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Colorado   Colorado Profile

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Last Updated: April 21, 2022

Overview

Colorado ranks seventh among the states in total energy production.

Colorado has abundant fossil fuel reserves and renewable energy resources.1 Its diverse geography and geology include the headwaters of major rivers; significant wind and solar energy resources; and substantial deposits of crude oil, natural gas, and coal.2,3,4,5 Colorado ranks seventh among the states in total energy production.6 Home to the tallest peaks of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado has the highest average elevation of any state at 6,800 feet.7 Wide plains, already more than half a mile above sea level at the Kansas border, meet the mountains that run through Colorado's center.8,9 Nearly 9 in 10 Colorado residents live in metropolitan areas at the base of the Front Range, along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains, leaving much of the state's mountainous areas and plains sparsely populated.10

Weather fronts can move in from the west across the mountains or from the east across the plains. Temperatures vary widely, depending on elevation and season, and have reached records of 115°F on the plains and 61°F below zero in the mountains.11 Colorado is a winter sports destination, and about 1 in 20 houses is occupied only seasonally.12,13

Colorado has a diverse economy. Despite its energy intensive mining and oil and gas industries, energy consumption per dollar of Colorado's gross domestic product (GDP) is less than in about four-fifths of the states.14 Some of the largest contributors to the state's GDP are finance, insurance, and real estate; professional and business services; and government.15 As a result, Colorado's per capita total energy consumption is lower than two-thirds of the states.16 In 2019, the transportation sector was Colorado's leading energy consumer, accounting for 31% of the state's total energy use, followed closely by the industrial sector at 29%, the residential sector at 25%, and the commercial sector at 20%.17

Petroleum

Colorado ranks fifth among states and accounts for almost 4% of U.S. total crude oil production.18 The state has 3% of the nation's economically recoverable crude oil reserves.19 In 2021, Colorado produced about four times more crude oil than in 2010, primarily from the increased use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies.20 Average monthly crude oil production declined below 10 million barrels in 2016 in part because of lower crude oil prices, but production rebounded and reached record high monthly production levels in late 2019 after oil prices rose.21,22 However, the drop in petroleum demand and oil prices during the COVID-19 pandemic impacted crude oil output in Colorado in 2020 and in 2021, with production declining in both years.23

About 90% of Colorado’s crude oil production comes from Weld County.

Most recent crude oil production in Colorado comes from the Niobrara Shale formation located in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeastern Colorado, where crude oil production in one county, Weld, is the source of almost 9 out of every 10 barrels of crude oil produced in Colorado.24,25,26 The Wattenberg field, much of which is in Weld County, is the fourth-largest U.S. oil field based on proved crude oil reserves and ninth-largest gas field based on proved natural gas reserves.27,28 The Piceance Basin in the western mountain region is the other primary crude oil-producing area in Colorado.29,30

Northwestern Colorado overlays part of the Green River oil shale, a kerogen-rich formation.31 Kerogen is an organic material found in some sedimentary rocks that can be heated to extract crude oil.32 Although pilot oil shale projects were attempted in the area, obtaining crude oil from kerogen was not economically viable.33,34,35

Colorado has two operating petroleum refineries, located in the Denver area. Those refineries can process 103,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day into motor gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt, jet fuel, and other petroleum products.36 Upgrades to the refineries have enabled them to make refined products that meet clean fuel standards and process more crude oil from Canada's tar sands.37 With crude oil production from the Niobrara Shale increasing and exceeding refining capacity, more pipelines are being built or repurposed to move Colorado crude oil to refineries out of state.38 Demand for refined petroleum products in Colorado is about two-and-a-half times more than the state's refining capacity.39,40 Several petroleum product pipelines, primarily from Wyoming, Texas, and Kansas, help supply the Colorado market, and refined products are also brought in by rail and truck.41,42,43,44,45

The transportation sector accounts for more than four-fifths of all petroleum consumed in Colorado, and the industrial sector uses most of the rest.46 The Denver-Boulder and Fort Collins metropolitan areas use oxygenated motor gasoline to limit smog formation.47,48 The rest of the state is allowed to use conventional motor gasoline.49 Colorado has four ethanol plants with a combined production capacity of 143 million gallons per year. Those facilities mainly use corn as their feedstock.50,51 The state's smallest ethanol plant, located in Golden, uses a brewery's waste beer as its feedstock.52

In April 2019, Colorado's governor signed legislation that changed the way the state regulates its crude oil and natural gas industry.53 The law gives counties and municipalities increased regulatory authority over crude oil and natural gas development in their jurisdictions. Local governments have the authority to regulate the location of new crude oil and natural gas production facilities as well as the effects of production, such as land use and surface impacts, including noise.54 The law also gives local governments the authority to inspect crude oil and natural gas facilities; impose fines for leaks, spills, and emissions; and impose fees to fully cover regulatory costs.55

Natural gas

Colorado has the seventh- largest natural gas reserves in the United States.

