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Colorado   Colorado Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)



Last Updated: December 21, 2017

Overview

Colorado has vast fossil fuel and renewable energy resources.

Colorado is richly endowed with both conventional fossil fuel and renewable energy resources.1 Its diverse geography and geology include the headwaters of major rivers,2 winds that have created new wealth on the open plains,3,4 and substantial deposits of oil, natural gas, and coal.5,6,7 Home to the tallest peaks of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado has the highest average elevation of any state. Wide plains, already more than half a mile above sea level at the Kansas border,8 rise to meet the mountains running north-south down Colorado’s center.9 The majority of Coloradans live where the plains and mountains meet in a region called the Front Range.10

Weather fronts can move in from the west across the mountains or from the east across the plains. Temperatures vary widely depending on elevation and have reached records of 114°F on the plains and 61°F below zero in the mountains.11 With its large Front Range cities like Denver, the state is second only to Arizona among the Rocky Mountain states in both total population and number of people per square mile.12 Nearly 9 in 10 residents live in the metropolitan areas,13 and much of Colorado's mountain areas and plains are sparsely populated.14 Colorado is a winter sports destination, and about 1 in 20 houses is occupied only seasonally.15

Colorado's economy is highly diversified. Major industries include finance, insurance, real estate, professional and business services, agriculture, and tourism.16 Colorado’s per capita energy consumption is below the national average.17 Transportation is the state’s leading energy-consuming sector, followed by the industrial sector.18

Petroleum

Substantial crude oil production comes from the Niobrara Shale in northeastern Colorado.

Colorado accounts for almost 4% of U.S. total crude oil production19 and also holds about 4% of the nation’s proved crude oil reserves.20 Colorado's crude oil production has more than tripled since 2010, partly from the increased use of directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies.21 Oil output declined somewhat in 2016 because of lower crude oil prices, but production rebounded in 2017 and monthly output reached a record high as oil prices increased.22,23,24,25 Substantial new production is coming from the Niobrara Shale formation located in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeastern Colorado,26 where oil production in one county, Weld, is the source of 9 out of every 10 barrels of crude oil produced in Colorado.27,28 The Wattenberg field, much of which is in Weld County,29 is the fourth largest U.S. oil field based on proved reserves.30 The Piceance Basin in the western mountains is the other primary petroleum-producing area in Colorado.31,32

Northwestern Colorado overlays part of the Green River oil shale, a kerogen-rich formation that, by some estimates, could be the world's largest crude oil resource.33 Kerogen is an organic material, found in sedimentary rock, which can be heated to extract crude oil. Although pilot oil- shale projects have been undertaken in the area, current technology for obtaining crude oil from kerogen has not proven economically viable.34

Colorado has two operating petroleum refineries, both in Commerce City near Denver. The refineries are owned and operated as a single complex.35 They produce about 100,000 barrels per day of motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and asphalt. Recent upgrades to the refineries enable them to meet clean fuel regulations and process more crude oil from Canada's tar sands.36 With oil production from the Niobrara Shale increasing, more pipelines are being built or repurposed to move Colorado crude oil to refineries out of state.37 Demand for refined petroleum products in Colorado is about two-and-a-half times more than the state’s refining capacity.38,39 Several petroleum product pipelines, primarily from Wyoming, Texas, and Kansas, help supply the Colorado market, and products are also brought in by rail and truck.40,41,42

The transportation sector accounts for more than four-fifths of all petroleum consumed in Colorado, and much of the rest is used by the industrial sector.43 The Denver-Boulder and Ft. Collins metropolitan areas use oxygenated motor gasoline to limit smog formation. The rest of the state is allowed to use conventional motor gasoline.44,45 In 1988, Denver became the first U.S. city to require the use of cleaner-burning motor fuel during the winter, when motor gasoline was blended with ethanol.46 Colorado has four small ethanol plants that use mainly corn as their feedstocks.47,48 The state’s smallest ethanol plant, located in Golden, uses a brewery’s waste beer as its feedstock.49

