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New Hampshire   New Hampshire Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: June 15, 2017

Overview

One in 12 New Hampshire households depend on wood products as their primary heating source.

New Hampshire's mountains, rivers, and forests hold plentiful renewable energy resources but no fossil energy reserves. The state stretches from the Connecticut River, its western border, across the Merrimack River valley eastward to Maine, and south from Canada to Massachusetts.1 Dams on New Hampshire's rivers have provided hydroelectric energy for more than a century.2,3,4 The rugged White Mountains, running the length of the state, are home to the world record for inland wind speed5 and site of the nation's first, short-lived attempt to harvest wind resources at a commercial wind farm.6,7 With 84% of its land wooded, New Hampshire is second only to Maine in the percentage of forested land.8 Forest products, including wood pellets for space heating,9 are an important part of the state economy10 and the mainstay of New Hampshire's biomass energy industry.11,12,13 One in 12 state households depend on wood as their primary heating source.14

The state's climate is diverse, with cooling Canadian influences in the northwest and warmer, ocean-moderated weather in the southeast.15 New Hampshire has just 18 miles of Atlantic coastline with a single deepwater port, and the state's population is concentrated in the river valleys and near the coast.16 Traditional manufacturing of textiles has been replaced by advanced electronics manufacturing, which has grown alongside Massachusetts's high technology sector.

The state's proximity to Massachusetts population centers has also fueled growth in tourism to New Hampshire's lakes and mountains, increasing energy use for transportation and for second homes.17,18 One in 10 New Hampshire homes are only seasonally occupied.19 The transportation sector and the residential sector each consume nearly one-third of the energy used in the state. The commercial sector consumes more than one-fifth, and the industrial sector consumes only about one-eighth.20 New Hampshire's economy is among the nation's most efficient in energy consumed per dollar of gross domestic product.21

Petroleum

New Hampshire has no petroleum reserves and does not produce or refine petroleum,22,23,24 but petroleum products dominate New Hampshire's energy consumption.25 The state's residential petroleum consumption per capita is among the highest in the nation, in part because of heavy dependence on heating oil and propane during the frigid winters.26,27 Portsmouth, the state's only seaport, has terminal and storage facilities for heating oil, propane, and other refined products. Marine terminals connect with railroad lines and highways to take products inland. Distributors also bring in supplies by rail and by truck from neighboring states.28,29

Refined products are shipped by sea to Portsmouth from Middle Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico refineries30 or are imported, mainly from Canada, with some propane imported from Europe.31 A crude-oil pipeline crosses from Maine to Vermont through New Hampshire's White Mountains: the World War II-era Portland-Montreal Pipeline, which until recently carried crude oil from tanker docks at Portland, Maine, to refineries in Montreal, Canada.32 However, those Canadian refineries are now being supplied with crude oil from western Canada, and shipments from Portland have nearly stopped.33 A proposal to reverse the flow in that pipeline and bring crude oil from Canada and North Dakota to Portland for shipment to refineries elsewhere has encountered opposition.34,35

New Hampshire's transportation sector consumes more petroleum products than any other end-use sector.36 State law requires the use of a biodiesel blend in state vehicles unless the blend costs more than all-petroleum fuel.37 The state also requires reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol to limit ozone formation in the populated areas of southeastern New Hampshire.38

Nearly half of all New Hampshire households rely on fuel oil for heat in the frigid winters.