Colorado has the seventh-largest natural gas reserves of any state, accounting for 4% of the U.S. total.56 It is the eighth-largest natural gas-producing state in the nation.57 Colorado's marketed natural gas output more than doubled since 2000.58 Colorado is home to all or part of 11 of the nation's 100 largest natural gas fields.59

Colorado's largest natural gas-producing regions are in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in the northeast and in the Piceance Basin in the west.60 As natural gas prices fluctuate, some drilling activity moved from the Piceance, which produces mainly dry natural gas, to the Denver-Julesburg Basin, which produces higher-value crude oil and natural gas liquids.61,62 The San Juan Basin that stretches across the Colorado-New Mexico border is also a major natural gas-producing area, though output there has declined in recent years.63

Colorado is also a major producer of coalbed methane gas, which is a type of natural gas extracted from coal seams.64 Production of coalbed methane gas grew rapidly in the 1990s and usually accounted for about one-third of Colorado's total marketed natural gas production during that period. Lower natural gas prices make some coalbed methane wells uneconomical, and production of coalbed methane declined about 50% since 2010.65 However, Colorado remains the top coalbed methane-producing state, accounting for almost two-fifths of U.S. production in 2020.66 The San Juan and Raton Basins, located in the southern part of the state, produce nearly all of Colorado's coalbed methane.67

The residential and electric power sectors are Colorado's largest consumers of natural gas, each accounting for about one-third of the state's natural gas demand.68 About 7 out of 10 Colorado households use natural gas as their primary home heating source.69 Consumption of natural gas for electricity generation reached a new high in 2020, but declined by 21% in 2021 primarily due to a significant increase in natural gas prices.70,71 The state uses only about one-fifth of the natural gas it produces.72,73

Several major interstate pipelines cross Colorado and ship natural gas to six U.S. states.74,75 The state has two natural gas trading hubs at interstate pipeline interconnections.76 The larger Cheyenne hub, near the Colorado-Wyoming border, is located in the Denver-Julesburg Basin, and the White River hub is located in the Piceance Basin.77,78 In June 2020, the Cheyenne Connector natural gas pipeline entered service, adding 1.6 billion cubic feet per day of throughput capacity and increasing natural gas deliveries from eastern Colorado into the Cheyenne hub. Additionally, the Cheyenne Hub Enhancement Project increased interconnectivity and deliverability between the Rockies Express Pipeline and interstate transmission systems.79 Colorado has some underground natural gas storage facilities with 10 fields and just over 141 billion cubic feet of combined storage capacity, equal to 1.5% of the U.S. total. The state's storage capacity increased by one-third since 2010.80

Coal

Colorado ranks eighth among the states in estimated recoverable coal reserves.81,82 The state produces coal from both underground and surface mines. Currently, mining is focused in the Green River, Piceance, and San Juan Basins.83 Colorado's coal is used almost entirely for electricity generation, but the market for the state's coal has decreased and several Colorado mines have closed as the share of U.S. electricity generated by coal-fired power plants continues to decline.84,85,86,87 Although Colorado's coal production increased for the first time in six years in 2017, due to an increase in foreign demand for U.S. coal, production continues to decline.88,89,90 In 2018, Colorado coal producers exported almost 25% of the state's mined coal to other countries, but exports declined to 7% in 2020.91 Almost two-thirds of the coal mined in Colorado is used for power generation within the state. Coal is also transported for electric power generation or used at industrial plants in 16 other states.92

Electricity

Colorado’s electricity generation from renewable energy sources more than tripled between 2010 and 2021.

