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Maine   Maine Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: June 15, 2017

Overview

Maine is largely rural and forested and has the most energy-intensive economy in New England.

Maine has forests, rivers, and winds with substantial renewable energy resources but has no fossil energy reserves. The least densely populated state east of the Mississippi River,1,2 Maine is home to both coastal cities and Northwest Aroostook, a territory with less than one resident per 100 square miles.3,4,5 Three-fifths of the state's population lives in rural areas.6 More than five-sixths of Maine is still forested, and forest products are both a major, energy-intensive industry and a major biomass resource, supplying wood-derived fuels such as wood pellets.7,8

Maine is the easternmost state, rising from its jagged Atlantic coastline to include the northern terminus of the Appalachian Trail at Mt. Katahdin.9 Rivers flow down from the interior highlands to the sea, providing hydroelectricity resources,10 and winds along the coast and the Appalachian crests make the state New England's leader in wind generation.11,12 Maine weather varies significantly between the ocean-moderated coast, the southern interior, and the northern interior bordering the Canadian provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick. Recorded temperatures have ranged from 103°F on the coast in summer to minus 50°F in the far north in winter.13 Industrial and transportation consumption,14 along with heating needs during the northern winter,15 give Maine the highest per capita energy usage in New England.16 The state also has the most energy-intensive economy in New England.17 Maine's industrial sector accounts for nearly one-third of state energy consumption. In comparison, no other New England state's industrial sector accounts for more than one-seventh of state consumption.18,19 Although traditional industries such as forest products, leather, and textiles have declined, electronics manufacturing and service industries like health care and tourism are growing.20,21,22

Petroleum

Maine does not produce or refine petroleum.23,24 The state's energy consumption is dominated by petroleum because of widespread use of fuel oil for home heating during the long, cold winters.25 Nearly two-thirds of Maine households use fuel oil as their primary energy source for home heating, a higher share than in any other state.26,27 The state receives more than half its petroleum products through the Port of Portland on Casco Bay, where terminals are operated by major product suppliers. Portland is a natural deep-water harbor and is ice-free year round.28 Most of the rest of Maine's refined products are received farther north, at Searsport and Belfast, or at several border crossings from Canada. Heating oil and propane are also shipped through the Port of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on Maine's southern border, and then barged or trucked inland. Canada is the dominant supplier of petroleum product imports to all of Maine's ports.29,30

Since World War II, the Port of Portland has hosted unloading and storage facilities for crude oil shipments, which were sent via a dedicated pipeline system to refineries in Quebec and Ontario.31 However, those Canadian refineries are now being supplied with crude oil from western Canada, and shipments from Portland have mostly stopped.32,33 There have been proposals to reverse the flow in the two parallel pipelines and bring crude oil from Alberta, Canada, and North Dakota to Portland for export, but the idea has encountered environmental opposition and legal challenges in both Canada and the United States.34,35 Alberta and North Dakota producers ship some crude oil by rail to Canada's largest refinery, in St. John, New Brunswick, and those shipments sometimes cross through Maine.36

Maine, the most petroleum-dependent state for home heating, seeks to cut petroleum usage 30% by 2030.

Maine does not require the use of reformulated motor gasoline, but the state does enforce vapor pressure limits statewide, with lower summer limits for the coastal population centers.37 The state does not require motor gasoline to be oxygenated, but neighboring New England states do, so most motor gasoline sold in the state is blended with ethanol.38 Maine's heavy use of fuel oil for home heating makes the state particularly vulnerable to distillate fuel oil shortages and price spikes during the winter months.39 The U.S. Department of Energy's Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, created in 2000 to avert supply disruptions, holds 1 million barrels of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) in reserves located in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Jersey.40,41 Maine, like most northeastern states, is phasing in ULSD use by 2018.42,43,44,45

Home heating and transportation fuel consumption make Maine one of the most petroleum-dependent states in the nation,46 with the highest per capita petroleum consumption in New England.47,48,49 The state legislature has set goals of reducing petroleum usage 30% below the 2007 consumption level by 2030 and 50% by 2050.50,51

Natural gas

Maine does not produce natural gas and depends almost entirely on Canadian imports.52 Natural gas enters Maine via pipelines from New Hampshire and Canada,53 both of which carry mainly Canadian natural gas.54,55,56 In recent years, Canadian supplies to New England have been buoyed by major natural gas discoveries off the Nova Scotia coast57 and by the opening of the Canaport liquefied natural gas terminal at St. John, New Brunswick.58 A pipeline carries natural gas from Canaport to markets in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts.59

