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State Profile and Energy Estimates

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(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: July 15, 2021

Overview

Ohio is a highly industrialized state that has abundant natural resources.1 Named after the river that forms its southern boundary, Ohio is a Great Lakes state bordered on the north by Lake Erie, the eleventh-largest lake in the world by surface area.2 Ports along the state's more than 300 miles of Lake Erie shoreline and on the Ohio River give the Midwestern state access to domestic and international markets.3 Coal and petroleum are shipped by way of the Ohio River to the Mississippi River and from the state's Lake Erie ports into the St. Lawrence Seaway system.4 The eastern half of Ohio is occupied by the hills and valleys of the Appalachian Plateau, part of the larger Appalachian Basin. Ohio's coal resources and most of the state's many natural gas and crude oil fields are located there.5 Western Ohio's rolling plains have some of the most fertile farmland in the nation and mark the beginning of the nation's Corn Belt, which extends westward across the Midwest.6 Corn and soybeans are the state's leading crops, and corn is the feedstock for Ohio's fuel ethanol production.7,8 Prevailing winds that blow across the state provide western Ohio with moderate onshore wind resources, and winds that blow across Lake Erie provide stronger offshore wind energy resources.9

With its large population, heavily industrialized economy, and wide seasonal temperature variations, Ohio is among the top 10 states in total energy consumption.10,11,12 However, per capita total energy consumption in the state is near the national average.13 Ohio's industrial sector accounts for about one-third of the state's total end-use energy consumption.14 Ohio's primary economic activities are in the financial and manufacturing sectors. A significant amount of Ohio's manufacturing is related to the production of chemicals; motor vehicles and transportation equipment; fabricated metal products; food, beverage, and tobacco products; and machinery. Mining, which includes the extraction of natural gas, coal, and crude oil, is also an important contributor to the state's economy.15 With the fourth-largest interstate highway system in the nation, Ohio's transportation sector consumes the second-largest share of the energy delivered to end-users in the state—about one-fourth of the state's total.16 The residential sector follows closely and accounts for almost one-fourth of Ohio's energy use, while the commercial sector consumes less than one-fifth.17

Natural gas

Ohio has about 7% of the nation's natural gas reserves and accounts for about 7% of U.S. natural gas marketed production.18 The state's natural gas gross withdrawals rose sharply after 2012 in large part because of increased production from shale formations, where horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques release trapped natural gas.19,20 In 2019, natural gas production in Ohio peaked at almost 34 times its 2010 volumes. Although production declined in 2020, it was still almost 31 times higher than a decade earlier.21 Ohio's marketed natural gas production surpassed state demand for the first time in 2015.22,23

In 2020, marketed natural gas production in Ohio was about 31 times higher than in 2010.

Because Ohio produces more natural gas than it consumes, a larger amount of natural gas leaves the state by interstate pipelines than enters.24 Some of the natural gas that remains in Ohio is consumed in the state, and some is injected into underground natural gas storage reservoirs for later use. Ohio has the seventh-largest natural gas storage capacity among the states. Its 24 underground natural gas storage fields have a combined total storage capacity of about 575 billion cubic feet, which is about 6% of the U.S. total.25,26 Natural gas is withdrawn from Ohio storage fields primarily between October and April to meet increased demand for heating.27

Ohio is one of the nation's top 10 natural gas-consuming states. However, the state's per capita total natural gas consumption is less than in almost one-third of the states.28,29 Natural gas use at Ohio's power plants increased markedly during the past decade and was more than six times greater in 2020 than in 2010.30 In 2018, the electric power sector became the state's largest natural gas consumer for the first time, and, in 2020, it accounted for more than one-third of the total natural gas delivered to consumers. Ohio's industrial sector and the state's residential sector, where about two-thirds of households use natural gas for home heating, each account for about one-fourth of the state's total natural gas deliveries to consumers. Almost all the rest is used in the commercial sector.31,32

