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West Virginia   West Virginia Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Last Updated: November 18, 2021

Overview

West Virginia is the nation’s fifth-largest energy producer.

West Virginia is the nation's fifth-largest energy producer, with plentiful fossil energy and renewable resources.1,2,3 Located in the center of the Appalachian Mountain region, West Virginia's boundaries follow the region's mountain ridges, valleys, and rivers, giving the state an unusual outline that includes two panhandles. Although it is one of the 10 smallest states in total area, West Virginia stretches from the Ohio River, where the state's northern panhandle is wedged between Pennsylvania and Ohio, to a point almost 240 miles away on the state's southern border with Virginia.4 Most of West Virginia is part of the Appalachian Plateau region, where much of the state's natural gas, coal, and crude oil are found.5,6,7 Rivers that cross the Appalachian Plateau have plentiful hydroelectric power potential, while the narrow, wind-swept mountain ridges that run northeast to southwest in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge region of eastern West Virginia have the state's best wind resources.8,9 Almost four-fifths of the state is covered by forests, providing West Virginia with abundant biomass potential, as well.10

West Virginia is a net energy supplier to other states and provides about 5% of the nation's total energy, almost half of it from coal production.11 However, because of increases in natural gas and natural gas liquids production from the Marcellus and Utica shales in northern West Virginia, natural gas surpassed coal for the first time in 2019 and became the largest contributor to the state's energy economy.12,13 West Virginia is also a significant consumer of energy and ranks among the top 10 states on a per capita basis.14 The industrial sector accounts for the largest share of end-use energy consumption in West Virginia, at 45% of the state's total.15 Mining—including coal, crude oil, and natural gas extraction—and chemical manufacturing are significant and energy-intensive contributors to the state's economy.16 The transportation sector is the second-largest energy-consuming sector, accounting for 22% of state energy use, and the residential sector consumes 19%. The commercial sector accounts for the rest.17

Natural gas

West Virginia is the fifth-largest producer of marketed natural gas in the nation.

In 2019, West Virginia had the third-largest natural gas reserves of any state. It overlies part of the Marcellus Shale area, one of the largest natural gas-producing areas in the nation.18,19 Production from the Marcellus and Utica-Point Pleasant shale formations contributed to the state's rank as the nation's fifth-largest producer of marketed natural gas in 2020.20,21 In 2014, West Virginia's annual natural gas production exceeded 1 trillion cubic feet for the first time. In 2019, the energy value of the state's natural gas production surpassed that of West Virginia's coal production for the first time. The heat value, as measured in British thermal units (Btus), of the natural gas produced in West Virginia in 2019 was 7% greater than that of the state's mined coal.22 In 2020, natural gas production rose again and was almost 2.6 trillion cubic feet.23 Shale wells accounted for more than 95% of West Virginia's natural gas production in 2020.24 West Virginia had 34 trillion cubic feet of shale gas reserves as of the end of 2019, which was 10% of the nation's total.25 Almost all of the state's additional natural gas production comes from conventional natural gas wells. West Virginia also has natural gas reserves and production from coalbeds. West Virginia has less than 100 billion cubic feet of coalbed methane proved reserves, which is less than 1% of the nation's total, and coalbeds accounted for 0.4% of the state's total natural gas production in 2020. Oil wells in West Virginia produce a small amount of natural gas, as well.26,27

Several interstate and intrastate natural gas pipelines cross West Virginia.28 Pipelines bring natural gas into West Virginia from surrounding states, particularly from Pennsylvania, and most of the natural gas not used in the state is delivered to Ohio, Kentucky, and Virginia. However, much more natural gas leaves the state than enters because West Virginia uses less natural gas than it produces. In 2020, West Virginians consumed less than one-tenth of the natural gas produced in the state, and more than three times as much natural gas left West Virginia as entered the state.29,30,31 New pipeline projects have come online in recent years and more are planned to transport natural gas from the Marcellus and Utica Shale producing areas of West Virginia to markets across the eastern United States and Canada.32,33 Natural gas processing plants that separate dry natural gas from associated natural gas liquids have been constructed or expanded in West Virginia in recent years to handle the liquids produced from the Marcellus Shale.34 West Virginia also has 31 underground natural gas storage fields. Those fields have a combined storage capacity of about 531 billion cubic feet of natural gas, which is almost 6% of the nation's total underground natural gas storage capacity.35,36 The proximity of the state's natural gas storage to northeastern markets makes West Virginia an important supplier to the region during the winter months when natural gas demand peaks.37

