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Oklahoma   Oklahoma Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)



Last Updated: January 18, 2018

Overview

Oklahoma is in the heart of the Mid-Continent oil region, a vast oil- and natural gas-producing area extending northward from Texas and flanked by the Mississippi River to the east and the Rocky Mountain states to the west.1 Crude oil and natural gas wells can be seen across much of Oklahoma, and some of the largest natural gas and oil fields in the country are found in the state.2,3 Eastern Oklahoma is also a coal-mining region.4 However, fossil fuels are not the state's only energy resources. The open plains and low hills of the prairie that cover most of Oklahoma give the state significant wind energy potential, and wind is providing an increasing share of Oklahoma's electricity generation.5,6,7 With several rivers and large reservoirs, the state has substantial hydropower resources.8,9,10 Solar potential is also widespread and available solar energy resources increase to the west across Oklahoma as sunny, arid conditions increase and precipitation decreases.11,12

Oklahoma's economy is diverse.13 The state is best known, however, for its energy-intensive petroleum and natural gas industries.14 Total energy consumption in the state is above the national median, and Oklahoma is in the top 10 states in energy use per capita. Oklahoma's industrial sector is the largest end-use energy consuming sector in the state, followed by the transportation sector. While residential sector energy consumption is below the national median, per capita residential energy consumption in Oklahoma is in the top one-third of states.15,16,17

Petroleum

Cushing, Oklahoma, is the pricing point for the U.S. benchmark crude oil, West Texas Intermediate.

Oklahoma holds about 4% of the nation's proved petroleum reserves, and the state produces a substantial amount of crude oil.18 The state's annual production is nearly 5% of the nation's total, making Oklahoma one of the top five petroleum-producing states.19 Although oil fields predominate in the eastern half of the state and natural gas fields in the west, oil wells are found throughout Oklahoma.20 One of the 100 largest oil fields in the United States is an Oklahoma oil field that was discovered in 1905.21 The state's oil industry experienced declining production from the mid-1980s until 2005, when crude oil production in Oklahoma hit its lowest point since 1913.22 Production has rebounded in recent years and, in 2016, it was two and a half times the 2005 level.23 Proved reserves also more than doubled between 2007 and 2016.24

Oklahoma crude oil provides feedstock for the state's refineries, which have a combined distillation capacity of more than 511,000 barrels per calendar day-nearly 3% of the total U.S. refining capacity.25 The number of operable refineries in Oklahoma has declined from 13 in the early 1980s to 5 in 2017.26 Several petroleum product pipelines connect those refineries to markets in Oklahoma and in other states.27

The city of Cushing, in central Oklahoma, is known internationally as the designated delivery and pricing point for the U.S. benchmark crude oil, West Texas Intermediate (WTI).28 It has been called the most significant trading hub for crude oil in North America, and it is the terminus for many crude oil pipelines.29 It is also a major storage terminal, with about one-sixth of the nation's crude oil storage capacity, excluding the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.30 Over the past decade, end-of-year stocks of crude oil at Cushing have increased from less than 26 million barrels to almost 68 million barrels.31 The Cushing hub connects producers and importers to refiners in other parts of the country, originally transporting Gulf Coast and Mid-Continent crude oil north to Midwest refining markets. Additional pipeline capacity from Cushing south to the Gulf Coast refining centers has recently come online.32

Per capita petroleum consumption in Oklahoma is greater than in seven-tenths of the states. The transportation sector uses nearly four-fifths of petroleum consumed in Oklahoma. The industrial sector uses most of the rest. The residential sector, where only about 0.1% of households use fuel oil or kerosene for home heating, accounts for less than 2% of state consumption.33,34,35

Many important oil and gas conservation practices and organizations trace their origins to Oklahoma.