Natural gas

Colorado has the sixth largest natural gas reserves in the United States,50 and it is among the top five major natural gas-producing states in the nation.51 Colorado’s natural gas output has more than doubled since 2001.52 Eleven of the nation's 100 largest natural gas fields are located entirely or partially in Colorado.53 Colorado's largest natural gas-producing regions are in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in the northeast and in the Piceance Basin in the west.54 Recently, as natural gas prices have declined, some well drilling activity has moved from the Piceance, which produces mainly dry natural gas, to the Denver-Julesburg Basin, which also produces higher-value crude oil and natural gas liquids.55,56,57 The San Juan Basin that stretches across the Colorado-New Mexico border is also a major natural gas producing area, though output has declined in recent years.58

Colorado holds more than one-third of U.S. total coalbed methane reserves.

Production of coalbed methane from coal seams grew rapidly in the 1990s59 and typically accounted for about one-third of Colorado’s total natural gas production. Recent lower natural gas prices have rendered some coalbed methane wells uneconomic, and production of coalbed methane fell to almost one-fifth of Colorado’s total gross withdrawals of natural gas in 2016.60,61 New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming are the leading coalbed methane producers in the United States,62 and Colorado has more than one-third of U.S. proved coalbed methane reserves, more than any other state.63 Nearly all coalbed methane is produced in the San Juan and Raton Basins located in the southern part of the state.64

The residential sector is Colorado’s largest consumer of natural gas, followed by the electric power sector.65 Seven out of 10 households in the state use natural gas as their primary home heating source.66 Consumption of natural gas for electricity generation has increased about 10% since 2001,67 and electric power is Colorado's second-largest natural gas-consuming sector.68 However, the state uses only about one-fourth of the natural gas it produces.69

Colorado has two natural gas trading hubs, Cheyenne in the northeast and White River in the west.

Colorado is crossed by major interstate pipelines that ship natural gas to a dozen states from California to West Virginia.70,71 The state has two natural gas trading hubs at interstate pipeline interconnections.72 The larger Cheyenne hub is located in the Denver-Julesburg Basin,73 and the White River hub is located in the Piceance Basin.74,75 Colorado has a relatively small amount of underground storage capacity, even though it has increased about 25% since 2010.76 Recently, more storage has opened, mainly around the Cheyenne hub, to accommodate seasonal fluctuations in natural gas demand.77

Coal

Colorado ranks 10th among the states in estimated recoverable coal reserves, including bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals,78,79 and the state produces coal from both underground and surface mines. Mining is currently focused in the Green River, Piceance, and San Juan Basins.80 Colorado’s coal is used almost entirely for electricity generation, but the market for the state’s coal has decreased as several Colorado mines have closed. However, there has been some limited expansion at existing mines.81,82,83,84, Typically, half of Colorado coal mined for domestic consumption is used for power generation in the state; Colorado coal is also burned for electric power generation in nearly a dozen other states.85,86 More than half of the coal consumed by electricity generators in Colorado is transported by rail from Wyoming.87,88 Colorado producers export the state's low-sulfur, high-heat-value bituminous coal to steel manufacturers overseas,89 but exports have recently decreased due to increased international competition.90,91

Electricity

Coal and natural gas are the primary fuels used to generate electricity in Colorado. Coal-fired power plants provide just over half of the state’s net generation, and natural gas provides almost one-fourth. Electricity from renewable sources has more than doubled since 2010 to around one-fifth of the state’s net electricity generation in 2016, led by increased wind power.92,93 Colorado’s largest utility is replacing some older coal-fired capacity with electricity generation from natural gas and renewable sources94 and is pursuing additional options for variable pricing, large-scale storage, efficiency, and distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) energy.95

Colorado does not have any nuclear power plants.96 The state does have some uranium deposits, but no uranium was mined in Colorado in 2016.97,98 Projects for both mining and processing uranium ore are in development in the state.99 A proposed uranium mill in western Colorado is permitted and licensed, but the project has not been developed.100,101