Coal-fired power plants provided just over two-thirds of Colorado's electricity net generation in 2010, but coal's share has steadily declined since then, reaching a low of just over one-third in 2020. However, in 2021, Colorado's electricity net generation from coal-fired plants increased by 21% from the year before and provided just over two-fifths of the state's generation.93 Higher natural gas prices in 2021 helped make coal-fired generation more economical.94 Still, Colorado's power plant operators plan to replace some coal-fired capacity with generating capacity from natural gas and renewable energy sources due to economic and regulatory considerations.95,96,97 By 2025, 1,164 megawatts of coal-fired generating capacity in Colorado is scheduled to be retired.98 Renewable energy provided slightly more than one-third of the state's electricity net generation in 2021. Since 2010, Colorado's renewable electricity net generation has more than tripled. In 2021, the share of natural gas-fired generation fell to one-fourth of the state's total electricity generation, marking the first decline since 2017.99

Colorado does not have any nuclear power plants.100 The state does have some uranium deposits, but no uranium was mined in 2020.101,102 A proposed uranium mill in western Colorado is still being considered.103

Colorado uses less electricity per capita than three-fourths of the states.104 The commercial and residential sectors are the largest consumers of electricity in Colorado, each accounting for nearly two-fifths of the state's total power use, followed by the industrial sector at just over one-fourth.105 Almost one in four Colorado households use electricity as the main home heating source.106 Typically, total electricity consumption slightly exceeds in-state generation.107 The state receives electricity from Wyoming, Nebraska, New Mexico, Utah, and Kansas over high voltage interstate transmission lines.108 In February 2022, Colorado utility regulators approved a proposal to add 560 miles of high-voltage transmission lines in the Eastern Plains, which includes the high population cities of Denver and Fort Collins.109

In 2018, Colorado launched the Electric Vehicle (EV) Fast-Charging Corridor grant program to develop EV fast-charging infrastructure in the state to promote the adoption of EVs.110,111 Colorado currently has more than 1,500 public charging stations with over 3,500 EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment) ports (DC Fast and Level 2), ranking eighth among states.112,113 Colorado is 1 of 12 states that adopted the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program.114 The ZEV program requires automakers to sell a specific number of no or low-emissions vehicles and invest in clean technology.115

Renewable energy

Colorado ranks seventh nationwide in installed wind power capacity.

In 2019, Colorado's governor proposed a plan for 100% of the state's electricity generation to come from renewable resources by 2040.116,117 In 2021, Colorado's electricity net generation from renewable energy accounted for 35% of the state's total generation. At 77%, wind power accounted for the largest share of renewable net electricity generation, followed by utility-scale and small scale solar combined, at 14%, hydroelectric power at 8%, and biomass at 1%.118

Colorado has significant wind energy resources on its eastern plains and mountain crests and ranks seventh nationwide in installed wind power capacity.119,120 The state's use of wind power was four times greater in 2021 than it was in 2010.121 In 2021, two new wind power projects added 309 megawatts of capacity, bringing Colorado's total wind generating capacity to 5,019 megawatts. An additional 326 megawatts of wind capacity are planned to be added by 2024.122,123

Colorado has substantial solar resources, especially in the south near the New Mexico border.124 In 2021, Colorado ranked 13th among the states in utility-scale solar power-generating capacity with 1,054 megawatts installed, with an additional 750 megawatts of solar power capacity scheduled to come online by the end of 2022.125,126 Small-scale, customer-sited solar power generating systems (less than 1 megawatt in capacity) continue to grow and accounted for almost two-fifth of the state's total solar generation in 2021.127,128 Colorado offers rebates and tax incentives to encourage homeowners and businesses to install solar panels, including community solar gardens, which are collections of solar panels shared by several residences.129,130,131 The Bureau of Land Management established the Solar Energy Program for six southwestern states. Four areas in Colorado were identified as Solar Energy Zones (SEZ) that are well suited for utility-scale solar development.132,133

Colorado has 71 small hydroelectric generators, ranging in size from 500 kilowatts to 180 megawatts, with a total installed capacity of 1,272 megawatts.134 According to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, the state has the potential to develop more than 30 new small hydropower projects using existing infrastructure.135 Colorado negotiated an agreement with the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to streamline the licensing process for small hydropower facilities.136 The Colorado Energy Office created the Energy Recovery Hydropower Initiative and a small hydropower grant and loan financing program to assist potential developers.137

Colorado's only utility-scale woody biomass plant came online in 2013 and initially burned waste gathered from surrounding forests, taking trees culled as part of efforts to fight pine beetle infestation.138,139 The state also provides tax breaks to promote biomass generation from anaerobic digestion, which burns the gas produced from livestock manure or food waste to generate electricity.140,141