The discovery of oil in Oklahoma transformed the state's economy. By the time Oklahoma became a state in 1907, it was the largest oil producer in the nation.36 Because the early history of petroleum development in Oklahoma was one of booms and busts, including unregulated overproduction and waste, many important oil and gas conservation practices and organizations trace their origins to the state. In 1935, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, was created. Its mission is to ensure responsible development of petroleum resources through the coordinated efforts of oil-producing states. The voluntary IOGCC has grown from an association of 6 oil-producing member-states in 1935 to 30 member-states and 8 associates in 2017.37,38,39

Natural gas

All or part of 14 of the 100 largest U.S. natural gas fields, as measured by proved reserves, are in Oklahoma. Proved natural gas reserves in the state peaked in 2014 at more than 34 trillion cubic feet.40,41 Oklahoma's annual natural gas production reached an all-time high of nearly 2.5 trillion cubic feet in 2015, about 7.6% of the U.S. total, and gross withdrawals were almost as high in 2016.42

The Hugoton–to–Chicago pipeline initiated the marketing of natural gas far from its source.

The Hugoton Gas Area is the largest natural gas field in Oklahoma and one of the largest natural gas fields in the United States, covering much of the Oklahoma panhandle, as well as parts of the Texas panhandle and Kansas.43 The initial development of the Hugoton natural gas reserves was limited by lack of accessible markets. As a result, in 1931, construction of a 24-inch, high-pressure pipeline from the Hugoton Gas Area to Chicago area markets was completed, initiating long-distance pipeline transportation of natural gas. The ability to market natural gas far from where it was produced was a critical development in the creation of the modern natural gas industry.44 Today a web of major interstate and intrastate natural gas pipelines covers the state.45

Oklahoma has substantial shale gas and coalbed methane resources. In 2015, Oklahoma was the fifth-largest shale gas-producing state, and the state has more than one-tenth of the nation's proved shale gas reserves.46,47 Oklahoma produced more than 4.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas from shale between 2007 and 2015, and production has been steadily increasing.48 Oklahoma also has coalbed methane resources in the eastern part of the state.49 More than 658 billion cubic feet of natural gas have been produced from Oklahoma coalbeds since 2005.50 By the end of 2015, the state's remaining proved coalbed methane reserves equaled almost half the amount that had already been extracted.51

Almost half of the natural gas delivered to consumers in Oklahoma is used for electric power generation. The industrial sector consumes slightly more than one-third of end-use deliveries. Although more than half of Oklahoma households use natural gas for home heating, the residential sector accounts for only about one-tenth of the natural gas delivered to consumers in the state.52,53 In addition to end-use consumption, a substantial amount of natural goes for lease, plant, and pipelines use. Typically, more than one-fourth of Oklahoma's natural gas gross withdrawals are consumed within the state.54,55 The remaining supply is sent by pipeline through Kansas, Arkansas, Texas, and Missouri on its way to other markets. In 2016, almost three times as much natural gas flowed out of Oklahoma as flowed into the state.56

Coal

Oklahoma's coal reserves are modest. The Oklahoma coal mining region extends south from the Kansas border in northeastern Oklahoma and eastward to the Arkansas border. Currently there are only four active mines, all in the eastern part of the state.57,58 Commercial coal-mining began in Oklahoma in 1873. Numerous early mines supplied the railroads and production peaked at 4 million tons per year during World War I, but production decreased in the 1920s.59 By 2016, only small amounts of bituminous coal were produced at one underground mine and three surface mines in the state.60,61 Coal mined in Oklahoma meets only a small fraction of the state's needs. Even so, some of the state's production is shipped to industrial users in neighboring states. Almost all the coal consumed in Oklahoma is brought into the state from Wyoming by rail for use by the electric power sector.62,63

Electricity

Oklahoma's largest power plants are either coal- or natural gas-fired.64 Together, coal- and natural gas-fired power plants produce almost three-fourths of the electric power generated in the state.65 Coal-fired power generation has decreased from almost half of state electricity generation a decade ago to less than one-fourth of net generation in 2016. As coal's share has decreased, wind-powered generation has increased, and, by 2016, wind provided more than one-fourth of Oklahoma's net generation. In 2016, Oklahoma ranked third in the nation, behind Texas and Iowa, in electricity generation from wind. Independent power producers are providing increasing amounts of the state's utility-scale net electricity generation, and three-fifths of their share is generated by wind.66,67 Less than 4% of Oklahoma's electricity generation comes from other renewable resources, primarily from hydroelectric power. Oklahoma does not have any nuclear power plants.68

