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North Carolina   North Carolina Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Last Updated: December 15, 2022

Overview

North Carolina rises from its Atlantic Ocean coastline to the highest peak east of the Mississippi River—Mount Mitchell, which stands more than a mile above sea level at 6,684 feet.1 The state's terrain ranges from the barrier islands of the Outer Banks in the east, where North Carolina is brushed by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream, across the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont region to the heavily forested spine of the Appalachian Mountains in the west.2 North Carolina, is second only to Florida in tropical cyclone landfalls.3

North Carolina has substantial renewable energy resources.4,5 North Carolina's solar resources help make the state a leader in solar power.6 Strong offshore winds along the state's Atlantic coast could provide energy for electricity generation.7 The nearly 19 million acres of woodlands that cover about three-fifths of the state provide a large biomass resource and employment for about 70,000 people who work in North Carolina's forestry and forest products industries.8,9 Rivers that flow through the state provide hydroelectric power to many communities.10,11 North Carolina has few fossil fuel resources and does not have any oil, natural gas, or coal production.12 In 2020, the federal government added North Carolina to an offshore oil and natural gas drilling moratorium through June 2032, joining Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina.13 In addition to its natural resources, North Carolina is one of the nation's leading nuclear power-producing states.14

North Carolina consumes almost four times more energy than it produces.15 However, total energy consumption per capita in North Carolina is among the lowest one-third of the states.16 The residents, tourists, and truckers who use motor gasoline and diesel fuel on the state's heavily traveled highway system and the jet fuel consumed at the busy Charlotte Douglas International Airport—one of the top 10 U.S. airports as ranked by passenger traffic—make the transportation sector North Carolina's largest end-use energy-consuming sector, accounting for three-tenths of the state's total energy consumption.17,18,19 The residential sector follows the transportation sector, accounting for slightly more than one-fourth of the state total. The commercial and industrial sectors each make up about one-fifth of the state's energy consumption.20

North Carolina has a large agricultural industry and is the top producer of poultry, tobacco, and sweet potatoes.21 The state's other key industries include: business and financial services; aerospace; auto and truck manufacturing; biotechnology and pharmaceuticals; food processing; furniture manufacturing; information technology; plastics and chemicals; and textiles.22 The energy-intensive food, beverage, and tobacco products industry; chemicals; and the computer and electronics products sector, together, account for more than half of the state's gross domestic product (GDP) from manufacturing.23

Electricity

North Carolina is one of the nation’s top producers of electricity from nuclear power.

Over the past decade, the contribution of natural gas-fired generation has increased as electric utilities have added natural gas-fired power plants. In 2021, natural gas provided slightly more generation than nuclear power for the first time in three years, accounting for 36% of the state total.24 North Carolina is still among the nation's top five producers of electricity from nuclear power. In 2021, nuclear energy was the second-largest fuel source for electricity generation and contributed 33% of the state's net generation.25,26 Natural gas-fired generation exceeded coal-fired generation for the first time in 2016.27 Before 2012, coal-fired power plants provided more than half of the electricity generated in North Carolina, but 32 coal-fired units with about 4,100 megawatts of generating capacity have retired since 2010 and 38 natural gas-fired units with about 5,300 megawatts of capacity were added. In 2021, the remaining coal-fired power plants provided about 16% of the electricity generated in the state. Solar power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and wind power accounted for almost all the rest of North Carolina's electricity generation.28,29,30

Even though North Carolina is among the top 10 electricity-producing states in the nation, its consumers use about 10% more power than is generated in the state, and additional electricity is supplied from other states over the regional grid.31,32 The residential sector accounts for nearly half of the total electricity retail sales in North Carolina.33 Almost 7 out of 10 North Carolina households use electricity for home heating.34 The commercial sector makes up about one-third of the state's electricity sales and the industrial sector accounts for about one-fifth.35 North Carolina ranks among the top 10 states in total electricity sales and is in the top 5 for residential sector electricity sales.36 The state has just over 1,000 public-access electric vehicle charging stations.37

Renewable energy

North Carolina ranks fourth in the nation in solar power generation and installed solar generating capacity.