Colorado has a number of hot springs, and studies indicate that the state has significant geothermal energy potential.142 Some federal lands in the state have been leased for geothermal projects.143 The state's geothermal resources are mainly used for heating or cooling homes, businesses, recreational pools, and Colorado's state capitol building in Denver, but there are currently no utility-scale projects that generate electricity with geothermal energy.144,145,146

In 2004, Colorado became the first state with a voter-approved renewable portfolio standard (RPS). The legislature increased the requirements several times, and the RPS now requires 30% of electricity sold by investor-owned utilities to be generated from renewable energy sources by 2020 and each following year, with 3% from small-scale distributed generation. Separate requirements apply to municipal and cooperative electricity suppliers, depending on their size.147 Xcel Energy, the state's largest investor-owned utility, met this 30% requirement in 2019.148,149 In January 2021, Colorado released its Greenhouse Gas Pollution Reduction Roadmap detailing how the state plans to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 26% from 2005 levels by 2025, 50% by 2030, and 90% by 2050.150

Endnotes

1 Colorado Energy Office, Energy in Colorado, accessed March 7 2022.
2 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Colorado, accessed March 7, 2022.
3 Colorado Department of Regulatory Agencies, Public Utilities Commission, Colorado National Rankings - 2021, accessed March 7, 2022.
4 Colorado Geological Survey, Geology, accessed March 7, 2022.
5 Colorado Geological Survey, Non-renewable Energy, accessed March 7, 2022.
6 U.S. EIA, "Colorado ranks seventh among states with the most energy production," Today in Energy (July 23, 2020).
7 Colorado Tourism, Colorado Travel Fact, accessed March 22, 2022.
8 U.S. Geological Survey, Region 7: Upper Colorado Basin, accessed March 7, 2022.
9 Colorado Tourism Office, Colorado Mountains: 6 Famous Peaks, updated January 7, 2022.
10 U.S. Census Bureau, Colorado: 2020 Census, Colorado Among Fastest-Growing States Last Decade, August 25,2021.
11 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Climate at a Glance, Statewide, accessed March 7, 2022.
12 U.S. Census Bureau, Census Reporter, Colorado, Table B25004, ACS 2019 1-year.
13 U.S. Census Bureau, Census Reporter, Colorado, Table B25002, ACS 2019 1-year.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data Systems, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
15 U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars (SAGDP2), NAICS, Colorado, All statistics in table, 2020, updated October 1, 2021.
16 U.S. EIA, Rankings: Total Energy Consumed per Capita, 2019.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
18 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2016-21.
19 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2015-20.
20 U.S. EIA, Colorado Field Production of Crude Oil, Monthly-Thousand Barrels, 1981-2021.
21 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day, 1920-2021.
22 U.S. EIA, Petroleum & Other Liquids, Cushing, OK WTI Spot Price FOC (Dollars per Barrel), 1980-2021.
23 U.S. EIA, Colorado Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 1981-2021.
24 U.S. EIA, Drilling Productivity Report, Niobrara Region, February 2022.
25 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, COGCC Reports Portal, Monthly Oil Produced by County, 2021.
26 Colorado Department of Education, Colorado Counties Map, accessed March 7, 2022.
27 "Information on the Niobrara-DJ Basin," Natural Gas Intelligence Shale Daily, accessed March 7, 2022.
28 American Petroleum Institute, Progress and Opportunity Colorado Natural Gas and Oil, June 2018, p. 6.
29 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, COGCC Reports Portal, Monthly Oil Produced by County, 2021.
30 U.S. Geological Survey, The Uinta-Piceance Province-Introduction to a geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources, DDS-69-B, Chapter 2, accessed March 7, 2022.
31 U.S. Government Accountability Office, Unconventional Oil and Gas Production: Opportunities and Challenges of Oil Shale Development, GAO-12-740T (May 10, 2012).
32 U.S. EIA, Glossary, Kerogen, accessed March 7, 2022.
33 U.S. Department of Energy, Oil Shale Research in the United States, 3rd Edition, September 2011.
34 Colson, John, "Shell shuts down oil shale pilot project near Rifle," Post Independent (September 26, 2013).
35 Peixe, Joao, "ExxonMobil Takes Step Forward on Colorado Oil Shale," OilPrice.com (March 28, 2014).
36 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 25, 2021), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2021.
37 Suncor Energy Inc., Refining, Commerce City Refinery, accessed March 7, 2022.
38 U.S. EIA, Today in Energy, "EIA's liquids pipeline database provides detail on U.S. petroleum infrastructure changes,", June 11, 2020.
39 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
40 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 25, 2021), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PADD District and State as of January 1, 2021.