Oklahoma's total electricity consumption per capita is higher than the national average and greater than in three-fourths of the states.69,70 Retail sales of electricity are highest in the residential sector where more than one-third of Oklahoma households rely on electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.71

Renewable energy

Oklahoma ranked third in the nation in electricity generation from wind in 2016.

Oklahoma generates almost three-tenths of its electricity from renewable resources, mostly from wind energy but also from other renewable energy resources, particularly hydroelectric dams and, to a much more limited extent, biomass and solar energy. The state is among the top producers of electricity from wind. In 2016, Oklahoma's wind resource provided more than one-fourth of the state's electricity generation, a larger share than in all but three other states, and wind's contribution is increasing.72 In 2017, wind energy provided almost one-third of Oklahoma's net electricity generation.73 The state had more than 6,600 megawatts of installed wind capacity by the end of 2016, and more than 1,600 additional megawatts were under construction.74

Many of the rivers that flow across Oklahoma have been dammed to form lakes, and the state has more man-made lakes than any other state in the nation.75,76 Those dams, and the rivers they restrict including the Neosho River, the Grand River, and the Arkansas River, are the sites of seven hydroelectric power generation facilities.77,78 Hydroelectric power contributes varying amounts to the state's electric grid, depending on river levels, precipitation, and drought. On average, hydroelectric power provides about 3% of the state's annual net generation.79,80 There is one hydroelectric pumped storage power plant in the state. It has more than 250 megawatts of generating capacity. Biomass resources provide a small amount of power generation in Oklahoma. They include wood and wood waste, municipal solid waste, and landfill gas.81 Oklahoma is a major agricultural state, and it ranks among the top states in livestock production.82 The state does not have any ethanol refineries, but it does have one biodiesel plant that uses animal fats as a feedstock.83,84 Solar energy provides a small but increasing amount of electricity generation in Oklahoma. In 2016, solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation was split almost equally between utility-scale facilities and distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) generators.85

Oklahoma's legislature established a renewable energy goal for the state's electric utilities in 2010. The goal set a target of 15% of the state's total installed generation capacity from renewable sources by 2015. A variety of renewable energy resources were allowed, including wind, solar, biomass, hydropower, geothermal, and hydrogen. Energy efficiency and demand-side management could be used to meet up to 25% of the overall goal. The goal did not extend beyond 2015.86 In 2013, the Oklahoma Corporation Commission reported that the state's utilities had already exceeded the 2015 goal.87 By 2016, nearly 7,600 megawatts, almost 30% of the state's installed generating capacity, used renewable resources.88

Energy on tribal lands

Oklahoma's tribal areas are spread across about three-fourths of the state, but only one of the state's 38 federally recognized Native American tribes has a reservation.89,90,91,92 The nearly 1.5 million acres of the Osage Nation Reservation occupies all of Osage County, Oklahoma. The tribe purchased its land, including the mineral rights, in the 19th century. After oil was discovered on their land in 1894, the Osage tribe had newfound wealth.93 The crude oil and natural gas resources on the reservation are now administered by the Osage Minerals Council. The tribe continues to receive income from the significant amounts of crude oil and natural gas produced in the county.94