In 2021, renewable sources produced about 15% of the total electricity generated in North Carolina from both utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) facilities. The amount of electricity generated from solar energy increased rapidly in recent years. In 2017, solar energy became the largest source of the state's renewable electricity generation and surpassed conventional hydroelectric power for the first time. In 2021, solar power provided about 8% of the state's total generation and nearly three-fifths of its renewable electricity.38 North Carolina ranked fourth in the nation, after California, Texas, and Florida, in both total solar power generation and in solar generating capacity with just over 6,000 megawatts installed at the end of 2021.39,40

Hydroelectric power is the second-largest source of renewable electricity in North Carolina, and accounted for about 4% of the state's total generation in 2021.41 Most of North Carolina's approximately 41 utility-scale hydroelectric dams with about 2,100 megawatts of generating capacity are found in the mountainous region in the western two-thirds of the state. The state has the first pumped storage power facility with reversible turbines in the United States, with 86 megawatts of generating capacity, located at the Hiwassee Dam near the border with Tennessee. Water flows in one direction through the turbine to generate electricity and then in the reverse direction as a pump. When surplus electricity is produced at other power plants the Hiwassee pumped storage turbine operates as an energy storage battery and pulls water back into the reservoir.42,43,44

Biomass provided almost 2% of North Carolina's generation in 2021.45 Wood- and wood waste-fueled power plants account for more than four-fifths of the generating capacity at the state's biomass-fueled power plants. Agricultural, swine, and poultry waste are additional resources for biomass-fueled electricity generation in the state.46,47,48 North Carolina's forest biomass resources also provide feedstock for five wood pellet manufacturing plants that can produce about 2.1 million tons of pellets each year.49 Wood pellets are used for heating and for electricity generation.50 About 1 in 100 North Carolina households heat with wood.51

Wind energy has provided utility-scale power generation in North Carolina since 2016, when the state's first, and still only, wind farm came online in the northeastern part of the state with 208 megawatts of generating capacity from 104 turbines. It was the first coastal wind farm in the Southeast.52,53,54 In 2021, wind energy supplied 0.4% of North Carolina's electricity.55 The state has more undeveloped wind resources offshore and in its far western mountains.56 North Carolina's governor issued an executive order in June 2021 that sets a goal for the state to have 2,800 megawatts of offshore wind power generating capacity by 2030 and 8,000 megawatts by 2040.57 The federal government is reviewing the proposed 2,500-megawatt Kitty Hawk North Offshore Wind Project, which would be located 27 miles from the North Carolina coast in federal waters. Construction of the project's first 800 megawatts is scheduled to begin in 2024. The electricity generated from the offshore wind turbines would be sent through an undersea cable connected to an onshore substation in Virginia Beach, Virginia, and transmitted to the regional electric grid.58,59,60 In May 2022, the U.S. Department of the Interior leased to energy companies two areas for wind power development in federal waters located about 25 miles off the North Carolina coastline near the border with South Carolina. The Carolina Long Bay leased areas total 110,000 acres.61,62

North Carolina has one operating ethanol plant and one biodiesel plant. The ethanol plant has a production capacity of 57 million gallons per year, and the biodiesel plant's production capacity is 2 million gallons.63,64 Although almost all the motor gasoline sold in the nation is E10 fuel, which is gasoline blended with 10% ethanol, a motor fuel mixture containing up to 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, known as E85, is sold at about 100 public stations in North Carolina.65,66 Biodiesel is available at 108 private refueling stations across North Carolina that provide fuel to government and private fleets.67 North Carolina accounts for about 3.3% of U.S. ethanol consumption and 1% of biodiesel use.

In 2007, North Carolina became the first state in the Southeast to adopt a renewable portfolio standard, called the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (REPS). The REPS required investor-owned electric utilities in North Carolina to have 12.5% of their electricity retail sales come from renewable energy sources by 2021. Rural electric cooperatives and municipal electric suppliers met the requirement to obtain 10% of their electricity retail sales from renewable sources by 2018. Energy efficiency and demand-side management could be used to meet up to one-fourth of the investor-owned utilities' requirements until 2021, when the share could reach two-fifths. Municipal utilities and electric cooperatives were allowed to use unlimited amounts of energy efficiency and demand-side management to meet their requirements and to also use large (greater than 10 megawatts) hydropower facilities to meet up to 30% of their renewable energy requirement. Additionally, the REPS sets statewide targets for energy recovery and electricity generation from burning methane derived from swine and poultry waste for all providers.68,69,70