Maine's natural gas consumption per capita is about half the national average.60,61 About two-fifths of Maine's natural gas is used in electricity generation, and another two-fifths is used by industry.62 Five of Maine's 10 largest electricity generating stations are fueled with natural gas.63 Only about 1 in 20 Maine households use natural gas as their primary heating fuel,64 in part because many areas of Maine lack natural gas distribution systems. Where natural gas service is available, constraints on interstate pipeline delivery capacity force residents and businesses to compete with electricity generators for available natural gas supply during winter demand peaks. Average natural gas and electricity prices have both spiked as a result.65

Coal

Coal is not mined in Maine, and the state has no known recoverable reserves.66 Maine's only coal-burning power plants are two industrial facilities supplying mill operations and selling surplus power to the electric grid. A 103-megawatt cogeneration plant at the Rumford paper mill67 and a 62.5-megawatt facility at the Westbrook paper mill68 are both fueled primarily by wood and operational wastes, but they also burn coal.69 Rumford's operator has been increasing the use of non-coal waste fuels, including tire-derived fuel,70,71,72 and Westbrook gets less than one-fifth of its power from coal.73 Coal consumed in the state is shipped in through the port of Portland, Maine.74 Most coal is imported, but small amounts may come from Appalachia.75,76

Electricity

Renewables produce nearly two-thirds of Maine's net electricity generation.

In 2016, almost two-thirds of Maine's net electricity generation came from renewable sources, with one-fourth from hydroelectric dams, one-fourth from biomass generators using mainly wood waste products, and more than one-eighth from wind. In addition, over three-tenths of net generation came from natural gas. The rest of Maine's net electricity generation came from petroleum, coal, and solar power.77

The state power supply has undergone a substantial shift since the early 1990s, when one-third of net electricity generation came from the Maine Yankee nuclear power station and another one-fifth from petroleum.78 Maine Yankee was decommissioned in 1997.79 Petroleum-fueled generation has decreased to less than 2% of net generation and is used mainly as a backup fuel to meet peak winter demand.80,81,82 Maine's largest electricity generating plant, the 811-megawatt William F. Wyman station, burns No. 2 fuel oil and, in the past few years, has been used only to meet peak demand.83,84,85 Even so, with only two small industrial generating plants burning coal, Maine is one of the few states to get more electricity from petroleum than from coal.86 As in all of New England, most new non-renewable electricity generation being planned in Maine will be fueled by natural gas,87 but most of the new generation will be able to burn fuel oil as well, so generators can switch when natural gas is not available or not economic.88

The industrial sector produces more than one-fifth of Maine's net electricity generation, the highest proportion of any state except Louisiana. The industrial sector uses primarily biomass, natural gas, and hydroelectric turbines to generate power.89

Maine has the lowest average electricity rates in New England, in part because of its low industrial sector rates.90 Per capita residential electricity use in the state is below the national average.91,92 Only about 1 in 20 households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating,93 and, with the state's mild summers, household use of air conditioning is low.94

Maine restructured its electricity industry in 2000 and allows retail electric competition.95 Maine is part of the regional transmission operator, Independent System Operator New England (ISO-NE), except in the northern part of the state where the power system is connected to the Canadian grid.96,97,98 Maine is a member of the northeastern Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative to limit carbon emissions from power generation.99 With its limited use of coal and petroleum for electricity generation, Maine is among the 10 states with the lowest carbon emissions.100

Renewable energy

Four-fifths of Maine's renewable generation comes from hydroelectric dams and wood-based biomass.

Hydroelectric dams and biomass from wood products together provide half of Maine's net total electricity generation and account for nearly four-fifths of the state's renewable electricity generation.101 Biomass alone supplies one-fourth of total net generation, the largest share of any state except Vermont, placing Maine among the top U.S. producers of electricity from wood and wood waste-derived fuels, such as wood pellets.102 The state has the highest generation per capita of electricity from biomass in the nation,103 although recent low petroleum and natural gas prices have reduced demand for wood fuels.104,105,106,107 One in eight Maine households use wood as their primary heating fuel. Use of wood and wood pellets for home and commercial heating increases in the state when the price of home heating oil rises.108,109,110

Hydroelectric turbines produce one-fourth of Maine's net electricity generation, the largest share of any state east of the Mississippi River except Vermont.111 Water-powered mills were built on Maine's many rivers to run its earliest industries. When electricity was developed in the late 1800s, small hydroelectric dams were built all over the state. By the mid-1980s, the state was home to 782 dams. A few dams have since been removed to restore natural river flows and fish migrations.112 Recently, Maine hydroelectric dam owners and conservationists have reached agreements to increase turbine generating capacity at some dams while tearing down others.113,114