Coal

Ohio has almost 5% of U.S. estimated recoverable coal reserves.33 The state is the nation's tenth-largest producer of bituminous coal, the only type of coal mined in Ohio, and is the fourteenth-largest coal-producing state overall.34 In 2019, two-thirds of the operating mines in Ohio were surface mines, but more than four-fifths of the state's coal production came from underground mines.35 Slightly more than two-thirds of the coal mined in Ohio was used in the state in 2019. The rest was shipped to West Virginia, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania. Almost all of Ohio's coal fuels electricity generation.36

Coal from Ohio and other states is shipped from the state's ports along Lake Erie and on the Ohio River.37 The Cleveland Customs District on Lake Erie is a leading port for U.S. coal exports.38 Coal is transferred from railcars to ships at several points along the Lake, including ports at Toledo and Lorain. It is then sent to ports throughout the Great Lakes region and overseas.39 Coal is also shipped on the Ohio River from Cincinnati, one of the nation's largest inland coal ports.40

Ohio is among the top 10 coal-consuming states in the nation.

Ohio is one of the top 10 coal-consuming states in the nation.41 About three times as much coal is consumed in Ohio as is produced there.42,43 To meet Ohio's needs, coal is brought in from several surrounding states by barge, rail, and truck. Coal arrives primarily from West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky. Lesser amounts of coal come from several other states, including from as far away as Colorado and Wyoming.44 In 2019, 85% of the coal consumed in Ohio was used for electric power generation. Most of the remaining coal was consumed at coking plants, and a small amount was delivered to other industrial users.45

Petroleum

Ohio is the largest oil-producing state east of the Mississippi River.

Ohio's crude oil reserves are modest and the state contributes less than 1% to the nation's total crude oil production.46 Nonetheless, Ohio is the largest oil-producing state that is situated entirely east of the Mississippi River. Oil production in Ohio reached a record high of about 28 million barrels in 2019.47,48 Production increased in recent years because of the use of advanced drilling technologies, including hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling, to access oil trapped within the Utica shale formation.49

Ohio‘s four crude oil refineries have a combined processing capacity of more than 600,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day, about 3% of the nation's total.50,51 Collectively, the refineries can process a wide variety of crude oils from light, sweet crudes to heavy, sour ones. The crude oils come from many different areas, including Canada, the Midcontinent region, North Dakota, the Appalachian Basin, and the U.S. Gulf Coast. Ohio's refinery products, including motor gasoline, distillates, aviation fuels, petrochemical feedstocks, asphalt, and other byproducts, are transported by pipeline, truck, and rail to markets throughout the Midwest.52,53,54 Petroleum products also move in and out of Ohio's port facilities on Lake Erie.55

Ohio is among the nation's top 10 petroleum-consuming states. Almost four-fifths of the petroleum used in Ohio is consumed in the transportation sector, mainly as motor gasoline and diesel fuel.56,57 Conventional motor gasoline without ethanol can be sold throughout the state. Although almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with at least 10% ethanol, some Ohio fueling stations also sell gasoline blended with 15% ethanol.58,59 Additionally, more than 200 public access fueling stations in Ohio sell E85, a blend of motor gasoline that contains 85% ethanol.60 The industrial sector is Ohio's second-largest consumer of petroleum, accounting for about 15% of the state's total petroleum use. The residential sector—where about 7 in 100 Ohio households use heating oil, kerosene, or propane for heating—and the state's commercial sector each account for about 3%. Ohio's electric power sector accounts for less than 1% of the state's petroleum consumption.61,62

