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Ohio   Ohio Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: May 17, 2018

Overview

Ohio, named after the river that forms its southern boundary, is a Great Lakes state bordered on the north by Lake Erie, the twelfth-largest lake in the world.1,2 The eastern half of Ohio is occupied by the hills and valleys of the Appalachian Plateau, part of the larger Appalachian Basin.3 Ohio's coal resources and most of the state's many natural gas and crude oil fields are located there. Several more oil fields lie further to the west in a narrow belt that crosses northwestern Ohio.4,5 Western Ohio's rolling plains have some of the most fertile farmland in the nation and mark the beginning of the nation's Corn Belt, which extends westward across the Midwest.6 Corn and soybeans are the state's leading crops, and corn is used as the feedstock at most of Ohio's ethanol plants.7,8 Prevailing winds that blow across Ohio from the southwest deliver wind resources to the state, and Lake Erie provides an important offshore wind energy resource as well.9,10

With its large population, heavily industrial economy, and large seasonal temperature variations, Ohio is among the top 10 states in total energy consumption.11,12,13 Energy consumption is greatest in Ohio's industrial sector.14 The state's primary economic activities are in the financial and manufacturing sectors. A significant amount of Ohio's manufacturing is related to the production of chemicals; motor vehicles and transportation equipment; food, beverage, and tobacco products; fabricated metals; machinery; and minerals extraction, including oil, natural gas, and coal.15 With the fourth-largest interstate highway system in the nation, Ohio's transportation sector consumes the second-largest amount of energy in the state.16 Despite Ohio's strong industrial base, extensive highway system, and below freezing winter temperatures, total per capita energy consumption in the state is near the national median.17

Natural gas

In 2017, natural gas production in Ohio was more than 21 times greater than in 2012, rising from less than 0.3% of the nation's total to nearly 5.4% during that period. Almost all of the state's natural gas production comes from shale gas wells, and the substantial increase in Ohio's natural gas reserves and production reflects the higher production from those wells.18,19,20 Most of that natural gas production is from the Utica Shale.21,22 Ohio's marketed natural gas production surpassed state demand for the first time in 2015, but as production has increased consumption has not, and the state now has a surplus supply.23,24

In 2015, natural gas production in Ohio surpassed state demand for the first time.

Several interstate natural gas pipelines cross Ohio.25 The 2009 extension of the Rockies Express Pipeline (REX) to Clarington, Ohio, near the border with West Virginia, led to the formation of new natural gas trading points in the state. In August 2015, the eastern section of the REX became bidirectional, allowing delivery of natural gas from the Appalachian Basin to the Midwest, as well as delivery of Rocky Mountain natural gas to the East.26,27 Ohio receives natural gas deliveries from other states, but, because of the increased Ohio natural gas production, more natural gas leaves the state than arrives there. Most of the natural gas that leaves Ohio is sent on to Kentucky, Indiana, and Michigan.28 Some of the state's natural gas is placed in storage. Ohio has 24 natural gas storage fields with a combined total storage capacity of almost 576 billion cubic feet, about 6% of the nation's total.29,30 To meet peak demand in winter, Ohio withdraws natural gas from storage.31

Ohio is one of the 10 largest states by population and is among the top 10 natural gas-consuming states.32,33 The residential sector, where two-thirds of the households use natural gas for home heating, and the industrial sector are the state's largest natural gas consumers, followed by the electric power sector.34,35 Natural gas use for electric power generation in Ohio has increased markedly in the past decade and was more than eight times greater in 2017 than in 2008.36,37

Coal

Ohio is the 8th-largest bituminous coal-producing state in the nation.

Bituminous coal is one of Ohio's primary fossil fuel resources. The state has almost 1.4% of the nation's recoverable coal reserves at producing mines.38 Ohio is the 13th-largest coal-producing state in the nation, and it is the 8th-largest producer of bituminous coal. All of the coal produced in Ohio is bituminous coal. More than half of the state's mining operations are surface mines, but most of Ohio's coal comes from the state's underground mines.39,40 Two-fifths of the coal mined in Ohio is shipped out to other states by barge, truck, and rail. A small amount of Ohio coal is exported to other countries.41,42 Coal from Ohio and other states is shipped from the state's ports along Lake Erie and on the Ohio River.43 The Cleveland Customs District is a leading Great Lakes center for coal export.44 Coal is transferred from rail to vessels at several points on Lake Erie, including ports at Toledo and Loraine, and shipped from there throughout the Great Lakes region and overseas.45 Coal is also shipped on the Ohio River from Cincinnati, one of the nation's largest inland coal ports.46