Maine has significant wind resources along the crests of Appalachian ranges in the state's northwest and along its Atlantic coastline.115 The state leads New England in wind generation. In 2016, Maine's wind turbines produced more than one-eighth of the state's total net electricity generation and three-fifths of all wind generation in New England.116 During that year, Maine added nearly 300 megawatts of wind capacity, bringing its total to 901 megawatts.117,118 The state's largest wind facility, the 186-megawatt Bingham Wind project, began operation in late 2016.119,120 Most new renewable generating resources planned in New England are wind-powered, and three-fifths of new regional wind capacity is planned in Maine.121

The Maine legislature has set goals of installing 2,000 megawatts of wind capacity in the state by 2015, 3,000 megawatts by 2020 (with at least 300 megawatts offshore), and 8,000 megawatts by 2030 (with at least 5,000 megawatts offshore). The 2015 goal was not met,122,123 and some proposed projects have encountered local opposition.124,125 The first application for wind turbines in federal waters off the coast of Maine was filed in 2011, and a floating grid-connected test turbine was installed in 2013,126 but financial and other issues have delayed proposed off-shore wind projects.127,128 Also located on the Maine coast is the first U.S. tidal power generating facility to produce electricity, a pilot project in Cobscook Bay.129 Plans are under way to expand the tidal project to 5 megawatts.130,131,132

Although Maine has no utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) generation, about 29 megawatts of distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) solar PV panels are installed on homes and businesses.133 In 2016, distributed solar PV produced about 0.25% of the state's power.134 Maine offers net metering for small-scale renewables, including distributed solar PV, but is planning to phase down benefits under that program.135,136,137 Two large-scale solar PV projects, each exceeding 50 megawatts of solar PV capacity, are in development in Sanford and Farmington. The two were accepted in a 2017 regional procurement of renewable resources by the southern New England states. If built, they would be New England's largest solar generators.138,139,140

As part of electricity market restructuring, Maine regulators set a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring that at least 30% of retail electricity sales come from renewable sources, a standard that state electricity distributors already surpassed with biomass and hydroelectric resources. In 2006, the legislature added a second, separate RPS that requires new renewable resources to supply an increasing share of electricity sales, topping out at 10% in 2017.141,142 Thus far, electricity providers have been found in compliance with the RPS.143,144