Electricity

For decades, coal was the primary fuel for electricity generation in Ohio. However, in 2019, natural gas fueled more in-state electricity net generation than coal in Ohio for the first time. In recent years, coal's share of generation and the number of coal-fired power plants in the state have decreased. Although 6 of Ohio's 10 largest power plants by capacity were coal-fired in 2019, only 4 were among the 10 largest power plants based on the amount of electricity actually generated.63 In 2020, an additional 1,500 megawatts of the state's coal-fired generating capacity retired, but coal still fueled 37% of the state's net generation that year.64 Increased natural gas-fired generation has offset much of the power decrease caused by coal-fired power plant retirements. The share of Ohio's net generation provided by natural gas increased from less than 2% of the state's generation in 2008 to 43% in 2020. Ohio's two nuclear power plants, located near Toledo and Cleveland, supplied about 15% of the state's net generation in 2020.65,66 Renewable energy resources, primarily wind, accounted for most of the rest.67

Ohio is among the nation’s top 10 electricity producers and one of the top 5 electricity consumers.

Ohio is one of the nation's top 10 electricity producers, and the state ranks among the top 5 electricity consumers.68,69 However, per capita electricity retail sales in Ohio are less than in about half of the states.70 The residential sector, where almost one in four households heat with electricity, accounts for the largest share of electricity retail sales in Ohio—about 38% of the state total. The industrial and commercial sectors each account for about 31% of Ohio's electricity use.71,72 Because in-state generation does not meet consumer demand, Ohio imports about one-fourth of the electricity it needs from other states and Canada.73

Ohio is part of the PJM Interconnection, which coordinates the movement of electricity through all or part of 13 states and the District of Columbia between the Mississippi River and the Atlantic Ocean.74 In August 2003, the failure of a transmitter in northeastern Ohio led to what was the largest blackout in North America.75 It took only nine seconds for the grid to collapse, and it affected more than 50 million people in the northeastern United States and Canada.76 A U.S.-Canadian joint task force investigated the causes of the blackout and a number of their recommendations were incorporated into the federal law that created the North American Electric Reliability Corporation, which assesses the reliability of the grid, develops reliability standards, and enforces compliance.77

Renewable energy

Renewable energy resources supplied about 3% of Ohio's total in-state electricity generation in 2020. Wind power provided three-fifths of the state's renewable generation.78 Completed in 2012, the 304-megawatt Blue Creek Wind Farm, with 152 two-megawatt turbines, is the state's largest wind farm.79,80 By April 2021, Ohio had more than 850 megawatts of installed wind generating capacity.81 Most of the state's wind farms are located in northwestern Ohio, the area with the state's greatest wind potential.82,83 A 21-megawatt offshore wind project called Icebreaker, which would be located in Lake Erie eight miles from the Cleveland shoreline, has faced opposition from environmental groups.84,85

Biomass, from wood and wood waste, landfill gas, and other feedstocks, accounts for the second-largest share of renewable electricity generation in Ohio at nearly one-fifth. There are 17 utility-scale power plants fueled with biomass in Ohio.86,87 Biomass resources also provide feedstock for three wood pellet manufacturing plants in the state that together can produce about 83,000 tons of pellets per year. Wood pellets are used for electricity generation and space heating.88,89

Solar energy and hydroelectric power each accounted for a little more than one-tenth of Ohio's total renewable generation in 2020. More than half of the solar power came from small-scale (less than 1 megawatt), customer-sited solar photovoltaic (PV) generating systems like rooftop solar panels. The rest came from 30 utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) solar PV facilities.90 The state's two largest solar installations were the 20-megawatt Bowling Green solar project and the 13-megawatt Piqua-Manier solar project until early 2021, when the 150-megawatt Hardin Solar Energy project came online. Several additional large solar projects are planned.91,92

Ohio is the nation’s eighth-largest fuel ethanol producer.