North Carolina's governor signed clean energy legislation into law in October 2021 that will close some of the state's coal-fired power plants by 2030 and replace them with new generation from renewable sources. Under the law, the North Carolina Utilities Commission will issue regulations to reduce the state's carbon emissions from electric generating facilities 70% by 2030 and reach carbon neutrality by 2050.71,72

Petroleum

North Carolina does not have any crude oil reserves or production.73,74 More than 125 exploratory oil and natural gas wells have been drilled in the state since 1925, and, although traces of crude oil and natural gas were found in a few wells, none were sufficient for commercial development. However, several unexplored areas of the state could have some crude oil.75 North Carolina does not have any petroleum refineries, but there are two major petroleum product pipelines-the Colonial Pipeline and the PPL Pipeline (formerly known as the Plantation Pipeline)-that deliver refined products at several locations in the state on their way to the Northeast from the Gulf Coast.76,77,78,79 A third pipeline-the Dixie Pipeline-supplies propane to customers in seven southeastern states, including North Carolina, before terminating in Apex, North Carolina, just southwest of Raleigh.80,81 Some petroleum products also arrive in North Carolina at the Port of Wilmington.82

The transportation sector accounts for more than four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in North Carolina.

North Carolina ranks among the 10 states with the highest total petroleum use.83 The transportation sector uses more than four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in North Carolina, primarily as motor gasoline and diesel fuel.84,85 There are currently no federal regulatory restrictions on the use of conventional motor gasoline in the state, although most gasoline sold in the state contains at least 10% ethanol.86,87 North Carolina drivers' total annual expenditure for gasoline and total motor gasoline consumption are among the top 10 states.88,89 The industrial sector is the second-largest consumer of petroleum in North Carolina at about 8% of the state total, followed by the commercial sector at about 4% and the residential sector at 3%.90 About 1 in 12 North Carolina households use fuel oil, kerosene, or propane for home heating.91 The electric power sector also uses a small amount of petroleum as fuel for electricity generation.92

Natural gas

North Carolina does not have any economically recoverable natural gas reserves or production.93,94 Although commercial quantities of natural gas have not been found in North Carolina, shales and coalbeds in the geologic basins located in the center of the state may contain natural gas resources.95

Interstate pipelines supply the natural gas North Carolina uses. Natural gas enters the state from the south through South Carolina and from the north through Virginia.96 The amount delivered through Virginia has more than doubled since 2017 as more gas produced from the Marcellus and Utica Shales further north arrived in the state.97,98 Additional interstate pipelines that will increase deliveries of Marcellus and Utica natural gas to North Carolina are in development.99,100

North Carolina ranks among the 10 states with the lowest per capita natural gas consumption.

North Carolina ranks among the 10 states with the lowest natural gas use per capita.101 Natural gas use for electricity generation in the state has nearly quadrupled during the past decade.102 The electric power sector is the state's largest natural gas consumer and accounted for about three-fifths of the natural gas delivered to end-users in 2021. The industrial sector led state consumption until 2012, when the electric power sector became the largest natural gas user for the first time. In 2021, the industrial sector accounted for one-fifth of the state's total natural gas use. The residential sector, where one out of four North Carolina households use natural gas for home heating, accounted for about one-eighth of state natural gas use, followed by the commercial sector at nearly one-tenth. The state's transportation sector uses a small amount of natural gas as vehicle fuel.103,104

Coal

North Carolina has a small amount of economically recoverable coal reserves but no commercial coal production.105,106 The Deep River coalfield in central North Carolina is the only area in the state known to have coal. Bituminous coal was produced from that field intermittently from 1854 to 1953. Production in the Deep River area ceased because the remaining coal is deeply buried, and the coalbeds are broken by many geologic faults. It is estimated that more than 110 million tons of coal exist in that area, but, because of the difficult geology, less than half of the coal might ever be mined.107

Fuel-grade peat deposits, averaging about 5 feet in thickness, cover almost 700,000 acres of coastal North Carolina. Peat consists of partially decomposed plant debris and is an early stage in the development of coal. There are about 500 million tons of moisture-free peat in the state, but North Carolina peat has been used only in agricultural products, not for energy. Most of the state's peat is found in coastal swamps and other environmentally sensitive areas.108,109

Almost all of the coal consumed in North Carolina is used for electricity generation. Most of the coal delivered to the state's seven coal-fired power plants is transported by rail from states east of the Mississippi River, primarily Pennsylvania and West Virginia. A small amount of coal is also consumed by North Carolina industrial and commercial users.110,111,112

