U.S. Energy Information Administration logo
Skip to sub-navigation
‹ U.S. States

Oklahoma   Oklahoma Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Visit EIA's U.S. Energy Atlas, our new interface for web map applications and geospatial data catalogue.

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)



Last Updated: April 15, 2021

Overview

Oklahoma is in the heart of the U.S. Mid-Continent oil region, a vast oil- and natural gas-producing area that also encompasses Kansas, Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, and New Mexico and is flanked by the Mississippi River to the east and the Rocky Mountain states to the west.1,2 Natural gas and crude oil wells can be seen across much of Oklahoma, and some of the largest natural gas and oil fields in the country are found in the state.3,4 Eastern Oklahoma is also a coal-mining region.5 However, fossil fuels are not the state's only energy resources. Although Oklahoma has mountains in the east and mesas in the west, it is a plains state.6,7 Winds that blow across the open plains give the state significant wind energy potential, and wind provides a substantial and increasing share of Oklahoma's electricity generation.8,9 With several rivers and large reservoirs, the state also has ample hydropower resources.10,11,12 Oklahoma's climate is humid and subtropical in the east and semi-arid in the west. While solar potential in Oklahoma is widespread, the available solar energy resource increases across the state from east to west as sunny, arid conditions increase and precipitation decreases.13,14

Oklahoma is the 28th most populated state, but it ranks 10th in the nation in energy use per capita.15,16 Oklahoma's industrial sector, which includes the energy-intensive crude oil and natural gas industries, accounts for nearly two-fifths of the state's end-use energy consumption, and the transportation sector uses almost three-tenths.17 Oklahoma has long, hot summers and shorter winters that are less severe than those typical of the plains states further to the north.18 Despite the summer heat and the widespread use of air conditioning, the state's residential sector accounts for only about 18% of the state's end-use energy consumption, and the commercial sector consumes slightly less at 15%.19,20 In part because Oklahoma is a major crude oil and natural gas-producing state, the state produces almost three times more energy than it consumes.21 Much of the energy produced in Oklahoma, primarily as natural gas, petroleum, and electricity, is sent to other states by interstate pipelines or high-voltage transmission lines.22,23

Natural gas

Oklahoma's proved natural gas reserves are the fifth-largest in the nation, after Texas, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Louisiana. The state has 7% of the nation's total proved reserves and contains all or part of 14 of the 100 largest U.S. natural gas fields as measured by proved reserves.24,25 Oklahoma's annual natural gas production was about 2.8 trillion cubic feet in 2020, down from an all-time high of almost 3.2 trillion cubic feet in 2019.26 Because Oklahoma typically produces between three and four times more natural gas than it consumes, surplus natural gas is added to the volumes transported by the interstate pipelines that cross through the state.27,28 In 2019, nearly three times as much natural gas flowed out of Oklahoma as entered the state. Most of that natural gas was sent to northern and eastern markets through Kansas, Texas, and Arkansas.29

The Hugoton–to–Chicago pipeline enabled the first U.S. marketing of natural gas far from its source.

The Hugoton Gas Area is the largest natural gas field in Oklahoma and one of the largest natural gas fields, as measured by proved reserves, in the United States. It covers much of the western Oklahoma panhandle, as well as parts of the Texas panhandle and Kansas.30 The initial development of the Hugoton natural gas area was limited by a lack of accessible markets. Construction of a 24-inch high-pressure pipeline from the Hugoton Gas Area in Oklahoma to the Chicago area in 1931 enabled the first U.S. long-distance pipeline transportation and marketing of natural gas far from its source. The ability to market natural gas far from where it was produced was a critical development in the creation of the modern natural gas industry.31 Today a web of interstate and intrastate natural gas pipelines covers the state.32 The natural gas produced from the Hugoton field also contains unusually high concentrations of helium. The helium is separated out of the natural gas and piped to the National Helium Reserve in Amarillo, Texas, where it is accessible for use as a coolant and for other scientific and industrial applications.33

Oklahoma has substantial shale gas and coalbed methane resources. In 2019, the state accounted for about 6% of the nation's proved shale gas reserves and was the sixth-largest shale gas producer that year.34,35 Oklahoma's shale wells produced more than 9 trillion cubic feet of natural gas between 2010 and 2019. Production has steadily increased as a result of advanced horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies.36 Oklahoma is also one of a dozen states with natural gas production from coal seams.37 That natural gas resource, called coalbed methane, is found in eastern Oklahoma.38 Coalbed methane production in the state declined from a peak of 82 billion cubic feet in 2007 to 36 billion cubic feet in 2017.39