More than half of the natural gas consumed in West Virginia is not delivered to end users. It is used to gather, process, and distribute natural gas within the state and to maintain pressure in larger pipeline systems. In 2020, 59% of the natural gas consumed in the state was used in this way. Among the end-use sectors, West Virginia's industrial sector is the largest natural gas consumer in the state, accounting for slightly more than one-third of deliveries to end-use consumers. The residential sector, where about two in five West Virginia households use natural gas for home heating, received almost one-fourth, and the commercial sector accounted for more than one-fifth of the natural gas deliveries to end users.38 The electric power sector accounted for more than one-fifth of the natural gas delivered to West Virginia consumers in 2020. The consumption of natural gas for electric power generation has increased in recent years, reaching a high of more than 21 billion cubic feet in 2020, almost twice what it was in 2018.39,40 Even so, West Virginia is among the 10 states that use the least natural gas for power generation.41 Vehicle fuel accounts for a small amount of the natural gas used in West Virginia. There are just two compressed natural gas fueling stations in the state, and only one has public access.42

Coal

In 2020, West Virginia was the nation’s second-largest coal producer, after Wyoming.

Coal was discovered in West Virginia in the early 1700s, but large-scale mining did not begin until the mid-1800s. Today, coal remains an important part of the state economy.43 In 2020, West Virginia was the nation's second-largest coal producer, after Wyoming, and accounted for 13% of U.S. coal production.44 However, West Virginia's coal production has declined significantly during the past two decades in part because of less U.S. electric power sector demand for coal as well as poor economic conditions related to the COVID-19 pandemic.45,46 In 2020, West Virginia's total coal production was about 67 million short tons, less than half of what it was in 2001, and down 28% compared with 2019.47

In 2020, West Virginia had 12% of recoverable coal reserves at U.S. producing mines, the third-largest reserve base in the nation, after Wyoming and Illinois.48 Coal deposits are found in 53 of West Virginia's 55 counties, but only 43 counties have economically recoverable reserves.49 The state is the nation's largest producer of bituminous coal, the second-most abundant type of coal mined in the United States, and the largest share of West Virginia's domestically distributed coal is delivered to electric power plants.50,51 The Central Appalachian region, which includes the southern part of West Virginia, is the nation's primary source for bituminous coal, which is relatively low in sulfur content. Coal from the Northern Appalachian region, which includes northern West Virginia, has relatively high sulfur content and is less desirable for burning because of air pollution regulations.52

In 2020, almost four-fifths of the coal produced from West Virginia's more than 130 mines left the state.53 About two-thirds of it went to almost 20 states, and the other one-third went to foreign markets.54 West Virginia is the source of the largest share of the nation's exported coal, and the state accounted for 33% of U.S. coal exports to other countries in 2020.55 However, U.S. coal exports decreased significantly in 2020 as global demand for coal declined due in part to the COVID-19 pandemic and decreased demand for coal electricity generation.56,57 In 2020, West Virginia's coal exports were 30% lower than 2019 levels.58,59 Almost all the rest of the state's mined coal is used by West Virginia's electric power sector. Coke plants and industrial facilities use a small amount, and fewer than 1% of the households in the state heat with coal.60,61 West Virginia receives additional coal from other states, primarily Pennsylvania and Ohio.62

