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State Profile and Energy Estimates

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(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: June 18, 2020

Overview

Ohio, named after the river that forms its southern boundary, is a Great Lakes state bordered on the north by Lake Erie, the eleventh-largest lake in the world by surface area.1,2 Those two waterways give the Midwestern state access to domestic and international commerce, including the transport of coal and petroleum by way of the Mississippi River and the St. Lawrence Seaway.3,4 The eastern half of Ohio is occupied by the hills and valleys of the Appalachian Plateau, part of the larger Appalachian Basin.5 Ohio’s coal resources and most of the state’s many natural gas and crude oil fields are located there. Several more oil fields lie further to the west in a narrow belt that crosses northwestern Ohio.6,7 Western Ohio’s rolling plains have some of the most fertile farmland in the nation and mark the beginning of the nation’s Corn Belt, which extends westward across the Midwest.8 Corn and soybeans are the state’s leading crops, and corn is used as the feedstock at Ohio’s ethanol production plants.9,10 Prevailing winds that blow across the state provide western Ohio with moderate wind resources, and winds that blow across Lake Erie provide stronger offshore wind energy resources.11

With its large population, heavily industrial economy, and wide seasonal temperature variations, Ohio is among the top 10 states in total energy consumption.12,13,14 However, per capita total energy consumption in the state is near the national average.15 Ohio’s industrial sector accounts for about one-third of the state’s total end-use energy demand. The state’s primary economic activities are in the financial and manufacturing sectors. A significant amount of Ohio’s manufacturing is related to the production of chemicals; motor vehicles and transportation equipment; food, beverage, and tobacco products; fabricated metals; and machinery. Minerals extraction, including natural gas, coal, and crude oil, is also an important contributor to the state’s economy.16 With the fourth-largest interstate highway system in the nation, Ohio’s transportation sector consumes the second-largest amount of energy delivered to consumers within the state—about one-fourth of the state’s total.17 The residential sector follows closely and accounts for almost one-fourth of Ohio’s energy consumption while the commercial sector uses less than one-fifth.18

Natural gas

In 2019, natural gas production in Ohio was more than 30 times higher than in 2012.

In 2019, natural gas production in Ohio was more than 30 times greater than in 2012, rising from less than 0.4% of the nation’s total to 6.4% during that period.19,20 Ohio’s natural gas reserves also rose to about 5% of the nation’s total.21 Almost all of the state’s natural gas production comes from Utica Shale wells, where horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing break open rock to release trapped natural gas.22,23 Ohio’s marketed natural gas production surpassed state demand for the first time in 2015.24,25

Many interstate natural gas pipelines cross Ohio.26 The 2009 extension of the Rockies Express Pipeline (REX) to Clarington, Ohio, near the border with West Virginia, led to the formation of new natural gas pipeline interconnections in the state. In 2015, the eastern section of the REX became bidirectional, allowing delivery of natural gas from the Appalachian Basin to the Midwest, as well as delivery of Rocky Mountain natural gas to the East.27,28 Ohio receives natural gas deliveries from other states, mostly West Virginia and Pennsylvania, but, because of Ohio’s increased natural gas production, much more natural gas leaves the state than enters it. Most of the natural gas sent out of Ohio goes to Kentucky, Michigan, and Indiana.29 Some of Ohio’s natural gas is placed in underground storage. The state has 24 underground natural gas storage fields with a combined total storage capacity of almost 576 billion cubic feet—about 6% of the U.S. total and the seventh-largest state storage capacity in the nation.30,31 Natural gas is withdrawn from Ohio storage fields in winter to meet increased demand for heating.32

Ohio is one of the 10 largest states by population and is among the top 10 natural gas-consuming states. However, the state’s per capita natural gas consumption is around the national average.33,34 Natural gas use at Ohio’s power plants has increased markedly in the past decade and was more than 14 times greater in 2019 than in 2008.35,36 In 2018, the electric power sector became the state’s largest natural gas consumer for the first time, and in 2019, it accounted for nearly one-third of the total natural gas delivered to customers. Ohio’s residential sector, where about two-thirds of households use natural gas for home heating, is the second-largest natural gas user in the state, accounting for slightly more than one-fourth of total gas deliveries to consumers.37,38

