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Colorado   Colorado Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)



Last Updated: January 17, 2019

Overview

Colorado has vast fossil fuel and renewable energy resources.

Colorado is richly endowed with both fossil fuel and renewable energy resources.1 Its diverse geography and geology include the headwaters of major rivers,2 winds that have created new wealth on the open plains,3,4 and substantial deposits of oil, natural gas, and coal.5,6,7 Home to the tallest peaks of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado has the highest average elevation of any state. Wide plains, already more than half a mile above sea level at the Kansas border,8 rise to meet the mountains running north-south down Colorado's center.9 The majority of Coloradans live where the plains and mountains meet in a region called the Front Range.10

Weather fronts can move in from the west across the mountains or from the east across the plains. Temperatures vary widely, depending on elevation, and have reached records of 114°F on the plains and 61°F below zero in the mountains.11 Nearly 9 in 10 Colorado residents live in the metropolitan areas,12 and much of the state's mountain areas and plains are sparsely populated.13 Colorado is a winter sports destination, and about 1 in 20 houses is occupied only seasonally.14

Colorado's economy is diverse. Major industries include finance; insurance; real estate; professional and business services; agriculture; and tourism.15 Renewable energy is also a key industry in the state.16 Colorado's per capita energy consumption is among the lowest one-third of all the states.17 In 2017, the industrial sector was Colorado's leading energy consumer, accounting for 29% of the state's total energy use, followed closely by the transportation sector at 28%, the residential sector at 23%, and the commercial sector at 20%.18

Petroleum

Colorado’s crude oil production has quadrupled since 2010.

Colorado accounts for almost 4% of U.S. total crude oil production19 and also holds about 4% of the nation's economically recoverable crude oil reserves.20 Colorado's crude oil production has quadrupled since 2010, partly from the increased use of directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies.21 Oil output declined somewhat in 2016 because of lower crude oil prices, but production rebounded and reached a record high in 2018 after oil prices rose.22,23,24 Substantial new production comes from the Niobrara Shale formation located in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeastern Colorado,25 where oil production in one county, Weld, is the source of almost 9 out of every 10 barrels of crude oil drilled in Colorado.26,27 The Wattenberg field, much of which is in Weld County,28 is the fourth-largest U.S. oil field based on proved reserves.29 The Piceance Basin in the western mountains is the other primary petroleum-producing area in Colorado.30,31

Northwestern Colorado overlays part of the Green River oil shale, a kerogen-rich formation that contains crude oil.32 Kerogen is an organic material, found in some sedimentary rocks, which can be heated to extract crude oil. Although pilot oil shale projects have been undertaken in the area, current technology for obtaining crude oil from kerogen has not proven economically viable.33,34

Colorado has one operating petroleum refinery, located at Commerce City near Denver. The refinery processes about 100,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day into motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and asphalt. Recent upgrades to the refinery enable it to meet clean fuel regulations and process more crude oil from Canada's tar sands.35,36 With oil production from the Niobrara Shale increasing, more pipelines are being built or repurposed to move Colorado crude oil to refineries out of state.37 Demand for refined petroleum products in Colorado is about two-and-a-half times more than the state's refining capacity.38,39 Several petroleum product pipelines, primarily from Wyoming, Texas, and Kansas, help supply the Colorado market, and products are also brought in by rail and truck.40,41,42

The transportation sector accounts for more than four-fifths of all petroleum consumed in Colorado, and most of the rest is used by the industrial sector.43 The Denver-Boulder and Fort Collins metropolitan areas use oxygenated motor gasoline to limit smog formation. The rest of the state is allowed to use conventional motor gasoline.44,45 Colorado has four ethanol plants with a combined capacity of about 130 million gallons per year that use mainly corn as their feedstocks.46,47,48 The state's smallest ethanol plant, located in Golden, uses a brewery's waste beer as its feedstock.49