Endnotes

1 North Carolina State Parks, Mount Mitchell State Park, accessed November 14, 2022.
2 NETSTATE, The Geography of North Carolina, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
3 Donegan, Brian, "North Carolina Second Only to Florida for U.S. Tropical Storms and Hurricanes," The Weather Channel (September 11, 2018).
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), North Carolina Profile Data, Environment, accessed November 14, 2022.
5 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science Data and Tools, Maps, Biomass, Geothermal, Solar, Wind, accessed November 14, 2022.
6 U.S.EIA, Electric Power Annual 2021 (November 7, 2022), Table 3.21, Net Generation from Solar Photovoltaic.
7 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in North Carolina, Maps & Data, accessed November 14, 2022.
8 North Carolina Forestry Association, Members, accessed November 14, 2022.
9 NC State Extension, Economic Contribution of the Forest Sector in North Carolina, 2020.
10 Geology.com, North Carolina Lakes, Rivers and Water Resources, accessed November 14, 2022.
11 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of October 2022, North Carolina, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
12 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Profile Data, Reserves, and Supply & Distribution, accessed November 14, 2022.
13 "Trump extends drilling ban off North Carolina," Reuters (September 25, 2020).
14 U.S. EIA, U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual 2021 (November 7, 2022), Table 3.13, Utility-Scale Facility Net Generation from Nuclear Energy.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2020.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2020.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2020.
19 Federal Aviation Administration, CY 2021 Passenger Boarding Data, Enplanements at All Commercial Service Airports by Rank.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2020.
21 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2021 North Carolina Agricultural Statistics, p. 9.
22 Economic Development Partnership of North Carolina, Industries, accessed November 14, 2022.
23 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data Tables, Regional Tables, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, North Carolina, All statistics in table, 2021.
24 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-21.
25 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual 2021 (November 7, 2022), Table 3.13, Utility-Scale Facility Net Generation from Nuclear Energy.
26 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-21.
27 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-21.
28 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Electricity Profile 2021, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2021.
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of October 2022, Plant State: North Carolina, Technology: All; Inventory of Retired Generators as of October 2022, Plant State: North Carolina, Technology: All.
30 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-21.
31 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual 2021 (November 7, 2022), Table 3.7, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation.
32 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Electricity Profile 2021, Table 10, Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 through 2021.
33 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), North Carolina, 2001-21.
34 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2011 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, North Carolina.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), North Carolina, 2001-21.
36 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
37 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, North Carolina, Electric, accessed November 27, 2022.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-21.
39 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual 2021 (November 7, 2022), Table 3.21, Net Generation from Solar Photovoltaic, Table 3.22, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Solar Thermal.
40 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual 2021 (November 7, 2022), Table 4.7.B, Net Summer Capacity Using Primarily Renewable Energy Sources and by State, 2021 and 2020 (Megawatts).
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-21.
42 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of October 2022, Plant State: North Carolina, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
43 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Profile Overview, Map, Layer List: Hydroelectric Power Plants, Pumped Storage Power Plants, accessed November 18, 2022.
44 Tennessee Valley Authority, "Hiwassee Dam Unit 2 Reversible Pump-Turbine 1956," (July 14, 1981), p. 3, 5.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-21.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of October 2022, Plant State: North Carolina, Technology: Landfill Gas, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass, Other Waste Biomass.
47 Morrison, James, "In North Carolina, Hog Waste Is Becoming A Streamlined Fuel Source," North Carolina Public Radio (April 17, 2018).
48 Sullivan, Karen, "Gas from swine, poultry waste will power 4 Duke plants," The Charlotte Observer (March 20, 2016).
49 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, September 2022.
50 U.S. EIA, "New EIA survey collects data on production and sales of wood pellets," Today in Energy (December 14, 2016).
51 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, North Carolina.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-21.
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of October 2022, Plant State: North Carolina, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
54 Carnevale, Chris, "Amazon Wind Farm in North Carolina," CleanEnergy.org (August 14, 2020).
55 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), North Carolina, 2001-21.
56 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in North Carolina, Maps & Data, North Carolina Offshore 90-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential, accessed November 18, 2022.