Endnotes

1 U.S. Census Bureau, Resident Population Data (Text Version), Population Density, 2010 Census, accessed May 2, 2017.
2 U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Population Density (By Counties), accessed May 2, 2017.
3 Wickenheiser, Matt, "Census: Maine Most Rural State in 2010 as Urban Centers Grow Nationwide," Bangor Daily News (March 26, 2012).
4 USboundary.com, Northwest Aroostook UT, Aroostook County, Maine, accessed May 2, 2017.
5 Roadside Thoughts, Unorganized Territory of Northwest Aroostook, Maine, updated April 30, 2017.
6 State of Maine, Governor's Energy Office, Maine Energy Fast Facts (2014), p. 2.
7 McCarthy, James, "Forest Products Industry Puts $8 Billion into Maine's Economy," Mainebiz (September 8, 2014).
8 Maine.gov, "Governor LePage Seeks Expanded Use of 'Green' Building Materials in State Construction" (December 8, 2011).
9 NETSTATE, The Geography of Maine, updated February 25, 2016.
10 Brakeley, Samuel, and Zachary Ezor, The State of Rivers and Dams in Maine, The State of Maine's Environment (2009).
11 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Maine Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, updated September 24, 2015.
12 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.14.B.
13 Jacobsen, George, "Maine's Moist Climate: Strongly Variable Seasonal Temperatures with Even Precipitation," Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed May 3, 2017.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, 2014.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F7, Distillate Fuel Oil Consumption Estimates, 2015.
16 U.S. EIA, Rankings, Total Energy Consumed Per Capita, 2014.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2014.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, 2014.
19 State of Maine, Governor's Energy Office, Maine Energy Fast Facts (2014), p. 9.
20 Rose, Galen, "A Brief History of the Maine Economy," Maine State Planning Office (June 2003).
21 Breece, James, An Overview of the Maine Economy, University of Maine, School of Economics (February 2016), p. 10, 12.
22 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Begin using the data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Classification NAICS, All Industries, Maine, 2013–15.
23 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2011–16.
24 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2016, Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2016.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, 2014.
26 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Maine, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
27 LaCapra Associates, Oil Dependence Reduction Assessment (April 2013), p. 3.
28 World Port Source, Port of Portland, accessed May 3, 2017.
29 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, all months, 2016, 2015, 2014.
30 Magnusson, Matthew, Charles Colgan, and Ross Gittell, The Economic Impact of the Piscataqua River and the Ports of Portsmouth and Newington (June 2012), p. 3, 6, 15–16.
31 Portland Pipe Line Corp., Montreal Pipe Line Ltd., About Us, accessed May 3, 2017.
32 Bell, Tom, "Shifting Markets May Make Portland's Oil Pipeline to Quebec Redundant," Portland Press Herald (November 30, 2015).
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35 Fishell, Darren, "National Groups Join Legal Battle to Lift South Portland Tar Sands Ban," BDN Maine (May 3, 2017).
36 Turkel, Tux, "Maine May Be Central as Oil Flow Shifts East," Portland Press Herald (June 18, 2012).
37 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Gasoline Programs, Reformulated gasoline and Reid Vapor Pressure, accessed May 3, 2017.
38 Maine Department of Environmental Protection, Air Quality, Ethanol, accessed May 3, 2017.
39 Andrews, Anthony, The Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve and the National Oilheat Research Alliance, Congressional Research Service 7-5700 (September 19, 2013), Summary.
40 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, accessed May 3, 2017.
41 U.S. EIA, Weekly Petroleum Status Report (May 3, 2017), Appendix C, Northeast Reserves.
42 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve History, accessed May 3, 2017.
43 New England Fuel Institute, State Sulfur & Bioheat Requirements for No. 2 Heating Oil in the Northeast & Mid-Atlantic States, updated July 30, 2014.
44 U.S. EIA, Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets, updated May 2012, p. 9.
45 Brown, Beth, and David Henry, "Colonial Pipeline to Stop Shipping High Sulfur Heating Oil in June," Platts (April 23, 2015).
46 State of Maine, Governor's Energy Office, Maine Energy Profile (2012), p. 14.
47 State of Maine, Governor's Energy Office, 2015 Maine Comprehensive Energy Plan Update (February 2015), p. 11.
48 U.S. EIA, U.S. States, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2014.
49 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01), 2014 Population Estimates.
50 State of Maine, Governor's Energy Office, 2015 Maine Comprehensive Energy Plan Update (February 2015), p. 16.
51 LaCapra Associates, Oil Dependence Reduction Assessment (April 2013), Executive Summary, p. 1.
52 U.S. EIA, About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines, accessed May 3, 2017.
53 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Maine, 2010–15.
54 Portland Natural Gas Transmission System, Pipeline Information, accessed May 3, 2017.
55 Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, accessed May 3, 2017.
56 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, New Hampshire, 2010–15.
57 Nova Scotia Department of Energy, Oil & Gas, Offshore, accessed May 3, 2017.
58 Canaport LNG, About Canaport LNG, accessed May 3. 2017.
59 Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, accessed May 3, 2017.
60 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Consumers, Annual, 2011–16.
61 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01), 2014, 2015 Population Estimates.
62 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Maine, Annual, 2011–16.
63 U.S. EIA, Maine Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2, Ten largest plants by generating capacity, 2015.
64 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Maine, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
65 State of Maine, Governor's Energy Office, 2015 Maine Comprehensive Energy Plan Update (February 2015), p. 18.
66 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Tables 1, 15.
67 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, Annual Data, 1990–2015 Existing Nameplate and Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source, Producer Type and State (EIA-860).
68 Biomass Magazine, Biomass Plants, S D Warren Westbrook, updated May 24, 2017.
69 Valigra, Lori, "Should Maine Be Smug About Smog?" Mainebiz (June 30, 2014).