Coal

Coal is one of Ohio’s primary fossil fuel resources, and the state has about 4.5% of the nation’s total estimated recoverable coal reserves.39 Ohio is the nation’s 10th largest producer of bituminous coal, the only type of coal mined in the state, and it is the 15th largest coal-producing state in the nation overall.40 More than two-thirds of the state’s operating mines are surface mines, but almost three-fourths of Ohio’s coal production comes from its underground mines.41 In 2018, slightly more than one-third of Ohio coal distributed within the United States was shipped to other states, mainly West Virginia and Kentucky. Most of the rest was used in Ohio. Almost all of Ohio’s coal was used as fuel for electricity generation. About 14% of all coal shipped out of Ohio in 2018 was exported to other countries.42,43

Coal from Ohio and other states is shipped from Ohio’s ports along Lake Erie and on the Ohio River.44 The Cleveland Customs District is a leading port for U.S. coal exports.45 Coal is transferred from rail to vessels at several points along Lake Erie, including ports at Toledo and Loraine, and sent from there throughout the Great Lakes region and overseas.46 Coal is also shipped on the Ohio River from Cincinnati, one of the nation’s largest inland coal ports.47

Ohio is among the top 10 coal-consuming states in the nation.

Ohio is one of the top 10 coal-consuming states in the nation.48 More than three times as much coal is consumed in Ohio as is produced there.49,50 To meet the state’s needs, coal is brought in from several surrounding states by barge, rail, and truck. Coal arrives primarily from West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois, and Kentucky. Lesser amounts of coal come from several other states, including from as far away as Colorado and Wyoming.51 Nearly nine-tenths of the coal consumed in Ohio is used for electric power generation, and most of the remaining coal use is at coking plants.52

Petroleum

Ohio’s crude oil reserves are modest and the state contributes less than 1% to the nation’s total oil production. Still, Ohio is the largest oil-producing state east of the Mississippi River, and its oil output reached a record high of 28 million barrels in 2019.53,54,55 The state’s crude oil production has increased in recent years through the use of advanced drilling technologies, mainly hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling, in the Utica/Point Pleasant and Marcellus shale formations.56,57,58,59

Ohio is consistently among the top 10 crude oil-refining states in the nation. The state’s four refineries have a combined processing capacity of nearly 600,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.60,61 Collectively, the refineries can process a wide variety of crude oils from light, sweet crudes to heavy, sour ones. The crude oils come from Canada, the Midcontinent region, North Dakota, the Appalachian Basin, and the U.S. Gulf Coast. Among the finished products from Ohio’s refineries are transportation fuels, including motor gasoline, aviation fuels, and diesel fuels. Petroleum products are shipped from the state’s refineries by pipeline, truck, and rail.62,63,64 Petroleum products also move in and out of the state’s port facilities on Lake Erie.65

Ohio’s oil production reached an all-time high in 2019.

Total petroleum demand in Ohio is almost eight times greater than the state’s production, and it is among the top 10 petroleum-consuming states in the nation.66,67 Almost four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in Ohio is used by the transportation sector, mainly as motor gasoline and diesel fuel.68,69 Conventional motor gasoline without ethanol can be sold throughout the state, although almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with at least 10% ethanol, and Ohio has fueling stations that sell gasoline with 15% ethanol.70,71 The industrial sector is the second-largest consumer of petroleum, accounting for about one-seventh of the state’s total petroleum use. Neither the residential sector—where about 7 in 100 Ohio households burn heating oil, kerosene or propane for heating—nor the state’s electric power sector use much petroleum.72,73

Electricity

In 2019, Ohio’s natural gas-fired generation exceeded the amount of in-state electricity provided by coal-fired power plants for the first time.