Colorado uses less electricity per capita than three-fourths of the states.102,103 The commercial sector is the largest consumer of electricity in the state, followed by the residential sector and the industrial sector.104 One in five Colorado households uses electricity as the main home heating source.105 Typically, total electricity consumption slightly exceeds in-state generation,106,107 and the state is connected by high-voltage transmission lines to Wyoming, Nebraska, New Mexico, Utah, and Kansas.108

Renewable energy

Renewable energy is considered a key industry in Colorado.109 In 2004, Colorado became the first state with a voter-approved renewable portfolio standard (RPS). The legislature has increased the requirements several times, and the RPS now requires 30% of electricity sold by investor-owned utilities to come from renewable energy sources by 2020, with 3% from distributed generation. Separate requirements apply to municipal and cooperative electricity suppliers depending on their size.110,111 The RPS and other state support for the efficiency and renewable energy industries have attracted private investment and have made Colorado a renewable energy industry leader.112 In 2017, the state’s largest utility joined with other groups to file an energy plan with Colorado’s Public Utilities Commission that would add 1,000 megawatts of wind power and 700 megawatts of solar power generating capacity in the state.113

Colorado was the first state with a voter-approved renewable portfolio standard.

Colorado has significant wind resources on its eastern plains and mountain crests, and the state has substantial solar resources, especially in the south near the New Mexico border.114,115 In 2016, wind turbines accounted for about three-fourths of all renewable electricity generation, followed by hydroelectric facilities that contributed almost one-fifth.116 In 2016, Colorado had about 1,900 wind turbines with a total capacity of just over 3,000 megawatts, making Colorado 10th nationwide in wind power generating capacity.117

The federal government has identified four Colorado areas that are potentially suitable for utility-scale solar development.118 In 2016, Colorado was ranked 10th among the states in installed solar capacity119 and 11th in the nation in solar electricity generation. The share of the state’s solar power from utility-scale generating facilities is slightly larger than the solar generation from its small-scale residential and commercial distributed facilities.120 Colorado offers rebates to encourage homeowners and businesses to install solar panels, including solar gardens—collections of panels shared by several homes.121 State electric utilities are also investing in larger- scale solar projects.122 Planning is under way for transmission-line expansions to bring utility-scale renewable electricity both to Colorado population centers and to cities in other western states.123,124 Small-scale applications of renewable technologies such as wind power, solar energy, and methane recovery are used in several industries, including breweries.125,126

There are about 60 small hydroelectric generators in Colorado’s mountainous western region.127,128 The state encourages development of small-scale hydropower projects that have minimal environmental impact, including turbines on irrigation lines.129 Colorado negotiated a pioneering agreement with the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to speed the permitting process for low-impact hydropower facilities.130 Colorado's first commercial-scale woody biomass plant, which burns waste gathered from surrounding forests, consumes trees culled as part of efforts to fight pine beetle infestations.131,132 Other biomass projects are in development.133,134 Colorado has a number of hot springs, and studies indicate that the state has significant geothermal potential.135 Some federal lands have been leased for geothermal projects in Colorado.136,137 The state’s geothermal resources are mainly used for heating or cooling homes, businesses, and even Colorado’s state capitol building in Denver, but there are no utility-scale projects that generate electricity with geothermal energy.138,139