Ohio is among the top five coal-consuming states in the nation along with Texas, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Illinois.47 Almost three times as much coal is consumed in Ohio as is produced there.48,49 To meet the state's needs, coal is brought in from several surrounding states by barge, rail, and truck. Coal arrives primarily from West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky. Lesser amounts come from several other states, including from as far away as Wyoming.50 Almost 90% of the coal consumed in Ohio is used for electric power generation.51

Petroleum

Ohio's crude oil reserves and production are modest, but, among the states in the Appalachian basin, Ohio is first in production and second only to Alabama in reserves.52,53 The state's crude oil production has increased in recent years, reaching a high of almost 27 million barrels in 2015, and proved reserves reached a peak of 78 million barrels in 2014, the highest level in nearly 30 years.54,55 A surge in drilling in the Utica/Point Pleasant and Marcellus shale formations using advanced technologies accounted for the increase.56,57 Despite the increases, Ohio's crude oil production remains below 1% of the nation's total.58

Ohio is among the top 10 oil-refining states in the nation.

Ohio is consistently among the top 10 oil-refining states in the nation.59 The state's four refineries have a combined processing capacity of about 583,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.60 Collectively, they can process a wide variety of crude oils from light, sweet crudes to heavy, sour ones. The crude oils come from Canada, the Midcontinent region, North Dakota, the Appalachian Basin, and the U.S. Gulf Coast. Among the finished products from Ohio's refineries are transportation fuels, including motor gasoline, aviation fuels, and diesel fuels. Petroleum products are shipped from the state's refineries by pipeline, truck, and rail.61,62,63 Petroleum products also move in and out of port facilities on Lake Erie.64

Total petroleum demand in Ohio far exceeds the state's production, and the state is among the top 10 petroleum-consuming states in the nation.65,66 Most of the petroleum consumed in Ohio is used as transportation fuels, either as motor gasoline or diesel fuel.67 Conventional motor gasoline can be sold throughout the state.68 However, Ohio has substantial ethanol production capacity, and the additive is blended into most of the state's motor gasoline.69 The industrial sector is the state's second-largest consumer of petroleum. Neither the residential sector, where fewer than 1 in 13 Ohio households heat with petroleum products, nor the electric power sector use much petroleum.70,71

Electricity

The primary fuel for electricity generation in Ohio is coal. Eight of Ohio's 10 largest power plants by capacity are coal-fired, although only 6 are among the 10 largest by generation.72 In recent years, coal's share of generation and the number of coal-fired power plants in the state has decreased.73 In 2015, 15% of the state's coal-fired generating capacity was retired. However, in 2017, coal still fueled almost three-fifths of the state's net generation.74,75 Even though natural gas-fired generation has increased greatly since 2008, it accounted for less than one-fourth of the state's net generation in 2017.76,77 Ohio's two nuclear power plants, located along Lake Erie, supply about one-seventh of the state's net generation.78,79 Renewable energy resources, gases derived from fossil fuels, petroleum coke, and petroleum are used to produce almost all of the remainder of Ohio's net generation.80

Ohio is among the top 10 electric power generators in the nation and among the top 5 states in retail electricity sales. The residential sector, where almost one in four households heat with electricity, accounts for the largest share of retail electricity sales in Ohio.81,82 Because in-state generation does not meet consumer demand, Ohio is a net recipient of electricity from outside of the state.83 Ohio is part of the PJM Interconnection, which coordinates the movement of electricity through all or part of 12 states between the Mississippi River and the Atlantic Ocean.84 In August 2003, a transmission failure in northeastern Ohio led to the largest blackout to date in North America, affecting more than 50 million people in the northeastern United States and Canada for up to two days.85 It took only nine seconds for the grid to collapse.86 A U.S.-Canadian joint task force investigated the causes of the blackout and a number of task force recommendations were incorporated into federal laws that established standards for electricity reliability nationwide.87

Renewable energy

Renewable energy resources, including hydroelectric power, supply about 2.5% of Ohio's net electricity generation. Wind provides the largest share.88,89 The 304-megawatt Blue Creek Wind Farm, with 152 2-megawatt turbines, became the state's largest wind farm when it was completed in 2012.90,91 By 2017, Ohio had 37 wind projects online, at least a dozen of which had generating capacities of greater than 1 megawatt.92,93 Most of the state's larger wind farms are in western Ohio, the area with the greatest wind potential.94,95 At the end of 2017, Ohio had 617 megawatts of installed wind capacity online and more than 275 megawatts of capacity under construction.96,97 Offshore wind-powered generation in Lake Erie is planned with a demonstration project called Icebreaker in development in Lake Erie northwest of Cleveland.98

Ohio is exploring offshore wind power development in Lake Erie.