Natural gas

Colorado has the sixth-largest natural gas reserves in the United States,50 and the state is among the top five natural gas-producing states in the nation.51 Colorado's marketed natural gas output has more than doubled since 2001.52 Eleven of the nation's 100 largest natural gas fields are located entirely or partially in Colorado.53

Colorado's largest natural gas-producing regions are in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in the northeast and in the Piceance Basin in the west.54 Recently, as natural gas prices have declined, some well drilling activity has moved from the Piceance, which produces mainly dry natural gas, to the Denver-Julesburg Basin, which also produces higher-value crude oil and natural gas liquids.55,56,57 The San Juan Basin that stretches across the Colorado-New Mexico border is also a major natural gas producing area, though output there has declined in recent years.58

Colorado holds more than one-fourth of total U.S. coalbed methane reserves.

Production of coalbed methane from coal seams grew rapidly in the 1990s and typically accounted for about one-third of Colorado's total marketed natural gas production. Recent lower natural gas prices have rendered some coalbed methane wells uneconomic, and production of coalbed methane fell to one-fifth of Colorado's total marketed natural gas in 2017.59,60,61 However, Colorado remains the top coalbed methane-producing state,62 and it has more than one-fourth of the U.S. economically recoverable coalbed methane reserves, more than any other state.63 Nearly all coalbed methane is produced in the San Juan and Raton Basins located in the southern part of the state.64

The residential sector is Colorado's largest consumer of natural gas, accounting for more than one-third of total state natural gas demand, followed by the electric power sector with about one-fourth.65 Seven out of 10 households in the state use natural gas as their primary home heating source.66 Consumption of natural gas for electricity generation has increased about 16% since 2001.67 The state uses only about one-fourth of the natural gas it produces.68,69

Colorado is crossed by major interstate pipelines that ship natural gas to nearly a dozen states from California to West Virginia.70,71 The state has two natural gas trading hubs at interstate pipeline interconnections.72 The larger Cheyenne hub is located in the Denver-Julesburg Basin,73 and the White River hub is located in the Piceance Basin.74,75 Colorado has a relatively small amount of underground storage capacity, equal to 1.5% of the U.S. total, even though the state's storage capacity has increased by one-third since 2010.76 Recently, more storage has opened, mainly around the Cheyenne hub, which helps accommodate seasonal fluctuations in natural gas demand.77

Coal

Colorado ranks seventh among the states in estimated recoverable coal reserves, which includes bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite.78,79 The state produces coal from both underground and surface mines. Mining is currently focused in the Green River, Piceance, and San Juan Basins.80 Colorado's coal is used almost entirely for electricity generation, but the market for the state's coal has decreased and several Colorado mines have closed. However, there has been some limited expansion at existing mines.81,82,83,84,85 In 2017, the state's annual coal production increased for the first time in six years, as foreign demand for U.S. coal rose, especially from Asian and European countries.86,87 Colorado coal producers exported about one-fifth of the state's mined coal to other countries.88 Half of the domestic consumption of Colorado's mined coal was for power generation within the state. Colorado coal is also burned for electric power generation or used at industrial plants in about 20 other states.89

Electricity

Colorado’s electricity generation from renewable energy sources has more than doubled since 2010.

Coal and natural gas are the primary fuels used to generate electricity in Colorado. In 2017, coal-fired power plants provided just over half of the state's net generation and natural gas provided almost one-fourth. Electricity from renewable sources has more than doubled since 2010 to nearly one-fourth of the state's net electricity generation in 2017, led by increased wind power.90 Colorado's power plant operators are replacing some older coal-fired capacity with electricity generation from natural gas and renewable energy sources91,92 and are pursuing additional options for variable pricing, large-scale storage, efficiency, and distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) generation from solar.93

Colorado does not have any nuclear power plants.94 The state does have some uranium deposits, but no uranium was mined in Colorado in 2017.95 A proposed uranium mill in western Colorado has been planned for the last decade. Colorado's Department of Health revoked the mill's radioactive materials license in April 2018, but the company funding the mill said it will still pursue the project.96,97