Electricity

Coal-fired power plants account for almost all of West Virginia's electricity generation, and 8 of the state's 10 largest power plants, both by capacity and by generation, use coal.63 Although coal-fired power plants with almost 2,800 megawatts of capacity retired during the past decade and another nearly 1,300 megawatts are scheduled for retirement in 2022, West Virginia still has more than 12,500 megawatts of coal-fired capacity.64 In 2020, coal fueled almost nine-tenths of in-state generation. Natural gas, wind, and hydropower supplied almost all the rest. In 2020, natural gas fueled a record amount of electricity in West Virginia at about 5% of the state's net generation. Wind and hydropower each supplied about 3% in 2020.65 West Virginia does not produce electricity from nuclear power and is one of eight states east of the Mississippi River without an operating nuclear power plant.66

In 2020, West Virginia had the second-lowest average price for electricity, after Kentucky, among states east of the Mississippi River, and its total electricity retail sales were less than in about two-thirds of the states.67 However, West Virginia is among the nation's top five states in electricity use per capita.68 The state's industrial sector is the largest end-user and accounts for more than two-fifths of West Virginia's electricity consumption.69 More than half of the households in West Virginia use electricity as their primary source for home heating, and the state's residential sector accounts for one-third of electricity retail sales.70 The commercial sector consumes the rest.71 Overall, West Virginians typically use less than half of the electricity generated in the state.72 As a result, West Virginia is a net supplier of electricity to the regional grid and is among the top states in interstate transfers of electricity. In 2020, only seven other states sent more electricity out of state.73

Petroleum

In 2020, crude oil production in West Virginia reached an all-time high of almost 20 million barrels.

West Virginia has a small amount of crude oil reserves, and the state accounted for less than 0.5% of U.S. crude oil production in 2020.74,75 West Virginia's first oil field began producing just before the Civil War, and the state's total crude oil production reached a high of 16 million barrels in 1900.76 Production did not reach that level again until 2019, when production exceeded 16 million barrels for the first time, rising to more than 17 million barrels. Crude oil production has continued to rise, and West Virginia wells produced almost 20 million barrels of crude oil in 2020, more than 10 times greater than in 2010.77 Much of the state's oil production comes from recent drilling in the state's northern panhandle, which has discovered both natural gas liquids and crude oil.78,79 West Virginia's one oil refinery is located on the Ohio River at the tip of the state's northern panhandle in Newel, West Virginia.80 That refinery can process more than 22,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day into ultra-low sulfur fuels and paraffinic specialty products.81,82

West Virginia uses less petroleum than about three-fourths of the states, but per capita petroleum consumption is greater than in almost two-thirds of the states.83 The transportation sector accounts for nearly three-fourths of state petroleum use, and the industrial sector consumes most of the rest.84 Conventional motor gasoline without ethanol can be used statewide, but, as in most of the nation, motor gasoline blended with 10% ethanol is widely available.85,86 West Virginia does not produce any fuel ethanol or biodiesel.87 However, about 2 million barrels of fuel ethanol and 163,000 barrels of biodiesel were consumed in the state in 2019.88,89 There are about 35 public access fueling stations in West Virginia that sell E85, the 85% ethanol and 15% motor gasoline blend.90

Renewable energy

Renewable resources provide almost all of West Virginia's electricity generation not fueled by coal or natural gas. In 2020, 6.4% of the state's net generation came from wind energy and hydropower in almost equal amounts.91 Wind's contribution to the state's net generation surpassed that of hydropower in 2014 for the first time, and in 2020, wind-powered generation reached an all-time high of about 1.9 million megawatt-hours.92 Most of West Virginia's wind energy potential is on the narrow ridges in the mountainous eastern third of the state, and that is where the state's wind turbines are located.93,94 West Virginia's first wind farm came online in 2002, and it largest, Mount Storm, began operating in 2008. A 115-megawatt wind farm is under construction in northeastern West Virginia and is scheduled for completion in late 2021.95,96 By mid-2021, the state had almost 750 megawatts of wind capacity.97