70 Maine Dept. of Environmental Protection, Rumford Paper Co., Departmental Finding of Facts and Order, Part 70 Air Emission License Renewal (February 13, 2014), p. 22.
71 Gilmer, Hudson, "Innovative Energy Management Strategies Help a Maine Paper Mill Stay Competitive," Plant Engineering (March 6, 2013).
72 "Valmet's advanced boiler control application for optimized combustion successfully commissioned at Catalyst Paper's Rumford Mill in Maine, USA," Power (October 5, 2016).
73 Sappi Fine Paper NA, Sappi/Warren Release Papers, slides 9-10, accessed May 4, 2017.
74 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report (October–December 2016), Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.
75 Union of Concerned Scientists, Burning Coal, Burning Cash: Ranking the States That Import the Most Coal (2014 Update), slide 16.
76 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2014 (April 8, 2016), Domestic distribution of U.S. Coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Maine, p. 22.
77 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.5.B, 1.7.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
78 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, Annual Data, 1990–2015 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923).
79 Maine Yankee, Maine Yankee Decommissioning Overview, accessed May 4, 2017.
80 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, Annual Data, 1990–2015 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923).
81 ISO New England, "Winter 2015-16: Sufficient Power Supplies Expected to be Available, Press Release (December 1, 2015).
82 "Update on the 2016/2017 Winter Reliability Program," ISO Newswire (January 17, 2017).
83 U.S. EIA, Maine Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2, Ten largest plants by generating capacity, 2015.
84 Fishell, Darren, "Maine's Largest Power Plant Taken Off the Market, Reflecting Changes," Bangor Daily News (August 12, 2014).
85 NextEra Energy Resources, Wyman Energy Center, accessed May 11, 2017.
86 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.4.B, 1.5.B.
87 ISO New England, "New England Power Grid 2015-2016 Profile," accessed May 4, 2017, p. 2.
88 ISO New England, Natural Gas Infrastructure Constraints, accessed May 4, 2017.
89 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.7.B, 1.10.B, 1.15.B.
90 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.6.B.
91 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.4.B.
92 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01), 2014 Population Estimates.
93 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Maine, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
94 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2015 RECS Survey Data, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.7, Air Conditioning in Homes in Northeast and Midwest Regions.
95 Maine, Office of the Public Advocate, Electricity Supply, accessed May 4, 2017.
96 Northern Maine Independent System Administrator, Inc., accessed May 4, 2017.
97 U.S. EIA, "Northern Maine Considers Options to Gain Direct Access to New England Electric Grid," Today in Energy (January 22, 2015).
98 Northeast Energy Solutions LLC, Reliability Assessment, Power Market Cost/Benefit Assessment of Maine Power Connection 2012 (August 17, 2012), Executive Summary.
99 Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, RGGI Inc., accessed May 4, 2017.
100 U.S. EIA, U.S. States, Maine, Rankings, Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2014.
101 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.15.B.
102 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.15.B.
103 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01), 2014 Population Estimates.
104 Mistler, Steve, "Lawmakers Oppose Maine Biomass Bailout, But Leave an Opening," Portland Press Herald (April 1, 2016).
105 Turkel, Tux, "Trump pledge to save coal plants could benefit Maine wood pellet industry," Portland Press Herald (January 17, 2017).
106 Fishell, Darren, "Maine's $13M bailout of biomass plants will mean jobs, but at a cost of $23,700 each," Bangor Daily News (January 17, 2017, updated March 1, 2017).
107 Fishell, Darren, "Biomass bailout to restart former Covanta plants, boost Aroostook generators," Bangor Daily News (December 13, 2016).
108 Maine Pellet Fuels Association, Fuel Costs (April 20, 2016).
109 Alliance for Green Heat, "2010 Census Shows Wood is Fastest Growing Heating Fuel in U.S.," Press Release (October 10, 2011).
110 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Maine, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
111 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B.
112 Brakeley, Samuel, and Zachary Ezor, The State of Rivers and Dams in Maine, The State of Maine's Environment (2009).
113 McCarthy, James, "More Energy, Fewer Dams: A New Approach to Hydropower," Mainebiz (September 3, 2012).
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115 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Maine Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, updated September 24, 2015.
116 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.14.B.
117 American Wind Energy Association, Maine Wind Energy, accessed May 9, 2017.
118 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 6.2.B.
119 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 6.3.
120 Milneil, Christian, "Charts: Maine's renewable energy production surges with opening of 2 new wind farms," Portland Press Herald (March 2, 2017).
121 ISO New England, 2017 Regional Electricity Outlook (February 2017), p. 14.
122 State of Maine, Governor's Energy Office, 2015 Maine Comprehensive Energy Plan Update (February 2015), p. 56.
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124 Turkel, Tux, "Wind Power Critics Upset by Scale of Newly Proposed Maine Projects," Portland Press Herald (February 2, 2016).
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128 McCrea, Nick, "Wind power advocates alarmed by bill to move Monhegan test site," Bangor Daily News (April 18, 2017).
129 "First Tidal Power Delivered to U.S.Power Grid Off Maine," Fox News (September 14, 2012).
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133 Turkel, Tux, "Maine Regulators seek middle ground in residential solar incentives," Portland Press Herald (January 21, 2017).
134 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.17.B.
135 Andorka, Frank, "Maine PUC issues final ruling on net-metering compromise," PV Magazine (February 1, 2017).
136 Bever, Fred, "Legislative Committee Holds Hearing on Solar Incentives," Maine Public Broadcasting (May 4, 2017).
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141 London Economics International, MPUC RPS Report 2011–Review of RPS Requirements and Compliance in Maine (January 30, 2012), Executive Summary, p. 7.
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