Biomass from wood and wood waste, municipal solid waste, landfill gas, and biodigesters contributes to Ohio's net electricity generation. There are 19 utility-scale power plants fueled by landfill gas or other biomass in Ohio.99 Together those plants fuel only a small portion of the state's net electricity generation, but they account for about three-tenths of Ohio's nonhydroelectric renewable sourced power generation.100 Two wood pellet manufacturing facilities that produce a combined total of about 105,000 short tons of pellets per year are also located in Ohio. Wood pellets are used for power generation and for heating.101 In 2017, solar photovoltaic (PV) generation contributed about one-tenth of Ohio's nonhydroelectric renewable generation. More than half of that was distributed (small-scale, customer-sited) generation.102 However, Ohio has 16 utility-scale (more than 1 megawatt of generating capacity) solar PV power facilities. The two largest solar installations in the state are the 10-megawatt Wyandot Solar Farm and the 8-megawatt Napoleon Solar Project, both located in the northwestern part of the state.103

Ohio is the eighth-largest ethanol-producing state in the nation.104 All but one of the state's eight operational ethanol plants use corn as a feedstock. The remaining plant uses waste industrial alcohol.105 Ohio's ethanol plants produce almost 550 million gallons of ethanol per year, and state fuel ethanol consumption is about 480 million gallons per year.106 Ohio also has one operational biodiesel plant that processes soy oil into biofuels. That plant has a capacity of about 60 million gallons per year.107

Ohio has both an alternative energy portfolio standard (AEPS) and an energy efficiency portfolio standard (EEPS). The AEPS requires the state's investor-owned utilities and retail electricity providers—except municipal utilities and electric cooperatives—to obtain 12.5% of their retail electricity sales of power generated from alternative energy resources by the end of 2026. The AEPS includes a separate solar energy requirement.108 Ohio's EEPS requires that utilities put in place energy efficiency and peak demand reduction programs that achieve a 7.75% reduction in peak demand by 2020 and cumulative energy savings of 22% by 2027.109