For decades, the primary fuel for electricity generation in Ohio was coal. However, in 2019, natural gas provided more in-state electricity than coal for the first time. Seven of Ohio’s 10 largest power plants by capacity are coal-fired, but only 6 are among the 10 largest power plants based on the amount of electricity actually generated.74,75 In recent years, coal’s share of generation and the number of coal-fired power plants in the state have decreased.76 In 2019, 6%, or 750 megawatts, of the state’s coal-fired generating capacity was retired, but coal still fueled 39% of the state’s net generation that year.77,78,79 Rising natural gas-fired generation has offset much of the power supply lost from retired coal-fired power plants. Electricity generation from natural gas increased from about 3% of the state’s generation in 2009 to 43% in 2019.80,81 Ohio’s two nuclear power plants, located along Lake Erie, supplied about 14% of the state’s net generation.82,83 In 2019, the state’s legislature approved $1 billion in financial assistance for the two nuclear power plants to help keep them operating. Ohio’s power customers will pay a new fee in their monthly electric bills to cover the $150 million in annual financial support through 2026. The legislature also approved $50 million a year in financial support for two coal-fired power plants.84 Renewable energy resources—wind, biomass, hydro, and solar—were used to generate most of Ohio’s remaining in-state electricity in 2019.85

Ohio is among the top 10 states generating the most electricity and is in the top 5 states in total electricity use.

Ohio is among the top 10 states in electric power generation and among the top 5 states in electricity retail sales. The residential sector, where almost one in four households heat with electricity, accounts for the largest share of electricity retail sales in Ohio—about 36% of the state total. The industrial and commercial sectors each account for about 32% of Ohio’s electricity use.86,87,88 Because in-state generation does not meet consumer power demand, Ohio imports electricity from other states and Canada.89 Ohio is part of the PJM Interconnection, which coordinates the movement of electricity through all or part of 13 states and the District of Columbia between the Mississippi River and the Atlantic Ocean.90

In August 2003, the failure of a transmitter in northeastern Ohio led to the largest blackout to date in North America, affecting more than 50 million people in the northeastern United States and Canada for up to two days.91 It took nine seconds for the grid to collapse.92 A U.S.-Canadian joint task force investigated the causes of the blackout and a number of recommendations were incorporated into federal laws that established standards for electricity reliability nationwide.93

Renewable energy

Renewable energy resources generated almost 3% of Ohio’s in-state electricity generation in 2019. Wind power provided the largest share, about three-fifths of total renewable generation.94 The 304-megawatt Blue Creek Wind Farm, with 152 two-megawatt turbines, became the state’s largest wind farm when it was completed in 2012.95,96,97 At the beginning of 2020, Ohio had 864 megawatts of installed wind generating capacity from nearly 420 turbines, and another 250 megawatts of capacity was under construction.98 Most of the state’s wind farms are located in western Ohio, the area in the state with the greatest wind potential.99,100 Offshore wind-powered generation is planned on Lake Erie with a 21-megawatt project called Icebreaker, which would be located eight miles from the Cleveland shoreline. It would be the first offshore wind farm in the Great Lakes and the turbines are planned to come online by the end of 2022. Environmental groups want to restrict the turbines’ operating hours at night to protect birds and bats.101,102

Biomass from wood and wood waste, municipal solid waste, landfill gas, and biodigesters contributes the second largest share, about one-fifth, of renewable electricity generation in Ohio. There are 17 utility-scale power plants (with at least 1 megawatt of generating capacity) fueled by biomass in Ohio.103,104 Biomass resources also provide feedstock for several wood pellet manufacturing plants in the state that together can produce about 83,000 tons of pellets per year. Wood pellets are used for power generation and for heating.105,106

In 2019, solar photovoltaic (PV) generation accounted for about one-tenth of Ohio’s renewable generation. Slightly more than half of that solar power came from small-scale, customer-sited generating systems, mostly rooftop solar panels. The other half came from about two dozen utility-scale solar PV power facilities. The two largest solar installations in Ohio are the 20-megawatt Bowling Green solar project and the 13-megawatt Piqua-Manier solar project.107,108

Ohio is the eighth-largest ethanol-producing state in the nation.109 The state’s 7 ethanol plants use corn as a feedstock and can produce about 680 million gallons of ethanol per year.110,111 Ohio also has one biodiesel plant that processes vegetable oil into biofuels, and it has a capacity of about 71 million gallons per year.112,113 Ohio is among the top 10 biodiesel-consuming states in the nation.114