Oklahoma is the nation's fourth-largest consumer of natural gas on a per capita basis.40 Two-fifths of the natural gas consumed in the state is used for electric power generation, and the industrial sector uses one-fourth. Because of the many natural gas fields in Oklahoma, more natural gas is used for gathering, processing, and distributing natural gas—about one-fifth of the state's total consumption—than is used by the residential and commercial sectors combined. Although half of Oklahoma households heat with natural gas, the residential sector and the commercial sector together account for about one-seventh of the natural gas consumed in the state.41,42

Petroleum

Cushing, Oklahoma, is the designated delivery and pricing point for the U.S. benchmark crude oil, West Texas Intermediate.

Oklahoma has about 5% of the nation's proved crude oil reserves.43 Between 2007 and 2019, the state's proved crude oil reserves more than quadrupled.44 In 2020, Oklahoma was the fourth-largest oil producer among the states and accounted for 4% of the nation's total annual crude oil production.45 Although most oil fields are in the eastern half of the state and most natural gas fields are in the west, oil wells are found throughout Oklahoma.46 One of the 100 largest oil fields in the United States, the Sho-Vel-Tum field, is in Oklahoma. That field has continuously produced crude oil since its discovery in 1905.47 The state's oil industry experienced a decline in production from the mid-1980s until 2005 when crude oil production in Oklahoma hit its lowest point since 1913.48 Production rebounded, and in 2019, it exceeded 212 million barrels, which was 3.5 times more than the state produced in 2005. Production declined again in 2020 as demand fell as a result of COVID-19 mitigation efforts, but annual output remained above 171 million barrels.49,50,51

Oklahoma's crude oil provides feedstock for the state's 5 refineries, which have a combined capacity of almost 523,000 barrels per calendar day-nearly 3% of the total U.S. refining capacity.52,53 Several petroleum product pipelines connect the state's refineries to markets in Oklahoma and in other states. Pipelines also bring crude oil into Oklahoma from other states and Canada, and send it on to refineries in Oklahoma and in other states.54,55 The city of Cushing, in central Oklahoma, is known internationally as the designated delivery and pricing point for the U.S. benchmark crude oil, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), a domestically produced light (low density), sweet (low sulfur content) crude oil traded in both the physical and futures markets.56,57 Cushing is the terminus for many crude oil pipelines.58 It is also a major crude oil storage terminal. It has 15% of the nation's crude oil storage capacity, excluding the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.59

Oklahoma's per capita petroleum consumption is greater than in almost four-fifths of the states.60 The transportation sector uses more than three-fourths of the petroleum consumed in the state, and the industrial sector uses nearly one-fifth. The residential and commercial sectors, together, account for less about 5% of state consumption. Almost 7 in 100 Oklahoma households use hydrocarbon gas liquids, mostly propane, for home heating, and fewer than 1 in 100 use fuel oil or kerosene.61,62

Important oil and gas conservation practices and organizations trace their origins to Oklahoma.

The discovery of oil transformed Oklahoma's economy. By the time Oklahoma became a state in 1907, it was the largest oil producer in the nation.63 Because the early history of oil field development in Oklahoma was one of booms and busts, including unregulated overproduction and waste, important oil and gas conservation practices and organizations trace their origins to the state. In 1935, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, was created to ensure responsible development of crude oil resources through the coordinated efforts of oil-producing states. The voluntary IOGCC has grown from an association of 6 oil-producing member-states in 1935 to 31 member-states and 7 associate member-states in 2021.64,65

Electricity

Oklahoma ranked third in the nation in electricity generation from wind in 2020.