Endnotes

1 Colorado Energy Office, Energy in Colorado, accessed November 17, 2017.
2 NETSTATE, Colorado, Geography of Colorado, updated February 25, 2016.
3 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Colorado, accessed November 17, 2017.
4 E2 Environmental Entrepreneurs, Winds of Change, p. 1, accessed on November 17, 2017.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production as of Dec. 31, 2010—2015.
6 U.S. EIA , Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, 2010–2015.
7 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 15, 2017), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2016.
8 NETSTATE, Colorado, Geography of Colorado, updated February 25, 2016.
9 Doesken, Nolan, “Colorado–Rocky Mountain High,” Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed November 17, 2017.
10 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Colorado Profile, accessed November 17, 2017.
11 Doesken, Nolan, “Colorado–Rocky Mountain High,” Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed November 17, 2017.
12 U.S. Census Bureau, Resident Population Data, Population Density, 1910–2010.
13 U.S. Census Bureau, Colorado: 2010, Population and Housing Unit Counts, CPH-2-7 (August 2012), p. 27, Table 1, Population: Earliest Census to 2010; and Housing Units: 1950 to 2010.
14 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Colorado Profile, accessed November 17, 2017.
15 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Colorado, Tables B25002 and B25004, 2016 American Community Survey 1-year estimates.
16 U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Colorado (updated September 26, 2017).
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
19 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2011–2016.
20 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2010–15.
21 U.S. EIA, Colorado, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 1981–2016.
22 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, COGCC Reports Portal, Monthly Oil Produced by County, 2012–2017, accessed November 20, 2017.
23 Garcia, Adrian D., “What the Hell Is Going On With Colorado’s Oil and Gas Industry?” Denverite (September 20, 2016).
24 U.S. EIA, Colorado, Crude Oil Production, Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day, 1981–2017.
25 Worthington, Danika, “Oil Hits Two-Year High, Which Bodes Well for Colorado Producers—in the Short-Term,” The Denver Post (November 9, 2017).
26 U.S. EIA, Drilling Productivity Report, Niobrara Region, November 2017.
27 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, COGCC Reports Portal, Monthly Oil Produced by County, 2016 and 2017, accessed November 20, 2017.
28 Colorado Counties Map, accessed November 20, 2017.
29 “Information on the Niobrara-DJ Basin,” Natural Gas Intelligence Shale Daily, accessed November 20, 2017.
30 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 5.
31 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, COGCC Reports Portal, Monthly Oil Produced by County, 2010–2016, accessed November 20, 2017.
32 Spencer, Charles, Uinta-Piceance Basin Province (020), U.S. Geological Survey, p. 2, accessed November 20, 2017.
33 U.S. Government Accountability Office, Unconventional Oil and Gas Production: Opportunities and Challenges of Oil Shale Development, GAO-12-740T (May 10, 2012).
34 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, “BLM Issues Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Oil Shale and Tar Sands,” Press Release (February 3, 2012).
35 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2017, Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2017, p. 4.
36 Suncor Energy Inc., Refining, accessed November 20, 2017.
37 Bishop, Danny, “The Long and Winding Road: Weld County’s Oil Travels the Distance to Local, Worldwide Markets,” The Tribune (August 13, 2017).
38 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, U.S. States, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
39 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2017, Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2017, p. 4.
40 U.S. Department of Energy, Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, State of Colorado, Energy Sector Risk Profile, Petroleum, p. 4–5, accessed November 20, 2017.
41 Magellan Midstream Partners LP, Asset Map, see Refined Products Assets, Product Availability Refined Pipeline, accessed November 20, 2017.
42 Sinclair Oil Corp., What We Do, Transportation, accessed November 20, 2017.
43 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
44 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, see Gasoline Programs: Reformulated Gasoline, Reid Vapor Pressure, and Winter Oxygenates, accessed November 20, 2017.
45 Gardner, K.W., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (June 2015).
46 Porter, Steve, “Ethanol’s Long History Leads to Brighter Future,” BizWest (March 2, 2007).
47 Nebraska Government, Ethanol Facilities, Capacity by State and Plant, Million Gallons per Year as of June 2017.
48 Ethanol Producers Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, Sugar/Starch Plants, Operational, updated September 23, 2017.
