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Michigan   Michigan Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Last Updated: June 17, 2021

Overview

Known as the Great Lakes State, Michigan has portions of four of the five Great Lakes within its boundaries. The northern ends of two of the Great Lakes—Lake Michigan and Lake Huron—divide Michigan into the Upper and Lower Peninsulas.1 The state‘s geologic history includes ancient broad shallow seas in a basin that was centered in Michigan's Lower Peninsula.2 That basin was ringed by reefs that, now deeply buried, contain most of the state's crude oil and natural gas reserves.3 In addition to Michigan's natural gas and crude oil, the state has many renewable energy resources. Winds that sweep across the Great Lakes provide the state with substantial offshore wind energy resources and moderate onshore ones.4 Forests cover more than half of the state's land area and many cities and large towns provide municipal solid waste and landfill gas, giving Michigan considerable biomass resources.5,6,7 Dams on the state's rivers generate hydroelectric power despite the generally level terrain. Most of those dams and all of the largest ones are in the Lower Peninsula, where Michigan's largest and longest rivers are located.8,9

Most of Michigan's population and all of the major cities, manufacturing industries, commercial agriculture, crude oil, and natural gas production are located in the state's Lower Peninsula.10,11 The Upper Peninsula is lightly populated, heavily forested, and contains valuable iron and copper deposits.12,13 With 40,000 square miles of the Great Lakes and thousands of smaller inland lakes and ponds within Michigan's borders, the state's total area is more than two-fifths water.14 As a result, Michigan has more shoreline than any other state except Alaska, and vessels that move through the Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Seaway deliver coal and refined petroleum products at several of the state's Great Lakes ports.15,16,17

Michigan ranks among the top 10 states in both population and total energy use.

Michigan is among the top 10 states in the nation in both population and total energy consumption.18,19 Although the Great Lakes moderate Michigan's temperatures, extremes occur in the interior of the Lower Peninsula. Snowfalls are greatest on the Upper Peninsula and along the Lake Michigan shoreline of the Lower Peninsula.20 In part because of its cold winters, Michigan is among the top one-third of states in per capita residential energy use, but the state's total energy use per capita is below the U.S. average.21 The residential sector is the leading end-use energy-consuming sector, accounting for 27% of the state's energy use, followed closely by the transportation sector at 26%, the industrial sector at 25%, and the commercial sector at 21%.22 Michigan is known for manufacturing automobiles, and transportation equipment accounts for slightly more than two-fifths of the state's manufacturing gross domestic product (GDP). Other important contributors to the state's GDP include the manufacture of machinery; fabricated metal products; chemicals; food and beverage products; and plastics.23 Michigan's most important mined products include natural gas, iron ore, petroleum, and quarried limestone.24

Natural gas

The Antrim Field in the northern portion of the Lower Peninsula contains most of Michigan's natural gas reserves, and the state holds about 0.3% of U.S. total proved reserves.25,26 Michigan's natural gas production declined annually from its 1997 peak of nearly 312 billion cubic feet to slightly less than 84 billion cubic feet in 2019.27,28

Michigan has the largest underground natural gas storage capacity in the nation.

Several interstate pipelines cross Michigan and there are also five U.S.-Canadian natural gas pipeline border crossings, but the state does not have any natural gas market hubs.29 Natural gas enters Michigan from Ohio, Indiana, and Wisconsin. While a small amount of natural gas also arrives by pipeline from Canada, the bulk of the natural gas flowing across the border goes into Canada, most of it at St. Clair, located northeast of Detroit. Smaller volumes of natural gas also intermittently enter Canada at the Detroit, Sault Sainte Marie, and Marysville border crossings.30,31,32 More natural gas enters the state than is consumed there and most of the excess is exported to Canada.33

Some of the natural gas that Michigan receives or produces is injected into underground natural gas storage fields. Michigan has the largest underground natural gas storage capacity in the nation at nearly 1.1 trillion cubic feet, which is almost one-eighth of the U.S. total. The state has 44 natural gas storage fields, the second-largest number after Pennsylvania.34,35 During high demand periods, typically between November and April, natural gas is withdrawn from storage to meet increased demand for space heating. Much smaller volumes of natural gas are withdrawn from storage in summer when natural gas-fueled power generation increases to meet cooling demand.36,37