Nearly half of all New Hampshire households rely on fuel oil as their primary heating fuel,39 making the state particularly vulnerable to distillate fuel oil shortages and price spikes during the winter months.40 The U.S. Department of Energy's Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, created in 2000 to avert supply disruptions, holds 1 million barrels of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) in reserves located in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Jersey.41,42 New Hampshire does not require the use of ULSD for home heating, but with all adjacent states and New York phasing in ULSD by 2018, distributors are shifting to an all-ULSD supply.43

Natural gas

New Hampshire has no known natural gas reserves and does not produce natural gas.44,45 The state receives natural gas by pipelines from Maine, Massachusetts, and Canada. About three-fifths of the natural gas that enters New Hampshire passes through to consumers in Maine or Massachusetts.46 With the growth of natural gas production in the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania,47,48 Maine—which used to ship Canadian natural gas to New Hampshire—may now receive more natural gas through New Hampshire than it ships to the state.49

More than three-fifths of the natural gas consumed in New Hampshire is used to generate electricity. The rest of the state's natural gas consumption is distributed nearly evenly among the commercial, residential, and industrial sectors.50 One in five New Hampshire households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating.51 With substantial differences between natural gas and home heating oil prices in recent years,52 a number of home and business owners switched to natural gas, in New Hampshire and throughout New England.53 However, New Hampshire is still among the lowest one-third of states in per capita natural gas consumption,54,55 in part because large areas of the state do not have natural gas distribution infrastructure.56

Coal

New Hampshire has no known coal reserves and produces no coal.57,58 Coal is brought into New Hampshire by railroad and by barge, usually from Pennsylvania or West Virginia,59,60 and is imported by ship, mainly from South America.61,62 The state has two coal-fired electricity generating stations, Schiller at Portsmouth and Merrimack at Concord. Two units at the Schiller station can burn either coal or petroleum, and the third unit was converted in 2006 to burn woody biomass.63,64 Coal's share of New Hampshire electricity generation has declined as natural gas's share has grown.65 In 2016, coal provided just over 2% of net electricity generation,66 the smallest share in decades.67

Electricity

Seabrook, the largest nuclear plant in New England, can provide more than half of New Hampshire' net electricity generation.

Most of New Hampshire's net electricity generation comes from five large power plants, which have three-fourths of the state's electricity generating capacity.68,69,70 Half of New Hampshire's net electricity generation typically comes from the Seabrook nuclear plant, the largest nuclear station in New England.71 Natural gas provides between one-fifth and one-third of net electricity generation. Biomass, hydroelectric power, wind, and coal supply nearly all the remaining generation.72 Electricity generation from natural gas increased markedly with the commissioning of two large generating stations in 2002 and 2003.73,74 New Hampshire is part of the Independent System Operator (ISO) New England regional electricity grid and sends nearly half of the electricity generated in the state to neighboring states.75 As increasing amounts of natural gas are used to generate electricity, in New Hampshire and in New England as a whole, assurance of natural gas supply has become a critical strategic energy issue for the region.76

New Hampshire partially deregulated its electricity sector beginning in the 1990s. The state's two coal-fired generating stations, which were retained by one retail power distributor, are up for sale in 2017.77,78,79 The state has among the highest retail electricity rates in the nation.80 New Hampshire's electricity use per capita, like most of New England's, is low, in part because of limited demand for air conditioning during the mild summers and because fewer than 1 in 12 households use electricity as a primary energy source for home heating.81,82,83

The state is part of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) and has used RGGI emission allowance auction proceeds to fund energy efficiency programs and to lower electricity bills through rebates.84,85 With increased electricity generation from natural gas and renewable energy, in addition to reduced demand because of the economy and efficiency measures, New Hampshire has complied with its RGGI carbon emissions targets.86,87

Renewable energy

More than one-sixth of New Hampshire net electricity generation comes from renewable resources, with biomass facilities providing more than half of that renewable power and hydroelectric and wind facilities generating most of the rest. All of those renewable sources have the potential to expand, especially wind power, which has an estimated 2.1 gigawatts of potential along the state's mountain ridges and another 3.6 gigawatts along its Atlantic coastline. However, many projects have faced local opposition.88,89,90,91,92