41 U.S. Department of Energy, Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, State of Colorado, Energy Sector Risk Profile, Petroleum, p. 4-5, accessed March 7, 2022.
42 Magellan Midstream Partners LP, Asset Map, see Refined Products Assets, Product Availability Refined Pipeline, accessed March 9, 2022.
43 Sinclair Oil Corp., What We Do, see Transportation, accessed March 9, 2022.
44 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, GIS Online, see Flowlines, accessed March 9, 2022.
45 Colorado Information Marketplace, Crude Oil Rail Terminals in Colorado 2014, accessed March 9, 2021.
46 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
47 Colorado Secretary of State, Code of Colorado Regulations, Regulation Number 13 Reduction of Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Gasoline Powered Motor Vehicles Through the use of Oxygenated Gasolines, 5 CCR 1001-16, accessed March 9, 2022.
48 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, as of January 2018.
49 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, see Gasoline Programs: Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) and Gasoline Winter Oxygenates, accessed March 9, 2022.
50 Renewable Fuels Association, Ethanol Biorefinery Locations, accessed March 9, 2022.
51 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 3, 2021), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD District) are available in XLS.
52 Merrick & Company, MillerCoors Ethanol Recovery Facility: Biomass Conversion to Ethanol, accessed March 9, 2022.
53 U.S. EIA, "Colorado changes its regulatory structure for oil and natural gas production," Today in Energy (June 27, 2019).
54 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, Senate Bill 19-181 (April 16, 2019).
55 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, Colorado General Assembly, Protect Public Welfare Oil and Gas Operations (SB19-181), accessed March 9, 2022.
56 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, 2014-20.
57 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2014-21.
58 U.S. EIA, Colorado Natural Gas Marketed Production, 1967-2021.
59 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 8-10.
60 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, GIS Online (Interactive Map), accessed March 10, 2022.
61 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, Data, Production by County, Monthly Coalbed & Natural Gas Sold by County, 2011-21.
62 U.S. EIA, "Colorado changes its regulatory structure for oil and natural gas production," Today in Energy (June 27, 2019).
63 Warner, Joe, "San Juan Gas Production Declines to Boost West Gas Volatility?" BTU Analytics (March 5, 2020).
64 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Definitions, Sources and Explanatory Notes, Coalbed Methane, accessed March 14, 2022.
65 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Colorado Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2015-20.
66 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2015-20.
67 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, Data, Production by County, Monthly Coalbed Methane Produced by County, 2021.
68 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Colorado, Annual, 2013-21.
69 U.S. Census Bureau, Census Reporter, Colorado, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019.
70 U.S. EIA, Colorado Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2021.
71 U.S. EIA, "U.S. natural gas prices likely to remain elevated through the winter," Natural Gas Weekly Update (October 13, 2021).
72 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2013-21.
73 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Colorado, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2013-21.
74 U.S. EIA, International & Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Colorado, 2013-20.
75 Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, GIS Online (Interactive Map), accessed March 14, 2022.
76 A Barrel Full, Operational Natural Gas Market Centers Located in the United States, accessed March 14, 2022.
77 U.S. EIA, "In the first half of 2020, about 5 Bcf/d of natural gas pipeline capacity entered service," Today in Energy (August 24, 2020).
78 White River Hub, Home, accessed March 14, 2022.
79 Dobbs, Peter, "Permian Gains Another Natural Gas Conduit as 1.8 Bcf/d Agua Blanca Ramps Up," Natural Gas Intelligence (January 28, 2021).
80 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2015-20.
81 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
82 National Mining Association, Coal-Bearing Areas of the United States, accessed March 9, 2022.
83 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 2, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2020.
84 U.S. EIA, "U.S. Coal production employment has fallen 42% since 2011," Today in Energy (December 11, 2019).
85 U.S. EIA, "Coal will account for 85% of U.S. electric generating capacity retirements in 2022," Today in Energy (January 11, 2022).
86 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2019 and 2020.
87 U.S. EIA, "Of the operating U.S. coal-fired power plants, 28% plan to retire by 2035," Today in Energy (December 15, 2021).
88 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), Colorado, 2001-20.
89 U.S. EIA, Coal Explained, Coal Imports and Exports 1950-2020, updated May 27, 2021.