In 2008, Ohio implemented a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and an energy efficiency portfolio standard (EEPS).115,116 In 2019, the RPS target was lowered by the state legislature to have 8.5% of most of the state’s electricity retail sales come from power generated by renewable energy resources by 2026, and an earlier solar power requirement was eliminated.117,118 Ohio’s EEPS required that utilities put in place energy efficiency and peak demand reduction programs to achieve energy savings through 2027.119 But In 2019, the state legislature ended the energy efficiency standard after 2020.120

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, Ohio, The State of Ohio, updated July 28, 2017.
2 Lake Erie Waterkeeper, Lake Erie Facts, accessed May 23, 2020.
3 World Port Source, Ohio, Satellite Map of Ports, accessed May 23, 2020.
4 World Port Source, Port of Toledo, Port Commerce and Port Lorain Port Commerce, accessed May 23, 2020.
5 Brockman, C. Scott, , Physiographic Regions of Ohio, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey (April 1998).
6 Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey, Oil and Gas Fields Map of Ohio, accessed May 24, 2020.
7 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Ohio Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, All Coal Mines and Oil and Gas Wells, accessed May 24, 2020.
8 NETSTATE, Ohio, The Geography of Ohio, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
9 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2019 State Agriculture Overview, Ohio.
10 “U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Plants, Operational,” Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated February 24, 2020.
11 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Ohio, Maps & Data, accessed May 24, 2020.
12 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2019, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019.
13 Encylopaedia Britannica, Ohio, Climate and Manufacturing, accessed May 24, 2020.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Ohio, All Statistics in Table, Ohio, 2017.
17 Deye, Andrew, “Ohio’s Outstanding Transportation Infrastructure Is a Key Selling Point,” Ohio Economic Development Association Newsletter (February 23, 2018).
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2017.
19 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967–2019.
20 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2014–19.
21 U.S. EIA, Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves, 2013–18.
22 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas Wells, Annual, 2013–18.
23 Hoover, Shane, “Ohio’s Utica shale drilling numbers staying consistent,” CantonRep.com (April 8, 2019).
24 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Total Consumption, 1997–2018.
25 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Marketed Production, 1967–2019.
26 U.S. EIA, Ohio Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Natural Gas Interstate Pipeline, accessed May 24, 2020.
27 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Weekly Update, In the News, “REX Zone 3 capacity expansion enters full service, increasing Northeast takeaway capacity” (January 12, 2017).
28 U.S. EIA, “First westbound natural gas flows begin on Rockies Express Pipeline,” Today in Energy (June 18, 2014).
29 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Ohio, 2013–18.
30 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2013–18.
31 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, 2018.
32 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals, Monthly, 1990–2020.
33 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2019, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019.
34 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2017.
35 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997–2019.
36 U.S. EIA, “Appalachia region drives growth in U.S. natural gas production since 2012,” Today in Energy (December 4, 2017).
37 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Ohio, Annual, 2014–19.
38 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Ohio.
39 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
40 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2018.
41 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2018 and 2017.
42 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), Ohio, Table OS-17, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2018.
43 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), U.S. Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin, 2018.
44 World Port Source, Ohio, Satellite Map of Ports, accessed May 24, 2020.
45 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October–December 2019 (April 1, 2020, Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District, Year to date, 2019.
46 World Port Source, Ohio Port Index, accessed May 24, 2020.
47 World Port Source, Port of Cincinnati, Port Commerce, accessed May 24, 2020.
48 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2018.
Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2017.
49 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2018 and 2017.
50 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2018 and 2017.
51 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), Ohio, Table DS-31, Domestic Coal Distribution by Destination State, 2018.
52 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2018 and 2017.
53 U.S. EIA, Drilling Productivity Report, Map, Appalachian, accessed May 20, 2020.
54 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2014–19.
55 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31, Annual, 2013–18.
56 U.S. EIA, Ohio Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981–2019.
57 “Ohio produced record natural gas, oil in 2019,” Kallanish Energy (March 24, 2020).