In 2019, Michigan's total natural gas consumption was 12 times greater than the state's natural gas production.38,39 The residential sector, where more than three-fourths of Michigan households use natural gas as their primary source for home heating, is the largest natural gas consumer, accounting for about one-third of the state's natural gas use.40,41 Michigan routinely ranks among the top 5 states in residential use of natural gas and in the top 10 for total natural gas consumption by all sectors combined.42,43 The electric power sector is the second-largest consumer of natural gas in the state and has been since 2016, making up three-tenths of gas consumption. Natural gas use by the state's electric power sector reached a record high in 2020. The commercial sector and the industrial sector each account for slightly less than one-fifth of the state natural gas consumption.44

Petroleum

Michigan's crude oil reserves and production are modest. The state's crude oil reserves account for 0.1% of the nation's total reserve base, and Michigan's production also accounts for 0.1% of the U.S. total.45,46 Commercial quantities of crude oil were first found in Michigan in 1925.47 However, the state's oil production substantially increased in the 1970s when oil was produced from the deeply buried reefs that ringed the Michigan basin millions of years ago. Those reefs accounted for 29 million of the 35 million barrels of oil produced in Michigan's peak production year of 1979.48,49 Since then, Michigan's crude oil production declined steadily, reaching a low of about 4.2 million barrels in 2020.50

Michigan has one oil refinery, located near Detroit, that can process about 140,000 barrels per calendar day of light sweet and heavy sour crude oils into gasoline, asphalt, propane, and other petroleum products.51,52 Crude oil produced from wells in western Canada enters Michigan by pipelines through Wisconsin and Indiana. Crude oil produced in western Michigan is delivered by an intrastate pipeline to Lewiston, Michigan, where it is integrated into the Enbridge pipeline system that enters the state through northern Wisconsin. The Enbridge pipeline delivers crude oil to a Canadian refinery in Ontario and also has a branch that enters the state from Indiana and delivers crude oil to Michigan on its way to Ontario.53,54,55 Michigan's governor revoked the pipeline's permit in May 2021 because of safety concerns about a potential leak where an underwater section of the pipeline crosses the Mackinac Strait between the state's upper and lower peninsulas. Enbridge refused to shut down the pipeline, and the dispute was sent to federal court.56,57 Another crude oil pipeline that originates in the U.S. Gulf Coast states enters Michigan through Ohio.58 Port Huron on the Lower Peninsula receives additional crude oil imports from Canada.59 Much of the crude oil that enters Michigan exits into Canada at a border crossing between Marysville in Michigan and Sarnia in Ontario.60,61

Petroleum product pipelines bring refined products to Michigan markets in the Lower Peninsula from the Chicago, Illinois, area to the southwest and from the Toledo, Ohio, area to the southeast. There are no petroleum product pipelines in the Upper Peninsula, and most petroleum products are delivered to that region by truck from terminals in Wisconsin.62,63 The Lower Peninsula port cities of Port Huron and Detroit receive almost all the state's petroleum product imports from Canada. Some Canadian petroleum products also arrive at the Sault Sainte Marie port on the Upper Peninsula.64

Michigan has the largest residential sector consumption of propane in the nation.

Michigan' ranks 11th among the states in total petroleum consumption. Four-fifths of the state's petroleum use is in the transportation sector, and motor gasoline accounts for almost two-thirds of Michigan's total petroleum consumption.65,66 Federal regulations allow conventional motor gasoline without ethanol to be sold in most of the state year-round. However, to reduce emissions that contribute to ground-level ozone, eight southeastern Michigan counties regulate the vapor pressure of motor gasoline sold during the summer.67,68,69 The state's industrial sector accounts for about one-tenth of petroleum use. Although the residential sector accounts for only about 7%, Michigan is among the top five states in residential sector petroleum use.70 Almost 1 in 10 Michigan households heat with petroleum products, and nearly 90% of those homes use propane.71 Total consumption of hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGLs) is greater in Michigan than in all but five other states, and Michigan has the largest residential sector HGL consumption, mostly propane, in the nation.72 The commercial sector accounts for most of the rest of the state's petroleum consumption. A small amount of petroleum is used intermittently for electricity generation.73

Electricity

Natural gas-fired power plants provided the largest share of Michigan’s electricity net generation for the first time in 2020.