Natural gas and wind energy together account for almost nine-tenths of Oklahoma's in-state electricity net generation. Natural gas fuels the largest share of the state's electricity generation, and 9 of Oklahoma's 10 largest power plants by capacity and generation are natural gas-fired.66 In 2020, natural gas fueled more than half of the state's net generation for the second year in a row, an increase from about one-third in 2001.67 At the same time, coal-fired generation decreased from almost two-thirds of in-state generation in 2001 to less than one-tenth in 2020.68 Wind power accounted for more than one-third of the state's net generation for the second year in a row in 2020 and was the second-largest source of in-state generation.69 Oklahoma ranks third, behind Texas and Iowa, in the amount of electricity generated from wind. In 2020, the state accounted for almost one-tenth of the nation's wind-powered electricity generation.70 Almost all the rest of Oklahoma's net generation comes from other renewable resources, primarily hydroelectric power.71 Oklahoma does not have any nuclear power plants.72

Oklahoma has one hydroelectric pumped storage power plant. That plant has about 260 megawatts of generating capacity.73 Pumped storage allows system operators to purchase inexpensive power during periods of low demand and use it to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. During periods of high electricity demand, water is released from the upper reservoir and flows through turbines to the lower reservoir. Electricity is generated as the water flows through the turbines. A pumped storage facility uses more power than it generates, but it provides grid reliability and supplies power in periods when electricity demand is highest.74

Electricity retail sales in Oklahoma are less than in almost half the states, but per capita electricity sales in Oklahoma are greater than in four-fifths of the states.75 However, Oklahoma generates more electricity than the state consumes, and the surplus is sent out of state.76 About two in five Oklahoma households rely on electricity as their primary energy source for home heating and most use air conditioning during the hot summers. As a result, the residential sector accounts for the largest share of electricity consumption in Oklahoma, but the industrial and commercial sectors each use almost as much.77,78,79

Renewable energy

Oklahoma generated two-fifths of its electricity from renewable resources in 2020, an increase from one-tenth a decade ago. Most of that power is from wind energy, but other renewable energy resources contribute to state generation, including hydropower and, to a lesser extent, biomass and solar energy.80 In 2020, wind energy accounted for 35% of Oklahoma's in-state net generation, a larger share than in all other states except Iowa and Kansas.81 By the end of 2020, Oklahoma had installed more than 9,300 megawatts of wind capacity, which was nine-tenths of Oklahoma's total capacity from all renewable resources.82 Several additional large wind energy projects are planned. A 288-megawatt wind project in north-central Oklahoma is in development with an anticipated completion in late 2021.83,84

Many of the rivers that flow across Oklahoma are dammed to form lakes, and the state has more man-made lakes than any other state in the nation.85,86 Those dams, and the rivers they restrict—including the Neosho River, the Grand River, and the Arkansas River—are the sites of 10 hydroelectric power generating facilities.87 Hydroelectric power contributes varying amounts to the state's electric grid depending on river levels, precipitation, and drought. It typically provides a little more than 3% of the state's annual utility-scale net generation, but in the past 20 years, hydropower has contributed amounts ranging from less than 1% to about 5%.88

Biomass resources provide a small amount of Oklahoma's net generation. There are three utility-scale biomass plants in the state—one that uses wood and wood waste, one that uses municipal solid waste, and one that uses landfill gas. The wood-fueled power plant has the largest capacity and generates the most electricity.89 Collectively, biomass accounts for about 1% of the state's renewable generation.90 Oklahoma also produces liquid biofuels. As a major agricultural state, Oklahoma ranks among the top states in livestock production, and animal fats are used as a feedstock at the state's one biodiesel plant. That plant has a production capacity of 38 million gallons per year.91,92,93

Solar energy provided less than 0.3% of Oklahoma's renewable electricity generation in 2020, and all of that came from photovoltaic (PV) power.94 Almost all of the state's solar generation is from seven utility-scale (1 megawatt or greater) facilities. Those solar arrays, mostly located in sunnier western Oklahoma, have a combined generating capacity of nearly 31 megawatts.95 Although solar power generation from both utility-scale and customer-sited, small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) generators is small, it was two and a half times greater in 2020 than in 2017.96

Oklahoma's legislature established a renewable energy goal for the state's electric utilities in 2010. The goal required that 15% of a utility's installed generation capacity within the state use renewable sources by 2015. The legislation allowed a variety of renewable energy resources, including wind, solar, biomass, hydropower, geothermal, and hydrogen. Energy efficiency and demand-side management could be used to meet up to 25% of the overall goal. By 2015, the goal was exceeded statewide, and 25.9% of Oklahoma's installed capacity came from eligible renewable energy resources and demand-side management.97 By the end of 2020, Oklahoma had 10,300 megawatts of renewable generating capacity, and renewable sources accounted for more than one-third of the state's total generating capacity.98