Most New Hampshire biomass facilities use either methane gas generated in municipal landfills or wood and wood waste-derived fuels, such as wood pellets, from the state's forest industry.93,94,95 Many of the state's hydroelectric facilities are small, often less than 1 megawatt, but the two largest hydroelectric plants in New England are located on the Connecticut River between New Hampshire and Vermont.96,97 Biomass provided nearly 9% of New Hampshire's 2016 net electricity generation, and hydroelectricity provided nearly 6%.98 The state's biomass generators average 25 years old, and hydroelectric facilities average 60 years old.99 The state's wind facilities, in contrast, are all less than a decade old. New Hampshire's first modern wind farm opened in 2008 and three more wind farms have since begun operating.100,101,102,103 In 2016, for the first time, the state obtained more net electricity generation from wind than from coal.104

New Hampshire's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) sets requirements that escalate to 2025, when 24.8% of electricity sold in the state must come from renewable sources. About two-thirds of that renewable power must be obtained from sources that started operating after January 1, 2006. Renewable energy generated in neighboring New England states can be used to comply with the RPS.105 Northern Pass, a proposed high-voltage transmission line to bring 1,200 megawatts of hydroelectric power from Quebec, Canada, to the New England grid, would traverse New Hampshire north to south.106 The proposal has prompted debate over whether Canadian hydroelectric power should be counted toward the state's RPS.107,108

In 2012, New Hampshire became the first state to offer RPS credit for renewable thermal projects that deliver energy as heat instead of electricity, such as biomass, solar thermal, and geothermal resources.109 New Hampshire does not have net electricity generation from utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) solar facilities, but more than 53 megawatts of distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) solar generating capacity, like rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) panels, were installed in the state by the end of 2016.110,111 New Hampshire allows net metering of distributed facilities up to 1 megawatt that use eligible renewable, fuel cell, or combined heat and power technologies. In 2016, New Hampshire lawmakers doubled the cap on the amount of distributed capacity eligible for net metering from 50 to 100 megawatts.112 Customer applications for much of the new capacity were already waiting in power providers' connection queues,113,114 and nearly 30 megawatts of solar PV capacity were installed during 2016.115