49 Merrick & Company, MillerCoors Ethanol Plant, accessed November 20, 2017.
50 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, 2010–15.
51 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2011–16.
52 U.S. EIA, Colorado Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967–2016.
53 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015).
54 Colorado Geological Survey, Natural Gas, Map, accessed November 20, 2017.
55 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, Data, Production by County, Monthly Coalbed & Natural Gas Sold by County, 2011–2016, accessed November 20, 2017.
56 Svaldi, Aldo, “Weld County Bumps Garfield County as Top Colorado Gas Source,” The Denver Post (June 13, 2016).
57 Markus, Ben, “Western Colorado Natural Gas Drilling May Never Boom Again,” The Denver Post (November 4, 2017).
58 Natural Gas Intelligence, Shale Daily, Information on the San Juan Basin, accessed November 20, 2017.
59 U.S. EIA, Colorado Coalbed Methane Production, 1989–2015.
60 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2011–16, and Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2011–16.
61 Slav, Irina, “Natural Gas Producers in Colorado Have a Problem,” OilPrice.com (September 20, 2016).
62 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2011–16.
63 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves 2015 (December 14, 2016), Table 16, Coalbed methane proved reserves, reserve changes, and production, 2015.
64 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, Data, Production by County, Monthly Coalbed Methane Produced by County, 2011–2017, accessed November 20, 2017. 65 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Colorado, Annual, 2011–16.
66 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, American Community Survey, Colorado, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2016 American Community Survey 1-year estimates.
67 U.S. EIA, Colorado Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997–2016, accessed November 20, 2017.
68 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Colorado, Annual, 2011–16.
69 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2011–16.
70 U.S. EIA, International & Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Colorado, 2011–16.
71 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network (2009).
72 A Barrel Full, Operational Natural Gas Market Centers Located in the United States, accessed November 21, 2017.
73 Natural Gas Intelligence, Cheyenne Hub, accessed November 21, 2017.
74 Questar, White River Hub: A new natural gas pipeline hub in the Rockies, accessed November 21, 2017.
75 Natural Gas Intelligence, White River Hub, accessed November 21, 2017.
76 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2011–16.
77 ”Storing Gas for When It’s Needed – Midstream Energy’s NE Colorado Facility Services Utilities, Producers,” Midstream Energy Holdings (May 2016).
78 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 15, 2017), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2016.
79 National Mining Association, Coal-Bearing Areas of the United States, accessed November 21, 2017.
80 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 15, 2017), Table 2, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2016.
81 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 15, 2017), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2016 and 2015.
82 Finley, Bruce, “Colorado Coal Jobs Drop to Fewer Than 1,000 as Tri-State New Horizon Mine Shuts,” The Denver Post (June 8, 2017).
83 Finley, Bruce, “Collapse of Colorado Coal Industry Leaves Mining Towns Unsure What’s Next,” The Denver Post (May 14, 2016).
84 “Feds Approve Expansion of West Elk Mine in Western Colorado Against Environmental Group Objections,” The Grand Junction Daily Sentinel (September 8, 2017)
85 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 21, 2017), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination, and method of transportation, Colorado, 2016.
86 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report, Archive, Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer destination, and method of transportation, Colorado, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012.
87 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 21, 2017), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination, and method of transportation, Colorado, 2016.
88 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report, Archive, Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination, and method of transportation, Colorado, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012.
89 Buchsbaum, Lee, “High Quality Western Bituminous & Metallurgical Coal Keeps Finding Homes Overseas,” Coal Age (September 30, 2011).
90 Rowland, Jonathan, “The Steelmaker’s Headache,” World Coal (March 18, 2016).
91 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 21, 2017), Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State.
92 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