Oklahoma's tribal areas share in many of the state's renewable resources. Some tribes are using solar energy for distributed generation. The Delaware Nation installed a 37.5-kilowatt solar array on the roof of their headquarters complex north of Anadarko, Oklahoma.95 Several tribal areas in Oklahoma have wind potential.96 Taking advantage of their wind resources, five tribes have partnered with a company that develops and constructs wind power projects to build a wind farm around the Chilocco Indian School at Chilocco. One of the largest wind farms on U.S. tribal areas is being constructed on land that is owned by and leased from five Oklahoma tribes—the Cherokee Nation, the Kaw Nation, the Otoe-Missouri Tribe, the Pawnee Nation, and the Ponca Nation.97 Construction of the wind farm began in December 2013 and is expected to begin operation in 2018.98,99 Other energy resource options are being explored by Oklahoma tribes. For example, the Citizen Potawatomi Nation has explored using waste heat and ground-source heat pumps, and the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma has pursued the development of a waste-to-energy project.100,101

Endnotes

1 "Midcontinent Oil Region," Dictionary of American History, Encyclopedia.com, accessed December 19, 2017.
2 Boyd, Dan T., Map of Oklahoma Oil and Gas Fields, Map GM-36, Oklahoma Geological Survey (2002).
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015).
4 Oklahoma Department of Mines, Coal Division, Coal and Coal Combustion, Coal Production, accessed December 20, 2017.
5 East Central University Department of Cartography and Geography, Web Atlas of Oklahoma, Physiography (July 2004).
6 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Oklahoma, accessed December 20, 2017.
7 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
8 Oklahoma Historical Society, Lakes and Reservoirs, accessed December 20, 2017.
9 McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System, 2016 Inland Waterway Fact Sheet.
10 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants, DOE-ID-11263 (January 2006), p. 26.
11 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data, Solar Maps, Direct Normal Solar Resource of Oklahoma (April 4, 2017).
12 Oklahoma Climatological Survey, Climate of Oklahoma, accessed December 20, 2017.
13 Evans, Monty, Oklahoma Economic Indicators, Oklahoma Employment Security Commission (November 2017), p. 11.
14 State Chamber of Oklahoma Research Foundation, Economic Impact of the Oil & Gas Industry on Oklahoma, Executive Summary (September 2016).
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Oklahoma Tables CT4, CT5, CT6, CT7, CT8.
18 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Profile Data, Reserves, accessed December 20, 2017.
19 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2011-16.
20 Boyd, Dan T., Map of Oklahoma Oil and Gas Fields, Map GM-36, Oklahoma Geological Survey (2002).
21 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 1, Top 100 U.S. oil fields as of December 31, 2013.
22 Oklahoma Corporation Commission, 2011 Report on Oil and Natural Gas Activity within the State of Oklahoma, p. 14.
23 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981-2016.
24 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Crude Oil Proved Reserves, 1977-2016.
25 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, as of January 1, 2017.
26 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Number of Operable Refineries as of January 1, 1982-2017.
27 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Profile Overview Map, Petroleum Product Pipeline and Petroleum Refinery Layers, accessed December 21, 2017.
28 Miller, K. D., M. T. Chevalier, and J. Leavens, The Role of WTI as a Crude Oil Benchmark (January 2010), p. 24-25.
29 National Petroleum Council, Paper #1-7 Crude Oil Infrastructure (September 15, 2011), p. 8.
30 U.S. EIA, Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity as of September 30, 2017, Table 3, Net Available Shell Storage Capacity of Terminals and Tank Farms as of September 30, 2017.
31 U.S. EIA, Cushing, OK Ending Stocks of Crude Oil, 2006-16.
32 Platts Price Group, Oil Division, Special Report, New Crudes, New Markets, Platts (March 2013), p. 2, 14.
33 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
34 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Table PEPANNRES, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016, 2016 Population Estimates.
35 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Oklahoma, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
36 Oklahoma Energy Resources Board, Oklahoma: Where Energy Reigns (2007), p. 26.
37 Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission, About Us, Our History, accessed December 22, 2017.
38 Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission, About Us, Interstate Oil and Gas Commission Charter, accessed December 22, 2017.
39 Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission, Member States, accessed December 22, 2017.
40 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2, Top 100 U.S. gas fields as of December 31, 2013.
41 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31., Oklahoma, 2010-2015.
42 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2016, accessed December 22, 2017.
43 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2, Top 100 U.S. gas fields as of December 31, 2013.
44 The Historical Marker Database, Panhandle Area Natural Gas, accessed December 22, 2017.
45 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Profile Date, Natural Gas Inter/Intrastate Pipeline Map Layer, accessed December 22, 2017.