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, New Hampshire Geography, updated February 25, 2016.
2 Mooiman, Mike, "Down by the Water—Hydropower in New Hampshire—Part 1" (September 21, 2014).
3 U.S. National Park Service, Lowell National Historical Park, The Merrimack River, accessed May 15, 2017.
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), New Hampshire, Profile Overview, Map Legend: Hydroelectric Power Plant, accessed May 15, 2017.
5 Filipov, David, "Record Blown Away But Pride Stays Put," Boston Globe (January 31, 2010).
6 American Wind Energy Association, Turbine Timeline: 1980s, accessed May 15, 2017.
7 Brooks, David, "Remembering the World's First Wind Farm–in New Hampshire," New Hampshire Public Radio (February 24, 2016).
8 New Hampshire, Division of Forests and Lands, Forest Statistics, accessed May 15, 2017.
9 Evans-Brown, Sam, "Wood Pellets' Swift Rise Tests Supply Chain," New Hampshire Public Radio (December 29, 2014).
10 North East State Foresters Association, The Economic Importance of New Hampshire's Forest-Based Economy 2013, p. 3, 10–14.
11 Alliance for Green Heat, "2010 Census Shows Wood Is Fastest-Growing Heating Fuel in U.S.," Press Release (October 10, 2011).
12 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source 1990–2015 (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923).
13 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.15.B.
14 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New Hampshire, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
15 Stampone, Mary, "Is Weather in New Hampshire Really That Bad?" Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed May 15, 2017.
16 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: New Hampshire Profile, accessed May 15, 2017.
17 New Hampshire Division of Economic Development, FY 2016-17 Strategic Plan (December 2015), p. 6.
18 Delay, Dennis, New Hampshire Economic Outlook, New Hampshire Center for Public Policy Studies (October 15, 2016), p. 1–5.
19 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New Hampshire, Tables B25002, Occupancy Status, and B25004, Vacancy Status, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2014.
22 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, 2010?15.
23 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2011–16.
24 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2016, Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2016.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2014.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C5, Residential Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2014.
27 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01), 2014 Population Estimates.
28 U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Active Fuel Terminals (April 30, 2017), p 1.
29 Magnusson, Matthew, Charles Colgan, and Ross Gittell, The Economic Impact of the Piscataqua River and the Ports of Portsmouth and Newington (June 2012), p. 6.
30 U.S. EIA, Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets (May 11, 2012), p. 4.
31 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, imports for New Hampshire, 2015, 2016.
32 Portland Pipe Line Corp., Montreal Pipe Line Ltd., About Us, accessed May 15, 2017.
33 Fishell, Darren, "National Groups Join Legal Battle to Lift South Portland Tar Sands Ban," BDN Maine (May 3, 2017).
34 Turkel, Tux, "Analysis: Portland Pipeline's Open for Business, But Not Flowing," Portland Press Herald (March 20, 2016).
35 Bouchard, Kelley, "South Portland Seeks Dismissal of Suit Challenging Ban on Oil Loading in Harbor," Portland Press Herald (April 1, 2015).
36 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
37 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, New Hampshire Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel, updated April 21, 2017.
38 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Programs, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed May 15, 2017.
39 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New Hampshire, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
40 Andrews, Anthony, The Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve and the National Oilheat Research Alliance, Congressional Research Service 7-5700 (September 19, 2013), Summary.
41 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, accessed May 15, 2017.
42 U.S. EIA, Weekly Petroleum Status Report (May 10, 2017), Appendix C, Northeast Reserves.
43 U.S. EIA, "Heating oil futures contract now uses ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel," Today in Energy (May 10, 2013).
44 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Annual Supply and Disposition by State, Dry Production, 2011–16.
45 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2011?16.
46 U.S. EIA, About Natural Gas Pipelines, accessed May 15, 2017.
47 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Annual Supply and Disposition by State, Dry Production, 2011–16.
48 Jacobs, Nicole, "EIA: Marcellus & Utica Shales Continue to Drive U.S. Natural Gas Production," Energy in Depth, Independent Petroleum Association of America (January 24, 2017).
49 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, New Hampshire, 2010–15.
50 U.S. EIA, U.S. States, Table F19, Natural Gas Consumption Estimates, 2015.
51 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New Hampshire, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
52 New Hampshire, Office of Energy and Planning, Fuel Prices, Historical Data, Long-term: NH 15-Year Heating Price Trend (October 2000–December 2016), accessed May 15, 2017.
53 Evans-Brown, Sam, "Staying Warm in The Granite State: A Guide To Home Heating Fuels," NHPR.org (October 16, 2013), p. 3?4.
54 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Consumers, Annual, 2011–16.
55 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01), 2015 Population Estimates.
56 New Hampshire Public Service Commission, Natural Gas and Steam Utilities in New Hampshire, Communities Served Map, accessed May 15, 2017.
57 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method.
58 U.S. EIA, U.S. Coal Reserves, U.S. Coal Resource Regions (November 4, 2016).
59 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 2016), New Hampshire, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2015.