Hydropower has long been used in mountainous West Virginia, originally to power grist and saw mills and later to generate electricity.98 The oldest hydroelectric power plant still in service in West Virginia began operating in 1909. The largest of the state's dozen hydroelectric facilities is a 97-megawatt power plant built in the mid-1930s, and the newest, with a capacity of 44 megawatts, began operating in 2016.99 In 2020, hydroelectric power supplied nearly twice as much of the state's power as it did in 2001 even though capacity increased by only 15%.100 West Virginia does not have any large, utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities, and small-scale, customer-sited solar PV installations (less than 1 megawatt), such as rooftop panels, contribute only minor amounts of in-state generation.101

In 2015, West Virginia became the first state in the nation to completely repeal its renewable portfolio standard (RPS).102 Before then, the West Virginia RPS, which was adopted in 2009, required investor-owned electric utilities and retail suppliers with more than 30,000 customers to obtain 25% of their electricity from eligible alternative and renewable energy resources by 2025.103 At that time, West Virginia was one of the few states in the nation that qualified a variety of alternative, non-renewable technologies, including advanced coal technology, coalbed methane, and natural gas, to meet its RPS requirement.104

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P2, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
2 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Profile Data, Reserves, updated September 16, 2021.
3 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind Energy in West Virginia, accessed October 15, 2021.
4 NETSTATE, The Geography of West Virginia, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
5 West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, Physiographic Provinces of West Virginia, updated December 18, 2019.
6 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data, Table P2, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
7 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Profile Overview, Map Layers: All Coal Mines, Oil and Gas Wells, accessed October 15, 2021.
8 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Profile Overview, Map Layers: Hydroelectric Power Plant, Wind Power Plant, accessed October 15, 2021.
9 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in West Virginia, accessed October 15, 2021.
10 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forests of West Virginia, 2016, Resource Update FS-123 (June 2017), p. 2.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P5A, Primary Energy Production Estimates, Fossil Fuels and Nuclear Energy, in Trillion Btu, Ranked by State, 2019, and Table P5B, Primary Energy Production Estimates, Renewable and Total Energy, in Trillion Btu, Ranked by State, 2019.
12 Dinterman, Philip A., 2019 Marcellus Shale and Utica‐Point Pleasant Production Summary, West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey (December 11, 2020).
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data 2019: Production, Table PT2, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, West Virginia, 1960-2019.
14 U.S. EIA, Rankings: Total Energy Consumed per Capita, 2019.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2019.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, GDP and Personal Income, Regional Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, West Virginia, All statistics in table, 2019, 2020.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2019.
18 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, 2019, Wet NG and Dry Natural Gas.
19 U.S. EIA, Top U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2, Top 100 U.S. gas fields as of December 31, 2013, p. 8.
20 U.S. EIA, "Appalachia region drives growth in U.S. natural gas production since 2012," Today in Energy (December 4, 2017).
21 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, 2015-20.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data 2019: Production, Table PT2, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, West Virginia, 1960-2019.
23 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet), 1967-2020.
24 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, West Virginia, 2015-20.
25 U.S. EIA, Shale Gas. Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, 2019.
26 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, West Virginia, 2015-20.
27 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, 2017.
28 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Profile Overview, Map Layers: Natural Gas Interstate Pipeline and Natural Gas Intrastate Pipeline, accessed October 16, 2021.
29 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, West Virginia, 2015-20.
30 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2015-20.
31 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2015-20.
32 U.S. EIA, "Northeast region slated for record natural gas pipeline capacity buildout in 2018," Today in Energy (May 18, 2018).
33 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Pipeline Projects (XLS), accessed October 16, 2021.
34 U.S. EIA, "U.S. natural gas processing plant capacity and throughput have increased in recent years," Today in Energy (March 7, 2019).
35 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, West Virginia, Annual, 2015-20.
36 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2015-20.
37 Clemente, Jude, "West Virginia Emerging as a Natural Gas Powerhouse," Rigzone (September 23, 2019).
38 U.S. Census Bureau, West Virginia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
39 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, West Virginia, 2015-20.
40 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (Million Cubic Feet), Annual, 1997-2020.
41 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Electric Power Consumers, Annual, 2020.
42 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, West Virginia, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Public and Private Access, Available, accessed October 16, 2021.
43 West Virginia Geologic and Economic Survey, History of West Virginia Mineral Industries-Coal, updated June 20, 2017.