58 Cocklin, Jamison, “Estimates Show Ohio Oil Production Shattered 19th Century Record Last Year,” Shale Daily (March 18, 2020).
59 U.S. EIA, “Hydraulically fractured horizontal wells account for most new oil and natural gas wells,” Today in Energy (December 20, 2018).
60 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Distillation Operable Capacity, as of January 1, 2019.
61 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, as of January 1, 2019.
62 Husky Energy, Operations/Downstream, Lima Refinery and Toledo Refinery, accessed May 20, 2020.
63 PBF Energy, Refineries, Toledo, OH, accessed May 20, 2020.
64 Marathon Petroleum, Canton Refinery, accessed May 20, 2020.
65 World Port Source, Port of Toledo, Port Commerce, accessed May 20, 2020.
66 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2014–19.
67 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
68 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
69 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2017.
70 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements (January 2018).
71 U.S. EIA, “New EPA ruling expands sale of 15% ethanol blended motor gasoline,” Today in Energy (July 16, 2019).
72 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
73 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Ohio.
74 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Ohio, Annual, 2015–19.
75 U.S. EIA, Ohio Electricity Profile 2018, Tables 2A, 2B.
76 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Ohio, Annual, 2015–19.
77 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 6.2.C, 6.4.
78 U.S. EIA, “More U.S. coal-fired power plants are decommissioning as retirements continue,” Today in Energy (July 26, 2019).
79 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Ohio, Annual, 2015–19.
80 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997–2019.
81 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Ohio, Annual, 2015–19.
82 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Ohio, accessed May 21, 2020.
83 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Ohio, Annual, 2015–19.
84 Seewer, John “Hello, higher electric bills: Davis-Besse, Perry nuke plants rescued,” Associated Press (July 13, 2019).
85 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Ohio, Annual, 2015–19.
86 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 5.4.B.
87 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Ohio.
88 U.S. EIA. Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), Ohio, Annual, 2015–19.
89 U.S. EIA, Ohio Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018.
90 PJM Interconnection, Territory Served, accessed May 21, 2020.
91 Minkel, J. R., “The 2003 Northeast Blackout Five Years Later,” Scientific American (August 13, 2008).
92 “Blackout by the numbers,” CBC News Online, updated November 14, 2003.
93 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, “10 Years after the 2003 Northeast Blackout” (August 14, 2013).
94 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Ohio, Annual, 2015–19.
95 The Wind Power, Blue Creek (USA), updated November 2, 2017.
96 Power Technology, Blue Creek Wind Farm, Ohio, accessed May 21, 2020.
97 Henry, Tom, “A look at wind power’s history in Ohio,” The Toledo Blade (November 3, 2018).
98 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in Ohio, accessed May 20, 2020.
99 U.S. EIA, Ohio Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Wind Power Plants, accessed May 20, 2020.
100 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Ohio, Maps & Data, accessed May 20, 2020.
101 Lake Erie Energy Development Corporation, The Project: Icebreaker Wind, accessed May 20, 2020.
102 Johnston, Laura, “Lake Erie wind turbines approved—but can’t operate at night, which could sink the project,” Cleveland.com (May 21, 2020).
103 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of February 2020, Ohio, Technology: Wood/Wood Waste Biomass, Landfill Gas, Other Waste Biomass.
104 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Ohio, Annual, 2015–19.
105 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (May 15, 2020), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, February 2020.
106 U.S. EIA, “New EIA survey collects data on production and sales of wood pellets,” Today in Energy (December 14, 2016).
107 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Ohio, Annual, 2015–19.
108 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of February 2020, Ohio, Technology: Wood/Wood Waste Biomass, Landfill Gas, Other Waste Biomass.
109 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2017.
110 U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINS, Operational, Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated February 24, 2020.
111 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (August 26, 2019), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) are available in XLS file.
112 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (April 30, 2020), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, February 2020.
113 Cincinnati Renewable Fuels LLC, About us, accessed May 21, 2020.
114 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2018.
115 NC Clean Technology Center, DSIRE, Ohio Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard, updated June 29, 2018.
116 Ohio Public Utilities Commission, Ohio’s renewable energy portfolio standard, accessed May 20, 2020.
117 Ohio Public Utilities Commission, HB 5 RPS FAQ, accessed May 21, 2020.
118 LAWriter Ohio Laws and Rules, 4928.64 Electric distribution utility to provide electricity from alternative energy resources, accessed May 21, 2020.
119 NC Clean Technology Center, DSIRE, Ohio Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard, updated October 6, 2016.
120 “6 Things You Need to Know About Ohio’s Energy Efficiency Rollback,” Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (August 14, 2020).