57 State of North Carolina Governor, Executive Order No. 218, Advancing North Carolina's Economic and Clean Energy Future with Offshore Wind (June 9, 2021).
58 Kitty Hawk Offshore, Project Overview, accessed November 18, 2022.
59 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, North Carolina Activities, State Overview, Kitty Hawk North Wind, accessed November 18, 2022.
60 Kitty Hawk Offshore, Construction and Operations Plan (July 26, 2021), p. 1.
61 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Carolina Long Bay, accessed November 18, 2022.
62 Duncan, Charles, "Will North Carolina get offshore wind farms? Right now it's up to one state commission," Spectrum News 1 (November 18, 2022).
63 U.S. EIA, U.S. Biodiesel Plant Production Capacity Report (August 8, 2022), Detailed annual production capacity by plant is available in XLS format.
64 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity Report (August 8, 2022), U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity as of January 1, 2022, available in XLS.
65 U.S. EIA, "New EPA ruling expands sale of 15% ethanol blended motor gasoline," Today in Energy (July 16, 2019).
66 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, North Carolina, Ethanol (E85), accessed November 18, 2022.
67 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, North Carolina, Biodiesel (B20 and above), accessed November 18, 2022.
68 U.S. EIA, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2020.
69 North Carolina Utilities Commission, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (REPS), accessed November 18, 2022.
70 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard, updated March 24, 2022.
71 North Carolina Utilities Commission, Annual Report Regarding Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard in North Carolina (October 1, 2021), p. 57.
72 Duncan, Charles, "North Carolina has a new clean energy law. Here's what's in it," Spectrum News 1 (October 14, 2021).
73 General Assembly of North Carolina, House Bill 951, accessed November 18, 2022.
74 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Profile Data, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, and Estimated Production, 2015-20.
75 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2016-21.
76 North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality, NC Mineral Resources, An Overview, Mineral Fuels, Petroleum and natural gas, accessed November 21, 2022.
77 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, North Carolina, Annual (as of January 1), 2017-22.
78 Colonial Pipeline Company, About Us, Our Company, System Map, accessed November 21, 2022.
79 Kinder Morgan, Product Pipelines, Southeast Operations, accessed November 21, 2022.
80 Kinder Morgan, Form 10-K, For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, Products Pipeline, Southeast Refined Products, PPL Pipeline, p. 10.
81 Enterprise Products Partners L.P., Dixie Pipeline, accessed November 21, 2022.
82 Enterprise Products Partners L.P., Form 10-K (December 31, 2021), p. 8.
83 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, Previous Issues, August 2021 through August 2022.
84 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
85 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
86 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2020.
87 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, U.S Gasoline Requirements Map (updated January 2018).
88 "New EPA ruling expands sale of 15% ethanol blended motor gasoline," Today in Energy (July 16, 2019).
89 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table E20, Motor Gasoline Price and Expenditure Estimates, Ranked by State, 2020.
90 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2020.
91 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
92 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, North Carolina.
93 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
94 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet NG, 2015-20.
95 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, 2016-21.
96 North Carolina Environmental Quality, Oil and Gas Program Geologic Assessment, accessed November 21, 2022.
97 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, North Carolina, 2016-21.
98 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Natural Gas Interstate Receipts From Virginia, Annual, 1989-2021.
99 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Maryland and Virginia, 2016-21.
100 MVP Southgate, Overview, accessed November 21, 2022.
101 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Pipelines, Pipeline Projects, accessed November 21, 2022.
102 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
103 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2021.
104 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, North Carolina, Annual, 2016-21.
105 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, North Carolina.
106 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 18, 2022), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2021.
107 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 18, 2022), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2021 and 2020.
108 North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality, Energy, Mineral and Land Resources, North Carolina Geological Survey, Mineral Fuels, NC Mineral Resources, An Overview, Mineral Fuels, Coal, accessed November 21, 2022.
109 North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality, Energy, Mineral and Land Resources, North Carolina Geological Survey, Mineral Fuels, NC Mineral Resources, An Overview, Mineral Fuels, Peat, accessed November 21, 2022.
110 U.S. EIA, Glossary, Peat, accessed November 21, 2022.
111 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 18, 2022), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2021 and 2020.
112 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of October 2022, North Carolina, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
113 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2021 (October 18, 2022), Domestic distribution of coal by: Destination state, consumer, destination and method of transportation, North Carolina Table DS-29, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2021.