44 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020.
45 U.S. EIA, "In 2020, U.S. coal production fell to its lowest level since 1965," Today in Energy (July 14, 2021).
46 Holzman, J., "Coal output declined 14.3% at top 25 Central Appalachian mines in 2020," S&P Global Market Intelligence (February 17, 2021).
47 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal, Annual, West Virginia, 2001-20.
48 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines by State, 2020 and 2019.
49 West Virginia Office of Miners' Health Safety and Training, Historical & Statistical Data, WV Coal Facts, accessed October 15, 2021.
50 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020.
51 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), By Coal Origin State, West Virginia, Table OS-25, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2020.
52 Milici, Robert C., and Kristin O. Dennen, Production and Depletion of Appalachian and Illinois Basin Coal Resources, Chapter H, The National Coal Resource Assessment Overview, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625-F (2009), p. 5-6.
53 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
54 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), By Coal Origin State, West Virginia, Table OS-25, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2020.
55 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2020.
56 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Export quantity to total world, All coal, Annual, 2010-20.
57 U.S. EIA, "In 2020, U.S. coal production fell to its lowest level since 1965," Today in Energy (July 14, 2021).
58 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2020.
59 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report, Archive, Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2019.
60 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), By Coal Origin State, West Virginia, Table OS-25, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2020.
61 U.S. Census Bureau, West Virginia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
62 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), By Coal Destination State, West Virginia, Table DS-41, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
63 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Electricity Profile 2019, Tables 2A, 2B.
64 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of July 2021 and Inventory of Retired Generators as of July 2021.
65 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, West Virginia, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
66 U.S. EIA Electric Power Monthly (September 2021), Table 1.9.B.
67 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.6.B.
68 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
69 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.4.B.
70 U.S. Census Bureau, West Virginia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
71 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.4.B.
72 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10.
73 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 5.4.B.
74 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2019.
75 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual Thousand Barrels, 2015-20.
76 West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, History of WV Mineral Industries, Oil and Gas, updated July 16, 2004.
77 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Field Production of Crude Oil, 1991-2020.
78 West Virginia Office of Energy, Petroleum, accessed October 16, 2021.
79 West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, Oil and Gas Production Data, Oil-Gas Summary Production Statistics Query Page, 2020, revised July 29, 2021.
80 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Profile Overview, Map Layer: Petroleum Refinery, accessed October 16, 2021.
81 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, West Virginia, 2021.
82 Ergon, Ergon-West Virginia, Inc. (EWV), accessed October 16, 2021.
83 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
84 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
85 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements as of January 2018, accessed October 16, 2021.
86 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
87 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2019.
88 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
89 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
90 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State, Total, Public, accessed October 16, 2021.
91 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, West Virginia, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
92 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, West Virginia, Conventional hydroelectric, Wind, Annual, 2001-20.
93 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in West Virginia, accessed October 16, 2021.
94 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Profile Overview, Map Layer: Wind Power, accessed October 16, 2021.
95 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of July 2021.
96 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data-Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
97 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (September 2021), Table 6.2.B.
98 The West Virginia Encyclopedia, Hydroelectricity, updated May 20, 2013.
99 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data-Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
100 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, West Virginia, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2001-20.
101 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, West Virginia, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-20.
102 Fried, Rona, "West Virginia: First State to Repeal Renewable Portfolio Standard!" SustainableBusiness.com (January 23, 2015).
103 National Conference of State Legislatures, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals (August 13, 2021).
104 Heeter, Jenny, and Lori Bird, Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience, Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-55979, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (November 2012), p. 6-7.