Colorado uses less electricity per capita than three-fourths of the states.98,99 The commercial sector is the largest consumer of electricity in Colorado, accounting for nearly two-fifths of the state's total power use, followed by the residential sector at one-third of total consumption and the industrial sector at about one-fourth.100 More than one in five Colorado households use electricity as the main home heating source.101 Typically, total electricity consumption slightly exceeds in-state generation.102 The state is connected by high-voltage transmission lines to receive power supplies from Wyoming, Nebraska, New Mexico, Utah, and Kansas.103

Renewable energy

Colorado requires that 30% of the electricity sold in the state be generated by renewables by 2020.

Colorado was an early leader in developing renewable energy resources.104 In 2004, Colorado became the first state with a voter-approved renewable portfolio standard (RPS). The legislature has increased the requirements several times, and the RPS now requires 30% of electricity sold by investor-owned utilities to come from renewable energy sources by 2020, with 3% from small-scale distributed generation. Separate requirements apply to municipal and cooperative electricity suppliers depending on their size.105,106 In 2017, the state's largest utility joined with other groups to file an energy plan with Colorado's Public Utilities Commission that would add 1,000 megawatts of wind power and 700 megawatts of solar power generating capacity in the state.107

Colorado has significant wind resources on its eastern plains and mountain crests, and the state has substantial solar resources, especially in the south near the New Mexico border.108,109 In 2017, wind power accounted for 75% of Colorado's renewable electricity generation, followed by hydroelectric facilities at 15%, utility-scale solar at 8%, and biomass at less than 2%.110 In 2017, Colorado had nearly 2,000 wind turbines with a total generating capacity of just over 3,100 megawatts, making Colorado ninth nationwide in installed wind power capacity and 8th in actual wind power generation. Another 25 wind projects with 600 megawatts of generating capacity are under construction.111,112

The federal government has identified four Colorado areas that are well suited for utility-scale solar development, and will simplify the permit process for future solar projects in those zones.113 In 2017, Colorado was ranked 20th among the states in installed solar capacity with nearly 1,100 megawatts114 and 10th in the nation in actual solar electricity generation. The share of the state's solar power from utility-scale generating facilities is almost double the solar generation from its small-scale residential and commercial distributed facilities.115 Colorado offers rebates to encourage homeowners and businesses to install solar panels, including solar gardens, which are collections of solar panels shared by several homes.116 Planning is under way for transmission line expansions to bring utility-scale renewable electricity both to Colorado population centers and to cities in other western states.117

There are about 60 small hydroelectric generators in Colorado's mountainous western region.118,119 The state provides grants and other financial assistance to develop small-scale hydropower projects that have minimal environmental impact, including turbines in irrigation ditches.120 Colorado negotiated a pioneering agreement with the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to speed the permitting process for low-impact hydropower facilities.121

Colorado's first commercial-scale woody biomass plant, which burns waste gathered from surrounding forests, consumes trees culled as part of efforts to fight pine beetle infestation.122,123 The state also provides tax breaks to promote other types of biomass generation, such an anaerobic digestion, which burns the gas produced from livestock manure or food waste to generate electricity.124 Colorado has two wood pellet manufacturing plants. One plant was idled from a fire in the summer of 2017 and the other plant can produce 50,000 tons of wood pellets a year.125,126

Colorado has a number of hot springs, and studies indicate that the state has significant geothermal potential.127 Some federal lands have been leased for geothermal projects in Colorado.128 The state's geothermal resources are mainly used for heating or cooling homes, businesses, recreational pools, and Colorado's state capitol building in Denver, but there are no utility-scale projects that generate electricity with geothermal energy.129,130,131