Ohio also produces biofuels and the state is the nation's eighth-largest fuel ethanol producer.93 Ohio's seven fuel ethanol plants use corn as a feedstock and can produce more than 700 million gallons of ethanol per year, which is almost 1.5 times the state's annual consumption.94,95,96 Ohio also has one biodiesel plant that has a production capacity of about 71 million gallons per year.97 Ohio is among the top 10 biodiesel-consuming states in the nation and consumed almost 46 million gallons of biodiesel in 2019.98

In 2008, Ohio implemented an alternative energy portfolio standard (AEPS) and an energy efficiency portfolio standard (EEPS) for investor-owned utilities and retail suppliers, but not for municipal utilities and electric cooperatives. In 2019, the state legislature lowered the previously mandated AEPS target. Now 8.5% of electricity retail sales are to come from renewable energy-sourced electricity by 2026. Waste heat recovery and fuel cells that use non-renewable fuels are among the eligible technologies. The 2019 legislation eliminated an earlier solar power requirement after 2020.99,100 Ohio's EEPS requires that utilities put in place energy efficiency and peak demand reduction programs to achieve cumulative electric savings of 22% through 2027.101 Ohio requires electric utilities to offer net metering to customers who generate electricity from wind energy, solar energy, biomass, landfill gas, hydropower, fuel cells, or microturbines, and the state has interconnection standards for systems up to 20 megawatts.102,103