Coal

Oklahoma has less than 0.5% of the nation's estimated recoverable coal and accounts for less than 0.1% of U.S. total coal production.99,100 The state's coal-mining region is in northeastern Oklahoma and extends south from the Kansas border and eastward to the Arkansas border. Commercial coal mining in Oklahoma began in 1873. Numerous early mines supplied fuel for the railroads, and production peaked at 4 million tons per year during World War I. However, production began to decrease in the 1920s, and, by 2019, the state's three remaining active mines produced only 227,000 tons of bituminous coal.101,102 Oklahoma produces much less coal than the state needs.103 Most of the coal consumed in the state is brought into Oklahoma from Wyoming by rail for use in the electric power sector.104 More than half of the coal mined in Oklahoma is shipped to industrial users and power plants in neighboring states.105

Energy on tribal lands

Oklahoma has the nation's second-largest Native American population, after California.106 Federal legislation enacted at the end of the 19th century stripped reservation status from almost all tribal lands in the territory before it became a state.107 Oklahoma tribes now govern and provide services within tribal jurisdictional areas.108 Oklahoma's tribal areas are spread across about three-fourths of the state, and only one of the state's 38 federally recognized tribes, the Osage, has a reservation.109,110

The nearly 1.5 million acres of the Osage Nation Reservation occupy all of Osage County, Oklahoma. The tribe purchased its land, including the mineral rights, from the Cherokee in the 19th century. After oil was discovered on their land in 1894, the Osage tribe became very wealthy.111 The crude oil and natural gas resources on the reservation are now administered by the Osage Minerals Council. The tribe continues to receive income from the crude oil and natural gas produced in the county.112

In addition to fossil energy resources, Oklahoma's tribal areas share many of the state's renewable resources. Six of the U.S. tribes with the greatest potential for wind-powered electricity generation and six of those with the highest potential for solar PV electricity generation are in Oklahoma. There are 5 Oklahoma tribes among the 15 in the nation with the greatest concentrating solar power potential, and 4 among those with the highest potential for electricity generation using woody biomass. Seven Oklahoma tribes are among those with the greatest biogas potential from wastewater and organic landfill waste in the nation, and 3 Oklahoma tribes are among the nation's 15 tribes with the most hydropower potential.113

Several tribal areas in Oklahoma have wind energy potential.114 The Choctaw Nation obtains all its energy from wind power through a purchase agreement with Oklahoma Gas and Electric made in 2010.115 Five tribes have partnered with a company that develops and constructs wind power projects and plan to build a wind farm on the Chilocco Indian School's land in Chilocco. The 200-megawatt project will be the largest wind farm in the nation that is entirely on Native American land. It is being built on land owned by and leased from five Oklahoma tribes: the Cherokee Nation, the Kaw Nation, the Otoe-Missouri Tribe, the Pawnee Nation, and the Ponca Nation.116,117 Work on development of the wind farm began in 2013, and it is now under construction.118

Other Oklahoma tribes are developing their own energy projects, including microgrids. In 2018, the U.S. Department of Energy funded a Citizen Potawatomi Nation (CPN) energy infrastructure project. Four megawatts of generation fueled by natural gas provide power to nine community facilities and the CPN's senior housing complex. The project reduces the tribe's energy costs and their dependence on coal-fired power.119 The CPN lowered its carbon emissions by also entering a power purchase agreement to buy wind-sourced power for their microgrid.120 Some tribes use solar energy for distributed generation. The Delaware Nation installed a 37.5-kilowatt solar array on the roof of their headquarters complex north of Anadarko, Oklahoma.121 In 2020, two 5-megawatt solar farms, built and owned by the state's largest electric utility, were completed in southeast Oklahoma. Those solar farms will help meet the electricity needs of the Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations with renewable energy.122