Endnotes

1 Colorado Energy Office, Energy in Colorado, accessed December 17, 2018.
2 NETSTATE, Colorado, Geography of Colorado, updated February 25, 2016.
3 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Colorado, accessed December 17, 2018.
4 E2 Environmental Entrepreneurs, Winds of Change, p. 1, accessed December 17, 2018.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production as of Dec. 31, 2012—17.
6 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, 2012-17.
7 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2017 (November 2, 2018), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2017.
8 NETSTATE, Colorado, Geography of Colorado, updated February 25, 2016.
9 Doesken, Nolan, "Colorado-Rocky Mountain High," Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed December 17, 2018.
10 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Colorado Profile, accessed December 17, 2018.
11 Doesken, Nolan, "Colorado-Rocky Mountain High," Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed December 17, 2018.
12 U.S. Census Bureau, Colorado: 2010, Population and Housing Unit Counts, CPH-2-7 (August 2012), p. 27, Table 1, Population: Earliest Census to 2010; and Housing Units: 1950 to 2010.
13 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Colorado Profile, accessed December 17, 2018.
14 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Colorado, Tables B25002 and B25004, 2013-2017 American Community Survey 5-year estimates.
15 U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Colorado (updated November 14, 2018).
16 Colorado Office of Economic Development & International Trade, Energy & Natural Resources, accessed December 20, 2018.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
19 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2012-2017.
20 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2012-17.
21 U.S. EIA, Colorado, Colorado Field Crude Oil Production, Thousand Barrels per Day, 1981-2016 Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 1981-2017.
22 Garcia, Adrian D., "What the Hell Is Going On With Colorado's Oil and Gas Industry?" Denverite (September 20, 2016).
23 U.S. EIA, Colorado, Colorado Field Crude Oil Production, Thousand Barrels per Day, 1981-2016 Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 1981-2017.
24 Worthington, Danika, "Oil Hits Two-Year High, Which Bodes Well for Colorado Producers—in the Short-Term," The Denver Post (November 9, 2017).
25 U.S. EIA, Drilling Productivity Report, Niobrara Region, December 2018.
26 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, COGCC Reports Portal, Monthly Oil Produced by County, 2018, accessed December 17, 2018.
27 Colorado Counties Map, accessed December 17, 2018.
28 "Information on the Niobrara-DJ Basin," Natural Gas Intelligence Shale Daily, accessed December 17, 2018.
29 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 5.
30 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, COGCC Reports Portal, Monthly Oil Produced by County, 2018.
31 Spencer, Charles, Uinta-Piceance Basin Province (020), U.S. Geological Survey, p. 2, accessed December 17, 2018.
32 U.S. Government Accountability Office, Unconventional Oil and Gas Production: Opportunities and Challenges of Oil Shale Development, GAO-12-740T (May 10, 2012).
33 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, "BLM Issues Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Oil Shale and Tar Sands," Press Release (February 3, 2012).
34 U.S. Government Accountability Office, Opportunities and Challenges of Oil Shale Development, GAO-12-740T (May 10, 2012), p. 3-4.
35 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2018, Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2018 (June 25, 2018).
36 Suncor Energy Inc., Refining, accessed December 19, 2018.
37 Bishop, Danny, "The Long and Winding Road: Weld County's Oil Travels the Distance to Local, Worldwide Markets," The Tribune (August 13, 2017).
38 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2016.
39 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2018, Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2018 (June 25, 2018).
40 U.S. Department of Energy, Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, State of Colorado, Energy Sector Risk Profile, Petroleum, p. 4-5, accessed December 19, 2018.
41 Magellan Midstream Partners LP, Asset Map, see Refined Products Assets, Product Availability Refined Pipeline, accessed December 19, 2018.
42 Sinclair Oil Corp., What We Do, Transportation, accessed December 19, 2018.
43 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2016.
44 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, see Gasoline Programs: Reformulated Gasoline, Reid Vapor Pressure, and Winter Oxygenates, accessed December 19, 2018.