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, Ohio, The State of Ohio, updated July 28, 2017.
2 Lake Erie Waterkeeper, Lake Erie Facts, accessed June 15, 2021.
3 NETSTATE, Ohio, The Geography of Ohio, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
4 World Port Source, Port of Toledo Port Commerce, Port Lorain Port Commerce, and Port of Cincinnati Port Commerce, accessed June 15, 2021.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Ohio Profile Overview, All Coal Mines Map Layer and Oil and Gas Wells Map Layer, accessed June 15, 2021.
6 NETSTATE, Ohio, The Geography of Ohio, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
7 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2020 State Agriculture Overview, Ohio.
8 "U.S. Ethanol Plants," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated May 26, 2021.
9 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Ohio, accessed June 15, 2021.
10 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals: 2010-2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2020.
11 Rogers, Jeffery, "Ohio's New Era of Climate Extremes," CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, accessed June 15, 2021.
12 Encylopaedia Britannica, Ohio, Manufacturing, accessed May 24, 2021.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Rankings: Total Energy Consumed per Capita, 2018.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2019.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Ohio, All Statistics in Table, Ohio, 2019.
16 Deye, Andrew, "Ohio's Outstanding Transportation Infrastructure Is a Key Selling Point," Ohio Economic Development Association Newsletter (February 23, 2018).
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2019.
18 U.S. EIA, Ohio Profile Data, Reserves and Supply & Distribution, accessed June 15, 2021.
19 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas, 2007-19.
20 Hoover, Shane, "Ohio's Utica shale drilling numbers staying consistent," CantonRep.com (April 8, 2019).
21 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2020.
22 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Total Consumption, 1997-2019.
23 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Marketed Production, 1967-2020.
24 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Ohio, 2014-19.
25 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2014-19.
26 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, 2019.
27 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals, Monthly, 1990-2021.
28 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals: 2010-2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2020.
29 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F18, Natural Gas Consumption Estimates, 2019.
30 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2020.
31 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Ohio, Annual, 2015-20.
32 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Ohio.
33 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
34 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
35 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018.
36 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, Ohio, Table OS-17, 2019.
37 World Port Source, Ohio, Satellite Map of Ports, accessed June 17, 2021.
38 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2020 (April 1, 2021), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District, Year to date, 2020.
39 World Port Source, Ohio Port Index, accessed June 17, 2021.
40 World Port Source, Port of Cincinnati, Review and History, and Port of Cincinnati, Port Commerce, accessed June 17, 2021.
41 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2019.
42 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2019 and 2018.
43 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018.
44 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), Ohio, Table DS-31, Domestic Coal Distribution by Destination State, 2019.
45 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2019 and 2018.
46 U.S. EIA, Ohio Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Annual, 1977-2019.
47 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2015-20.
48 U.S. EIA, Ohio Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981-2020.
49 Cocklin, Jamison, "Estimates Show Ohio Oil Production Shattered 19th Century Record Last Year," Shale Daily (March 18, 2020).
50 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Distillation Operable Capacity, as of January 1, 2021.
51 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, as of January 1, 2021.
52 Cenovus Energy, Upgrading & refining, Lima Refinery and Toledo Refinery, accessed June 17, 2021.
53 PBF Energy, Refineries, Toledo, OH, accessed June 17, 2021.
54 Marathon Petroleum, Canton Refinery, accessed June 17, 2021.
55 World Port Source, Port of Toledo, Port Commerce, accessed June 17, 2021.
56 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
57 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
58 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements As of January 2018, ExxonMobil, accessed June 17, 2021.
59 U.S. EIA, "New EPA ruling expands sale of 15% ethanol blended motor gasoline," Today in Energy (July 16, 2019).
60 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Advanced Filters, Ohio, Ethanol 85, Public Stations, accessed June 17, 2021.
61 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
62 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Ohio.
63 U.S. EIA, Ohio Electricity Profile 2019, Tables 2A, 2B.
64 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 6.2.C, 6.4.
65 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Ohio, updated March 19, 2020.
66 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Ohio, All fuels, Coal, Natural gas, Nuclear, Annual, 2001-20.
67 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Ohio, Fuel Type (Check All), Annual, 2020.
68 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 5.4.B.
69 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F20, Electricity Consumption Estimates, 2019.
70 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
71 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Ohio.
72 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Ohio, End-Use Sector (Check all), Annual, 2020.
73 U.S. EIA, Ohio Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
74 PJM Interconnection, Territory Served, accessed June 17, 2021.
75 Minkel, J. R., "The 2003 Northeast Blackout Five Years Later," Scientific American (August 13, 2008).
76 "Blackout by the numbers," CBC News Online, updated November 14, 2003.
77 Hoffman, Patricia, "10 Years after the 2003 Northeast Blackout" U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (August 14, 2013).
78 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Ohio, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2020.
79 Power Technology, Blue Creek Wind Farm, Ohio, accessed June 20, 2021.
80 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020ER, Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
81 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (June 2021), Table 6.2.B.
82 U.S. EIA, Ohio Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Wind Power Plants, accessed June 20, 2021.
83 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Ohio, Maps & Data, accessed June 20, 2021.
84 Lake Erie Energy Development Corporation, The Project: Icebreaker Wind, accessed June 20, 2021.
85 Palmer, Kim, "Icebreaker offshore wind project faces more obstacles," Crain's Cleveland Business (October 25, 2020).
86 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020ER, Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
87 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Ohio, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Biomass (total), Annual, 2020.
88 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (June 16, 2021), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, March 2021.
89 U.S. EIA, Glossary, Densified biomass fuel, accessed June 21, 2021.
90 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Ohio, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Utility-scale solar, Annual, 2020.
91 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), EIA-860M 2021, March 2021, Excel file, Operating and Planned.
92 Kowalski, Kathiann M., "Solar energy chasing nuclear capacity in Ohio, but lawmakers could slow its gains," Energy News Network (March 30, 2021).
93 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2019.
94 U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINS, Operational, Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated May 26, 2021.
95 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity as of January 1, 2020, Excel file.
96 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
97 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
98 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
99 NC Clean Technology Center, DSIRE, Ohio Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard, updated May 20, 2021.
100 The Ohio Legislature, Ohio Laws and Administrative Rules, 4928.64 Electric distribution utility to provide electricity from alternative energy resources, accessed June 20, 2021.
101 NC Clean Technology Center, DSIRE, Ohio Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard, updated October 6, 2016.
102 NC Clean Technology Center, DSIRE, Ohio Net Metering, updated January 11, 2016.
103 NC Clean Technology Center, DSIRE, Ohio Interconnection Standards, updated December 10, 2020.