46 U.S. EIA, Shale Gas Estimated Production, 2010-15.
47 U.S. EIA, Shale Gas Proved Reserves as of December 1, 2015.
48 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Shale Production, 2007-15.
49 U.S. EIA, Coalbed Methane Fields, Lower 48 States, updated April 8, 2009.
50 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Production, 2005-15.
51 U.S. EIA, Coalbed Methane, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2015.
52 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Oklahoma, 2011-16.
53 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Oklahoma, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
54 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Oklahoma, Annual, 2011-16.
55 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Oklahoma, 2011-16.
56 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Oklahoma, Annual, 2011-16.
57 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2016 and 2015, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2016.
58 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Profile Overview, All Coal Mines Map Layer, accessed December 22, 2017.
59 Sewell, Steven L., "Coal," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture (2009).
60 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2016.
61 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2016 and 2015.
62 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2016 and 2015.
63 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Oklahoma, Table DS-35, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2016, and Table OS-20, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2016.
64 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2015.
65 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B., 1.4.B., 1.7.B.
66 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2015, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2015.
67 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.14.B.
68 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
69 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.4.B.
70 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Table PEPANNRES, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016, 2016 Population Estimates.
71 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Oklahoma, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
72 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
73 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (December 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
74 American Wind Energy Association, Oklahoma Wind Energy, accessed December 24, 2017.
75 Oklahoma Historical Society, Lakes and Reservoirs, accessed December 24, 2017.
76 OutdoorsOK, Oklahoma Lakes, accessed December 24, 2017.
77 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
78 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Hydropower, Licensing, Complete List of Active Licenses, Oklahoma, accessed December 24, 2017.
79 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B.
80 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2015, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2015.
81 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
82 Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food and Forestry, Oklahoma Agricultural Statistics 2016, Pocket Facts, accessed December 24, 2017.
83 Ethanol Producer Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Platforms, Operational, updated September 23, 2017.
84 Biodiesel Magazine, U.S. Biodiesel Plants, Operational, updated December 13, 2017.
85 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.17.B.
86 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Oklahoma Renewable Energy Goal, updated December 16, 2015.
87 Oklahoma Corporation Commission, The Oklahoma Corporation Commission's 2013 Report on the Oklahoma Energy Security Act (2014).
88 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 6.2.A.
89 Oklahoma Department of Transportation, Planning and Research Division, Tribal Jurisdictions in Oklahoma (2010).
90 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, "Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs," Federal Register, Vol. 82 No.10 (January 17, 2017), p. 4915-20.
91 National Conference of State Legislatures, Federal and State Recognized Tribes, Oklahoma, updated October 2016.
92 U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, The National Atlas of the United States, Oklahoma Federal Lands and Indian Reservations (2004).
93 Landry, Alysa, "Native History: Osage Forced to Abandon Lands in Missouri and Arkansas," Indian Country Today (November 10, 2013).
94 The Osage Nation, Mineral Council, accessed December 25, 2017.
95 "A Nation's Solar System: The Delaware Nation Moves to Sun Power and Solar Manufacturing," Indian Country Today (June 26, 2011).
96 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development, Division of Energy and Mineral Development, Native American Wind Resource Atlas (2010), p. 46-51.
97 Murphy, J., "Tribe Pushes Forward with Wind Farm," Cherokee Phoenix (May 24, 2013).
98 PNE Wind, Financial report on the first six months and the second quarter of 2015 (August 7, 2015), p. 20.
99 PNE Wind, Project Development, Projects, accessed December 25, 2017.
100 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Tribal Energy Program, Citizen Potawatomi Nation 2005 Project, accessed December 25, 2017.
101 Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Request for Proposal, Energy and Mineral Consulting Services (March 31, 2015).