Endnotes

1 "Midcontinent Oil Region," Dictionary of American History, Encyclopedia.com, accessed March 19, 2021.
2 Franks, Kenny A., "Petroleum Industry," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, accessed March 24, 2021.
3 Wilmoth, Adam, "Geologist's new maps detail updated oil-field activity across Oklahoma," The Oklahoman (April 28, 2016).
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015).
5 Oklahoma Department of Mines, Coal Program, Coal Production, accessed March 19, 2021.
6 Lewis, Tom, and Sara Jane Richter, "Black Mesa," The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, accessed March 19, 2021.
7 Patton, Jamie J., and Richard A. Marston, "Great Plains," The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, accessed March 19, 2021.
8 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Oklahoma, accessed March 19, 2021.
9 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation from all sectors, Oklahoma, Wind, Annual, 2001-20.
10 Johnson, Kenneth S., "Lakes and Reservoirs," The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, accessed March 19, 2021.
11 McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System, 2019 Inland Waterway Fact Sheet.
12 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants, DOE-ID-11263 (January 2006), Table 7, p. 26.
13 Roberts, Billy J., "Global Horizontal Solar Irradiance, National Solar Radiation Database Physical Solar Model," National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
14 Oklahoma Climatological Survey, Climate of Oklahoma, accessed March 19, 2021.
15 U.S. Census Bureau, Vintage 2020 Population Estimates, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and the District of Columbia: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2020 (NST-EST2020).
16 U.S. EIA, Rankings, Total Energy Consumed per Capita, 2018.
17 NETSTATE, Oklahoma, Oklahoma Economy, Mining, updated December 19, 2017.
18 Oklahoma Climatological Survey, Climate of Oklahoma, accessed March 19, 2021.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
20 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2015, TableHC7.8, Air conditioning in homes in the South and West regions, 2015.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
22 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
23 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Profile Overview, Pipelines and Transmission Map Layers, accessed March 19, 2021.
24 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2, Top 100 U.S. gas fields as of December 31, 2013.
25 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2019.
26 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2020.
27 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Oklahoma, Annual, 2015-20.
28 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Oklahoma, 2015-20.
29 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Oklahoma, Annual, 2014-19.
30 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2, Top 100 U.S. gas fields as of December 31, 2013.
31 The Historical Marker Database, Panhandle Area Natural Gas, accessed March 19, 2021.
32 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Profile Data, Natural Gas Pipeline Map Layer, accessed March 19, 2021.
33 Kammerzell, Jaime, "Helium to Move from Byproduct to Primary Drilling Target," Rigzone (November 18, 2011).
34 U.S. EIA, Shale Gas, Proved Reserves as of December 1, 2019.
35 U.S. EIA, Shale Gas Estimated Production, 2014-19.
36 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Shale Production, 2010-19.
37 U.S. EIA, Coalbed Methane, Estimated Production, 2014-19.
38 Oklahoma Geological Survey, Coal and Coalbed Methane, accessed March 19, 2021.
39 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Production, 2005-17.
40 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
41 U.S. Census Bureau, Oklahoma, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
42 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Oklahoma, 2019.
43 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2019.
44 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Crude Oil Proved Reserves, 1977-2019, Annual.
45 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2015-20.
46 Wilmoth, Adam, "Geologist's new maps detail updated oil-field activity across Oklahoma," The Oklahoman (April 28, 2016).
47 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 1, Top 100 U.S. oil fields as of December 31, 2013.
48 Knight, Gib, "A Look Back at One of The Biggest Oil and Gas Fields," Oklahoma Minerals (November 30, 2016).
49 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981-2020, Annual.
50 Frazier, Zachary, "Oil, gas industry hopes to rebound from ‘absolutely awful' 2020," Oklahoma Minerals (December 8, 2020).
51 U.S. EIA, "COVID-19 mitigation efforts result in the lowest U.S. petroleum consumption in decades," Today in Energy (December 30, 2020).
52 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, Annual (as of January 1), 2020.
53 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, Annual (as of January 1), 2020.
54 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Profile Overview Map, Petroleum Product Pipeline, Crude Oil Pipeline, and Petroleum Refinery Map Layers, accessed March 19, 2021.
55 U.S. EIA, Crude Imports, Imports of all grades to Oklahoma 2020.
56 Evans, Monty, Oklahoma Economic Indicators January 2021, Oklahoma Employment Security Commission (January 2021), p. 19-20.
57 U.S. EIA, "Crude oils have different quality characteristics," Today in Energy (July 16, 2012).
58 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Profile Data, Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layer, accessed March 19, 2021.
59 U.S. EIA, Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity as of March 31, 2020, Table 3, Net Available Shell Storage Capacity of Terminals and Tank Farms as of March 31, 2020.
60 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
61 U.S. Census Bureau, Oklahoma, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