45 American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
46 Nebraska Government, Ethanol Facilities, Capacity by State and Plant, Million Gallons per Year as of June 2018.
47 Ethanol Producers Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Plants, updated September 6, 2018.
48 U.S. EIA, U.S. Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (July 30, 2018), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD District) are available in XLS.
49 Merrick & Company, MillerCoors Ethanol Recovery Facility: Biomass Conversion to Ethanol, accessed December 19, 2018.
50 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, 2012-17.
51 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2012-17.
52 U.S. EIA, Colorado Natural Gas Marketed Production, 1967-2017.
53 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 8-10.
54 Colorado Geological Survey, Natural Gas, Map, accessed December 19, 2018.
55 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, Data, Production by County, Monthly Coalbed & Natural Gas Sold by County, 2011-18, accessed December 19, 2018.
56 Svaldi, Aldo, "Weld County Bumps Garfield County as Top Colorado Gas Source," The Denver Post (June 13, 2016).
57 Markus, Ben, "Western Colorado Natural Gas Drilling May Never Boom Again," The Denver Post (November 4, 2017).
58 Natural Gas Intelligence, Shale Daily, Information on the San Juan Basin, accessed December 19, 2018.
59 U.S. EIA, Colorado Coalbed Methane Production, 1989-2017.
60 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2012-17.
61 Slav, Irina, "Natural Gas Producers in Colorado Have a Problem," OilPrice.com (September 20, 2016).
62 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2012-17.
63 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves Year-end 2017 (November 29, 2018), Table 16, Coalbed methane proved reserves, reserve changes, and production, 2017.
64 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, Data, Production by County, Monthly Coalbed Methane Produced by County, 2018.
65 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Colorado, Annual, 2012-17.
66 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, American Community Survey, Colorado, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2013-17 American Community Survey 5-year estimates.
67 U.S. EIA, Colorado Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2017.
68 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2012-17.
69 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Colorado, Annual, 2012-17.
70 U.S. EIA, International & Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Colorado, 2012-17.
71 Pipeline 101, Natural Gas Pipelines Map, accessed December 19, 2018.
72 A Barrel Full, Operational Natural Gas Market Centers Located in the United States, accessed December 19, 2018.
73 Natural Gas Intelligence, Cheyenne Hub, accessed December 19, 2018.
74 Questar, White River Hub: A new natural gas pipeline hub in the Rockies, accessed December 19, 2018.
75 Natural Gas Intelligence, White River Hub, accessed December 19, 2018.
76 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2012-17.
77 "Storing Gas for When It's Needed - Midstream Energy's NE Colorado Facility Services Utilities, Producers," Midstream Energy Holdings (May 2016).
78 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2017 (November 2, 2018), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2017.
79 National Mining Association, Coal-Bearing Areas of the United States, accessed December 19, 2018.
80 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2017 (November 2, 2018), Table 2, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2017.
81 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2017 (November 2, 2018), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2017 and 2016.
82 Finley, Bruce, "Colorado Coal Jobs Drop to Fewer Than 1,000 as Tri-State New Horizon Mine Shuts," The Denver Post (June 8, 2017).
83 Finley, Bruce, "Collapse of Colorado Coal Industry Leaves Mining Towns Unsure What's Next," The Denver Post (May 14, 2016).
84 "Feds Approve Expansion of West Elk Mine in Western Colorado Against Environmental Group Objections," The Grand Junction Daily Sentinel (September 8, 2017)
85 Hasenbeck, Eleanor, "BLM seeks public comment on Twentymile Mine expansion," Steamboat Pilot & Today (November 21, 2018).
86 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), Colorado, 2001-17.
87 U.S. EIA, "U.S. coal production, exports, and prices increased in 2017," Today in Energy (February 16, 2018).
88 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2017 (November 5, 2018), Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, 2017.