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, Ohio, The State of Ohio, updated July 28, 2017.
2 Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey, Lake Erie Facts, updated November 18, 2016.
3 Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey, Physiographic Regions of Ohio (April 1998).
4 Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey, Map PG-1, Oil and Gas Fields Map of Ohio (2004, updated 2014).
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Ohio Profile Overview, Map Layers, All Coal Mines, accessed April 2, 2018.
6 NETSTATE, Ohio, The Geography of Ohio, updated February 25, 2016.
7 U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service, 2017 State Agriculture Overview, Ohio.
8 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Plants, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated January 24, 2018.
9 Ohio Memory, Climate and Weather in Ohio, accessed April 3, 2018.
10 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Ohio accessed April 3, 2018.
11 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Table 1, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-01).
12 Ohio Memory, Climate and Weather in Ohio, accessed April 3, 2018.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, GDP and Personal Income, Regional Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, All Industries, Ohio, 2015.
16 Deye, Andrew, "Ohio's Outstanding Transportation Infrastructure Is a Key Selling Point," Ohio Economic Development Association Newsletter (February 23, 2018).
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C13, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
18 U.S. EIA, Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves, 2011-16.
19 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2012-17.
20 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas Wells, Annual, 2012-17.
21 Hoover, Shane, "Natural gas production from shale up," CantonRep.com (March 8, 2018).
22 Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil and Gas Resources, Oil and Gas Well Production, accessed April 4, 2018.
23 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Total Consumption, 1997-2016.
24 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Marketed Production, 1967-2017.
25 U.S. EIA, Ohio Profile Overview, Natural Gas Inter/Intrastate Pipeline Map Layer, accessed April 4, 2018.
26 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Weekly Update, In the News, "REX Zone 3 capacity expansion enters full service, increasing Northeast takeaway capacity," (January 12, 2017).
27 Waite, Warren, "Rockies Express-The Aorta of the Central U.S.," PointLogic Energy (October 1, 2015).
28 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Ohio, 2011-2016.
29 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2011-2016.
30 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, 2016.
31 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals, Monthly, 1990-2018.
32 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Table 1, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-01).
33 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2015.
34 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Ohio, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
35 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Ohio, Annual, 2012-2017.
36 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2017.
37 U.S. EIA, "Appalachia region drives growth in U.S. natural gas production since 2012," Today in Energy (December 4, 2017).
38 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2016 and 2015.
39 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2016 and 2015.
40 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2016.
41 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Ohio, Table OS-19, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2016.
42 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), U.S. Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin, 2016.
43 World Port Source, Ohio, Satellite Map of Ports, accessed April 5, 2018.
44 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2017 (April 2018), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District.
45 World Port Source, Ohio Port Index, accessed April 5, 2018.
46 World Port Source, Port of Cincinnati, Port Commerce, accessed April 5, 2018.
47 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2015.
48 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2016 and 2015.
49 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2016 and 2015.
50 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Ohio, Table DS-34, Domestic Coal Distribution by Destination State, 2016.
51 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2016 and 2015.
52 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2012-17.
53 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2016, accessed April 3, 2018.
54 U.S. EIA, Ohio Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981-2017.
55 U.S. EIA, Ohio Crude Oil Proved Reserves, 1977-2016.
56 Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Shale Well Drilling and Permitting, Shale Development and Activity, accessed April 3, 2018.
57 Ohio Department of Natural Resources, "Ohio's Oil and Natural Gas Production Continues Upward Trend in Fourth Quarter," Press Release (March 9, 2016).
58 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2012-17, accessed April 3, 2018.
59 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Distillation Operable Capacity, as of January 1, 2017.
60 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, as of January 1, 2017.
61 Husky Energy, U.S. Refineries, Lima Refinery and Toledo Refinery, accessed April 3, 2018.
62 PBF Energy, Refineries, Toledo Ohio, accessed April 3, 2018.
63 Marathon Petroleum, Ohio Refining Division, accessed April 3, 2018.
64 World Port Source, Port of Toledo, Port Commerce, accessed April 3, 2018.
65 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2012-17.
66 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
67 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2015.
68 Larson, B. K., U. S. Gasoline Requirements, American Petroleum Institute, updated January 2018.
69 U.S. EIA, Ohio Profile Data, Environment, accessed April 4, 2018.
70 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
71 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Ohio, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
72 U.S. EIA, Ohio Electricity Profile 2016, Tables 2A, 2B.
73 U.S. EIA, Ohio Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
74 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
75 U.S. EIA, "Coal made up more than 80% of retired electricity generating capacity in 2015," Today in Energy (March 8, 2016).
76 U.S. EIA, Ohio Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2017.
77 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.7.B.
78 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, List of Power Reactor Units, accessed April 8, 2018.
79 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B.
80 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.5.B, 1.6.B, 1.8.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
81 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 5.4.B.
82 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Ohio, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
83 U.S. EIA, Ohio Electricity Profile 2016, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2016.
84 PJM Interconnection, Territory Served, accessed April 10, 2018.
85 Minkel, J. R., "The 2003 Northeast Blackout Five Years Later," Scientific American (August 13, 2008).
86 "Blackout by the numbers," CBC News Online (August 15, 2003, updated November 14, 2003).
87 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, "10 Years after the 2003 Northeast Blackout" (August 14, 2013).
88 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
89 U.S. EIA, Ohio Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
90 The Wind Power, Blue Creek (USA), updated November 2, 2017.
91 Power Technology, Blue Creek Wind Farm, Ohio, accessed April 11, 2018.
92 American Wind Energy Association, Ohio Wind Energy, accessed April 11, 2018.
93 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
94 U.S. EIA, Ohio Profile Overview, Map Layers, Wind Power Plants, accessed April 11, 2018.
95 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Ohio, accessed April 11, 2018.
96 American Wind Energy Association, Ohio Wind Energy, accessed April 11, 2018.
97 American Wind Energy Association, U.S. Wind Industry Fourth Quarter 2017 Market Report (January 25, 2018), p. 6, 11.
98 Lake Erie Energy Development Corporation, The Project: Icebreaker Wind, accessed April 11, 2018.
99 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
100 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.11.B, 1.15.B.
101 "U.S. Pellet Plants, Operational," Biomass Magazine, updated May 17, 2017.
102 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.17.B.
103 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
104 Nebraska Energy Office, Ethanol Facilities' Capacity by State, updated January 11, 2018.
105 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Platforms, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated January 24, 2018.
106 U.S. EIA, Ohio Profile Data, Environment, accessed April 11, 2018.
107 "U.S. Biodiesel Plants, Operational," Biodiesel Magazine, updated December 13, 2017.
108 NC Clean Technology Center, DSIRE, Ohio Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard, updated February 7, 2017.
109 NC Clean Technology Center, DSIRE, Ohio Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard, updated October 6, 2016.