90 U.S. EIA, Coal, Weekly Coal Production, updated March 3, 2022.
91 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 4, 2021), Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by origin State (thousand short tons), 2020.
92 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination, and method of transportation, Colorado, Table OS-3. Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2020.
93 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Colorado, Annual, 2001-21.
94 U.S. EIA, "Annual U.S. coal-fired electricity generation will increase for the first time since 2014," Today in Energy (December 21, 2021).
95 U.S. EIA, "Coal will account for 85% of U.S. electric generating capacity retirements in 2022," Today in Energy (January 11, 2022).
96 Otárola, Miguel, "Xcel Energy wants to change how it powers millions of Colorado homes. How that happens depends on these hearings," CPR News (December 8, 2021).
97 Finley, Bruce, "Drake Power Plant shutdown marks latest step in Colorado's shift off fossil fuels," The Denver Post (September 3, 2021).
98 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), updated March 24, 2022.
99 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Colorado, Annual, 2001-21.
100 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Map of Power Reactor Sites, updated July 17, 2020.
101 Colorado Geological Survey, Uranium, accessed March 8, 2022.
102 U.S. EIA, Domestic Uranium Production Report-Annual (May 17, 2021), Tables 4, 5, 10.
103 U.S. Department of Energy, "Signed Leases Open Door to Future Uranium Mining," (September 15, 2020).
104 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data Systems (SEDS): 1960-2019 (June 25, 2021), Colorado, Table C17. Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
105 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), Colorado, Annual, 2001-21.
106 U.S. Census Bureau, Census Reporter, Colorado, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019.
107 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Colorado Electricity Profile 2020 (November 4, 2021), Table 1. 2020 Summary statistics (Colorado).
108 U.S. Department of Energy, Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, State of Colorado, Energy Sector Risk Profile, p. 2, accessed March 8, 2022.
109 Excel Energy, 10-Year Transmission Plan for the State of Colorado - to comply with Rule 3627 of the Colorado Public Utilities Commission Rules Regulating Electric Utilities, February 3, 2020.
110 Colorado Energy Office, EV Fast-Charging Corridors, accessed March 14, 2022.
111 Colorado Energy Office, Colorado Electric Vehicle Plan (January 2018).
112 U.S. Department of Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Ports by State, Public EVSE Ports, accessed April 11, 2022.
113 U.S. Department of Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, accessed April 11, 2022.
114 State of Vermont, Agency of Natural Resources, Department of Environmental Conservation, Zero Emission Vehicles, accessed March 15, 2022.
115 California Air Resources Board, Zero-Emission Vehicle Program, accessed March 15, 2022.
116 Colorado Governor Jared Polis, Roadmap to 100% Renewable Energy by 2040 and Bold Climate Action, accessed March 15, 2022.
117 Colorado Energy Office, Climate & Energy, accessed March 15, 2022.
118 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Colorado, Annual, 2001-21.
119 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Colorado, accessed March 15, 2022.
120 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly, Table 6.2.B. Net Summer Capacity Using Primarily Renewable Energy Sources and by State, January 2022 and 2021 (Megawatts).
121 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Colorado, Annual, 2001-21.
122 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), updated March 24, 2022.
123 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly, Table 1.14.B. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Wind by State, by Sector, Year-to-Date through December 2021 and 2020 (thousand megawatthours).
124 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Solar Resource Maps and Data, U.S. Annual Solar GHI, updated February 22, 2018.
125 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly, Table 6.2.B. Net Summer Capacity Using Primarily Renewable Energy Sources and by State, January 2022 and 2021 (Megawatts).
126 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), updated March 24, 2022.
127 U.S. EIA, "More than half of small-scale photovoltaic generation comes from residential rooftops," Today in Energy (June 1, 2017).
128 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Colorado, Annual, 2001-21.
129 Energy Smart Colorado, accessed February 15, 2021.
130 Colorado Department of Local Affairs, Renewable Energy, Tax Incentives and Exemptions, accessed March 15, 2022.
131 U.S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), State, Local, & Tribal Governments, Community Solar, accessed March 22, 2022.
132 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Solar Energy Program, Colorado, accessed March 15, 2022.
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134 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), updated March 24, 2022.
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