89 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2017 (November 5, 2018), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination, and method of transportation, Colorado, Table OS-5. Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2017.
90 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Colorado, Annual, 2001-17.
91 Svaldi, Aldo, "Coal's dominance as a power source fading in Colorado," The Denver Post (August 22, 2018).
92 U.S. EIA, "Over Past Decade, Mountain Region States Have Used Less Coal for Electricity Generation," Today in Energy (October 19, 2016).
93 Proctor, Cathy, "Xcel Lays Out Sweeping Plan for Colorado's Energy Future," Denver Business Journal (January 25, 2016).
94 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Map of Power Reactor Sites, updated May 10, 2018.
95 U.S. EIA, Domestic Uranium Production Report - Annual (May 22, 2018), Tables 4, 5.
96 Mimiaga, Jim, "Colorado denies license for Paradox uranium mill," The Durango Herald (April 28, 2018).
97 U.S. EIA, Domestic Uranium Production Report - Annual (May 22, 2018), Facility status (mills, heap leach plants, and in-situ leach plants).
98 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Tables: PEPANNRES, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017.
99 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 5.4.B.
100 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, U.S. States, Table F21, Electricity Consumption Estimates 2016.
101 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, American Community Survey, Colorado, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2013-17 American Community Survey 5-year estimates.
102 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Colorado Electricity Profile 2016, Table 10, Supply and Disposition of Electricity 1990-2016.
103 U.S. Department of Energy, Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, State of Colorado, Energy Sector Risk Profile, p. 2, accessed December 20, 2018.
104 Clean Edge, An In-Depth Look at Colorado's Clean Energy Technology Sector (2015).
105 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Renewable Portfolio Standard, Colorado, updated June 14, 2018.
106 Colorado Energy Office, Renewable Energy Standard, accessed December 20, 2018.
107 "Colorado Energy Plan Calls for 2,400 MW of New Generation," Power Engineering (August 30, 2017).
108 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Colorado, accessed December 20, 2018.
109 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Solar Maps, U.S. State Solar Resource Maps, updated April 4, 2017.
110 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Colorado, Annual, 2001-17.
111 American Wind Energy Association, State Wind Facts, Colorado Wind Energy, accessed December 20, 2018.
112 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.14.B.
113 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Solar Energy Program, Colorado, accessed December 20, 2018.
114 Solar Energy Industries Association, Colorado Solar, accessed December 20, 2018.
115 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.17.B.
116 Colorado Energy Office, Energy in Colorado, Solar, accessed December 20, 2018.
117 West-Wide Energy Corridor Information Center, accessed December 20, 2018.
118 Colorado Small Hydro Association, About Colorado Hydropower, accessed December 20, 2018.
119 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017, Table 3_1_Y2017 (September 13, 2018), Operable Units Only, Conventional Hydroelectric.
120 Colorado Energy Office, Energy in Colorado, Small Hydropower Programs and Initiatives, accessed December 20, 2018.
121 "FERC Approves First Hydroelectric Project in Colorado under Small Hydro Agreement," U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Press Release (September 14, 2011).
122 Mack, Pat, "Colorado's First Biomass Plant Begins Delivering Electricity," Colorado Public Radio (December 16, 2013).
123 Colorado Energy Office, Waste-to-Energy, Woody Biomass, accessed December 20, 2018.
124 Colorado Energy Office, Energy in Colorado, Waste to Energy, Anaerobic Digestion, accessed December 20, 2018.
125 "Wood Pellet Plant Goes Up In Flames," CBS4 (June 17, 2017).
126 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (December 18, 2018), Manufacturing facilities with capacity and status, September 2018.
127 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, "Colorado Takes Steps to Expand Geothermal Development" (June 3, 2014).
128 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, BLM Fact Sheet, Renewable Energy: Geothermal, updated March 2018.
129 Colorado Energy Office, Geothermal, accessed December 20, 2018.
130 Colorado State Capitol, Projects, Geothermal, accessed December 20, 2018.
131 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.16.B.