60 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report, Archive, Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by distribution state, consumer, destination and method of transportation, 2014, 2013, New Hampshire.
61 Union of Concerned Scientists, "Burning Coal, Burning Cash—New Hampshire's Dependence on Imported Coal" (May 2010).
62 Parker, Mario, "Hungry U.S. Power Plant Turns to Russia for Coal Shipment," Bloomberg (July 16, 2014).
63 Eversource, About, Power Plants, accessed May 16, 2017.
64 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 Detailed Data, 2015 Data, Table 3_1_GeneratorY2015.
65 Marchocki, Kathryn, "PSNH's Bow Power Plant Temporarily Shut Down," New Hampshire Union Leader (May 7, 2012).
66 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
67 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, Annual Data, 1990–2015 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923).
68 Granite Viewpoint, "Electricity in NH–All About NH's Power Generation Capacity" (June 9, 2009).
69 U.S. EIA, New Hampshire Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2, 10 Largest Plants by Generating Capacity, 2015.
70 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 Detailed Data, 2015 Data, Table 3_1_GeneratorY2015.
71 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, Annual Data, 1990–2015 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923).
72 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B, 1.9.B, 1.10.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B.
73 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, Annual Data, 1990–2015 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923).
74 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 Detailed Data, 2015 Data, Table 3_1_GeneratorY2015.
75 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, New Hampshire Electricity Profile 2015, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2015.
76 ISO New England, 2017 Regional Electricity Outlook (February 2017), p. 4?7.
77 New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission, Electric, accessed May 16, 2017.
78 Solomon, Dave, "Dave Solomon's Power Plays: Eversource Closer to Selling Off Power Plants," New Hampshire Union Leader (January 31, 2016).
79 "Deadlines Set for Eversource to Sell All of its Power Plants," New Hampshire Union Leader (November 15, 2016).
80 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.6.B.
81 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.4.B.
82 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01), 2016 Population Estimates.
83 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New Hampshire, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2010–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
84 Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, New Hampshire, accessed May 16, 2017.
85 Walton, Robert, "New Hampshire bills would withdraw state from RGGI, repeal renewables mandate," Utility Dive (February 14, 2017).
86 New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission and Department of Environmental Services, 2016 RGGI Annual Report of the DES and the PUC (October 20, 2016).
87 Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Compliance, accessed May 16, 2017.
88 Murray, Maxwell, "Investigation of New Hampshire hydropower potential," University of New Hampshire, Honors Theses (Spring 2012).
89 North East State Foresters Association, The Economic Importance of New Hampshire's Forest-Based Economy 2013, p. 13?14.
90 Holley, Emma Jean, "Wind Turbine Proposal Withdrawn," Valley News (April 22, 2017).
91 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, New Hampshire Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, updated September 24, 2015.
92 Del Franco, Mark, "Developers Grapple With State's Rock-Like Resistance to Wind," North American Wind Power (November 2014).
93 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.15.B.
94 Jensen, Chris, "Berlin Biomass Plant Fully Operational, But at What Cost to Taxpayers?" New Hampshire Public Radio (August 21, 2014).
95 Voegele, Erin, "Burgess BioPower Earns RPS Certification, Wraps Up Commissioning," Biomass Magazine (May 27, 2014).
96 Mooiman, Mike, "Down by the Water—Hydropower in New Hampshire—Part 1" (September 21, 2014).
97 Granite State Hydropower Association, About Us, accessed May 16, 2017.
98 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.15.B.
99 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 Detailed Data, 2015 Data, Table 3_1_GeneratorY2015.
100 AvanGrid Renewables, Lempster Wind Power Project and Groton Wind Farm, accessed May 16, 2017.
101 U.S. Department of Energy, Loan Programs Office, Granite Reliable, updated March 2015.
102 Hanson, Nate, LS Power Development, Letter to New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission, Jericho Power Class I REC Certification (October 26, 2015).
103 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 6.3, 6.5.
104 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.4.B, 1.14.B.
105 New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission, Electric Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), accessed May 17, 2017.
106 Northern Pass Transmission LLC, Forward NH Plan, Project Overview, accessed May 17, 2017.
107 Cousineau, Michael, "Northern Pass foes: Fight isn't over," New Hampshire Union Leader (April 23, 2017).
108 Evans-Brown, Sam, "Should Canadian Hydro-Power Count Towards N.H. Renewable Energy Goals?" New Hampshire Public Radio (January 28, 2015).
109 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Renewable Portfolio Standard, New Hampshire, updated March 28, 2017.
110 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.17.B.
111 Solar Energy Industries Association, New Hampshire Solar, accessed May 16, 2017.
112 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Net Metering, New Hampshire, updated May 6, 2016.
113 Sanders, Bob, "For Some Projects, NH's New Net Metering Cap Has Nearly Been Reached," New Hampshire Business Review (May 13, 2016).
114 Eversource, Net Metering Program Capacity Cap, accessed May 17, 2017.
115 Solar Energy Industries Association, New Hampshire Solar, accessed May 16, 2017.