner, Scott, “Nevada power plant first in world with solar-geothermal mix,” The San Diego Union-Tribune (March 29, 2016).
96 Zaripova, Adilya, “World’s first triple geo-PV-solar thermal power plant unveiled in Nevada,” PV Magazine (March 30, 2016).
97 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Nevada, accessed November 5, 2017.
98 Vincent, Carol Hardy, Laura A. Hanson, and Carla N. Argueta, Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data, Congressional Research Service 7-5700 R42346 (March 3, 2017), p. 7–9.
99 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Right of Way, accessed November 5, 2017.
100 American Wind Energy Association, Nevada Wind Energy, accessed November 5, 2017.
101 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.17.B, 1.18.B.
102 State of Nevada Public Utilities Commission, Renewable Portfolio Standard, accessed November 15, 2017.
103 Nevada’s Indian Territory, Map of Nevada Tribes, Indian Reservations and Colonies of Nevada, accessed November 15, 2017.
104 U.S. Government Publishing Office, “Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs,” Federal Register, Vol. 82, No. 10 (January 17, 2017), p. 4915–19.
105 Vincent, Carol Hardy, Laura A. Hanson, and Carla N. Argueta, Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data, Congressional Research Service 7-5700 R42346 (March 3, 2017), p. 7–9.
106 U.S. Forest Service, Forest Service National Resource Guide to American Indian and Alaska Native Relations, Appendix D: Indian Nations, The American Indian Digest (April 1997) p. D-3.
107 Roberts, Billy J., Photovoltaic Solar Resource of the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (September 19, 2012).
108 Lott, Melissa C., "First utility-scale solar project on tribal land breaks ground in Nevada,” Scientific American (April 5, 2014).
109 Gagiuc, Anca, “Moapa Southern Paiute Solar Project Begins Operation,” Commercial Property Executive (March 22, 2017).
110 “First Utility-Scale Solar Plant on Tribal Land,” Indian Country Today (March 20, 2017).
111 Clarke, Chris, "2nd Tribal Solar Plant Approved On Nevada Reservation" KCET (May 7, 2014).
112 “Secretary Jewell Approves Utility-Scale Solar Project on Tribal Land in Nevada,” Native Times (September 15, 2016).
113 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, Tribal Energy Projects Database, accessed November 16, 2017.
114 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy, Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands, Data and Resources for Tribes, DOE/IE-0015 (April 2013), p. 44.
115 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office 2013 Peer Review, Comprehensive Evaluation of the Geothermal Resource Potential within the Pyramid Lake Paiute Reservation (April 23, 2013).
116 Clutter, Ted J., “Pyramid Lake Geothermal,” Geothermal Resources Council (GRC) Bulletin (March/April 2005), p. 84–87.
117 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, Project Reports for Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone: Battle Mountain Colony, 2012 Project, Final Report (September 30, 2014).
118 U.S. Department of Energy, Deployment of Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Projects on Indian Land, Topic Area 2: Community-Scale Clean Energy Deployment, Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California, Washoe Tribe Clean Energy Project, accessed November 15, 2017.
119 Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California, 2016 Annual Report, p. 29, accessed November 16, 2017.