93 U.S. EIA, “Over Past Decade, Mountain Region States Have Used Less Coal for Electricity Generation,” Today in Energy (October 19, 2016).
94 Svaldi, Aldo, “Coal’s Future as a Power Source in Colorado Flickering,” The Denver Post (September 4, 2017).
95 Proctor, Cathy, “Xcel Lays Out Sweeping Plan for Colorado’s Energy Future,” Denver Business Journal (January 25, 2016).
96 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Map of Power Reactor Sites, updated April 21, 2017.
97 World Nuclear Association, U.S. Uranium Mining and Exploration, updated November 2017.
98 U.S. EIA, Domestic Uranium Production Report - Annual (May 24, 2017), Tables 4, 5.
99 World Nuclear Association, U.S. Uranium Mining and Exploration, updated November 2017.
100 Energy Fuels, “Energy Fuels Announces Closing of Sale of Piñon Ridge License and Related Assets,” Press Release (November 7, 2014).
101 Blevins, Jason, “Colorado Divide: Is Hemp the Answer for a Rural County Hoping to Rely Less on Mining?” The Denver Post (October 27, 2017).
102 U.S. Census Bureau, Quick Facts, Colorado, Population Estimates, July 1, 2016.
103 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.4.B.
104 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, U.S. States, Table F21, Electricity Consumption Estimates 2015.
105 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, American Community Survey, Colorado, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2016 American Community Survey 1-year estimates.
106 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 5.4.B.
107 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Colorado Electricity Profile 2015, Table 10, Supply and Disposition of Electricity 1990–2015.
108 U.S. Department of Energy, Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, State of Colorado, Energy Sector Risk Profile, p. 2, accessed November 24, 2017.
109 Colorado Office of Economic Development & International Trade, Energy & Natural Resources, accessed November 24, 2017.
110 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Renewable Energy Standard, Colorado, updated August 5, 2015.
111 Colorado Energy Office, Renewable Energy Standard, accessed November 24, 2017.
112 Clean Edge, An In-Depth Look at Colorado’s Clean Energy Technology Sector (2015).
113 “Colorado Energy Plan Calls for 2,400 MW of New Generation,” Power Engineering (August 30, 2017).
114 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Colorado 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed November 24, 2017.
115 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Solar Maps, U.S. State Solar Resource Maps, updated April 4, 2017.
116 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
117 American Wind Energy Association, State Wind Facts, Colorado Wind Energy, accessed November 24, 2017.
118 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Solar Energy Program, Colorado, accessed November 24, 2017.
119 Solar Energy Industries Association, Colorado Solar, accessed November 24, 2017.
120 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.17.B.
121 Colorado Energy Office, Energy in Colorado, Solar, accessed November 27, 2017.
122 Proctor, Cathy, “Colorado Gives Green Light to Xcel’s Plan to Add a Lot More Solar Power,” Denver Business Journal (November 9, 2016).
123 U.S. Department of Energy, Status Report: U.S. Department of Energy Implementation of Interconnection-Level Transmission Analysis and Planning (January 2011), slides 11–13.
124 West-Wide Energy Corridor Information Center, accessed November 27, 2017.
125 Krantz, Laura, “Colorado Voters Get Revved Up Over Energy Policy,” NPR (October 3, 2012).
126 Solar Energy Industries Association, Colorado Solar, accessed November 27, 2017.
127 Colorado Small Hydro Association, About Colorado Hydropower, accessed November 27, 2017.
128 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990–2015, Existing Nameplate and Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source, Producer Type, and State (EIA-860). 129 Colorado Energy Office, Energy in Colorado, Hydropower, accessed November 27, 2017.
130 “FERC Approves First Hydroelectric Project in Colorado under Small Hydro Agreement,” U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Press Release (September 14, 2011).
131 Mack, Pat, “Colorado's First Biomass Plant Begins Delivering Electricity,” Colorado Public Radio (December 16, 2013).
132 Colorado Energy Office, Waste-to-Energy, Woody Biomass, accessed November 27, 2017.
133 Best, Allen, “Can Biomass Plants in Colorado Deliver Benefits Without Being a Nuisance?” Mountain Town News (March 6, 2014).
134 Colorado Energy Office, Energy in Colorado, Waste to Energy, accessed November 27, 2017.
135 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, “Colorado Takes Steps to Expand Geothermal Development” (June 3, 2014).
136 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, BLM Fact Sheet, Renewable Energy: Geothermal, updated July 2016.
137 Jaffe, Mark, “Geothermal Lease Set to Go in Colorado,” The Denver Post (September 15, 2010).
138 Colorado Energy Office, Geothermal, accessed November 27, 2017.
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