62 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
63 Knight, Gib, "A Look Back at One of The Biggest Oil and Gas Fields," Oklahoma Minerals (November 30, 2016).
64 Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission, About Us, History, Our History, accessed March 20, 2021.
65 Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission, Member States, accessed March 20, 2021.
66 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2019, Tables 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2019, and 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2019.
67 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, All fuels, Natural gas, Annual, 2001-20.
68 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, All fuels, Coal, Annual, 2001-20.
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, All fuels, Wind, Annual, 2001-20.
70 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 1.14.B.
71 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, All fuels, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
72 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Oklahoma, updated September 22, 2020.
73 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
74 U.S. EIA, "Pumped storage provides grid reliability even with net generation loss," Today in Energy (July 8, 2013).
75 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
76 U.S. EIA, Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
77 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F20, Electricity Consumption Estimates, 2019.
78 U.S. Census Bureau, Oklahoma, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
79 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), Table HC7.8, Air conditioning in homes in the South and West regions, 2015.
80 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, All fuels, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20
81 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
82 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 6.2.B.
83 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Proposed Units Only).
84 Invenergy, Maverick Wind Energy Center, accessed March 21, 2021.
85 Johnson, Kenneth S., "Lakes and Reservoirs," Oklahoma Historical Society, accessed March 20, 2021.
86 OutdoorsOK, Oklahoma Lakes, accessed March 20, 2021.
87 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
88 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2001-20.
89 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
90 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Biomass, Wood derived fuels, Other biomass, Annual, 2001-20.
91 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2017 Census of Agriculture State Profile, Oklahoma, p. 2.
92 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
93 Seaboard Energy, Guymon, OK, accessed March 20, 2021.
94 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, All utility-scale solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001-20.
95 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
96 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oklahoma, All solar, Annual, 2001-20.
97 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Oklahoma Renewable Energy Goal, updated June 22, 2018.
98 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 6.2.A.
99 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
100 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018.
101 Sewell, Steven L., "Coal," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, accessed March 21, 2021.
102 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
103 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2019 and 2018.
104 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), By Coal Destination State, Oklahoma, Table DS-34, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
105 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), By Coal Origin State, Oklahoma, Table OS-18, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2019.
106 U.S. Census Bureau, The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010 (January 2012), p. 7.
107 Fixio, Donald, "American Indians," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, accessed March 21, 2021.
108 Oklahoma Department of Transportation, Planning and Research Division, Tribal Jurisdictions in Oklahoma (2010).
109 National Conference of State Legislatures, Federal and State Recognized Tribes, Oklahoma, updated March 2020.
110 Worldofmaps.net, Map of Oklahoma (Map Federal Lands and Indian Reservations), accessed March 21, 2021.
111 Landry, Alysa, "Native History: Osage Forced to Abandon Lands in Missouri and Arkansas," Indian Country Today (November 10, 2013 updated September 13, 2018).
112 The Osage Nation, Mineral Council, accessed March 21, 2021.
113 Milbrandt, Anelia, Donna Heimiller, and Paul Schwabe, Techno-Economic Renewable Energy Potential on Tribal Lands (NREL/TP-6A20-70807), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (July 2018), p. 7, 11, 15, 20, 25, 33.
114 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development, Division of Energy and Mineral Development, Native American Wind Resource Atlas (2010), p. 46-51.
115 Choctaw Nation, Wind Power Energy Contract (April 12, 2010).
116 PNE, Our Projects, accessed March 22, 2021.
117 Murphy, J., "Tribe Pushes Forward with Wind Farm," Cherokee Phoenix (May 24, 2013).
118 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 6.5.
119 U.S. Department of Energy, "Department of Energy to Fund 15 Tribal Energy Infrastructure Deployment Projects" (August 15, 2018).
120 Burger, Andrew, "Microgrids Reside at the Core of Tribal Electric Utilities," Microgrid Knowledge (December 3, 2018).
121 "A Nation's Solar System: the Delaware Nation Moves to Sun Power and Solar Manufacturing," Indian Country Today (June 26, 2011, updated September 13, 2018).
122 Misbrener, Kelsey, "OG&E completes two 5-MW solar projects for Oklahoma tribal nations," Solar Power World (October 14, 2020).