In 2020, natural gas fueled the largest share of Michigan's electricity generation for the first time, surpassing coal, which fell to third after nuclear power. Natural gas accounted for 33% of the state's electricity net generation, while coal's share fell to 27%. However, 4 of the 10 largest power plants by generating capacity in the state, including the largest, are coal-fired and 3 of the top 10 are fueled by natural gas.74,75 Generating units at a dozen of Michigan's coal-fired power plants have retired in the past decade and no new coal-fired facilities are planned. The state's most recent operating coal-fired generating unit came online in 1990.76 Natural gas-fired power plants' share of Michigan's electricity generation nearly doubled from 2015 to 2020. Natural gas exceeded nuclear power's contribution to the state's generation for the third year in a row in 2020.77 Michigan's three nuclear power plants supplied 29% of in-state electricity.78,79 Wind energy accounts for a small, but growing share of Michigan's electricity generation. In 2020, wind energy provided 6% of the state's total generation. Biomass, hydroelectric power, gases created as byproducts of industrial processes, petroleum coke, and solar energy provided most of the rest of the state's net generation.80,81 Most of Michigan's power plants are located in the more densely populated Lower Peninsula.82

In 2020, Michigan ranked 10th among the states in the amount of electricity generated. Because consumption was less than generation, Michigan sent its surplus electricity out of state via the regional grid.83,84 The residential sector is the state's largest electricity consumer followed very closely by the commercial sector, with each accounting for about 37% of the state's total electricity retail sales. The industrial sector accounts for 26% of sales. In part because of Michigan's large population—10th in the nation—residential electricity sales per person are less than in three-fourths of the states and the national average.85,86,87 Only 1 in 10 Michigan households rely on electricity as their primary source of energy for home heating.88

Renewable energy

Michigan ranks among the top 15 states in the nation in electricity generation from wind.

Renewable energy generated about 11% of Michigan's total in-state electricity, including small-scale (less than one megawatt), net generation in 2020. Most of the state's renewable electricity generation comes from wind. In 2013, wind energy surpassed hydropower and biomass and became Michigan's largest source for renewable generation. In 2020, wind energy supplied three-fifths of the state's renewable electricity and 6% of Michigan's total net generation from all sources.89 The state's strongest onshore winds are along its curving Lake Huron coastline.90,91 Michigan is among the top 15 states in the nation in both generating capacity and actual generation from wind energy.92 The state has more than two dozen wind farms with a total generating capacity in nearly 2,800 megawatts.93 Many of Michigan's wind farms are located between Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron in the eastern part of the state's Lower Peninsula.94

In 2020, biomass provided one-fifth of Michigan's renewable electricity generation and 2% of the state's net generation from all sources.95 The state has three dozen biomass power plants with a combined generating capacity of 508 megawatts. A municipal solid waste plant in the Detroit area is one of the largest on the Lower Peninsula. The biomass plants that are fueled with wood and wood waste are primarily in more heavily forested northern Michigan, including on the Upper Peninsula. Several biomass facilities generate electricity using methane recovered from landfills.96,97 Additionally, the state has anaerobic digesters that convert animal and food waste into biogas (methane) that is used to fuel electricity generation.98,99 Michigan's forests also provide the feedstock for the state's five wood pellet manufacturing plants that have a combined ability to produce 363,000 tons of pellets per year.100 Wood pellets are used as fuel for electricity generation and for space heating. About 3 out of 100 Michigan homes use wood for space heating.101

Michigan has more than 50 conventional hydroelectric dams that accounted for almost 2% of the state's net generation in 2020. However, the state's largest hydroelectric facility by capacity is a pumped-storage plant on the shores of Lake Michigan on the Lower Peninsula.102,103,104 Pumped storage hydroelectric plants use relatively inexpensive power during periods of less electricity demand to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. During periods of high power demand, the water is released from the upper reservoir and flows to the lower reservoir. Electricity is generated as the water flows through turbines that are located in tunnels between the reservoirs. Although the plant uses more power than it generates, it supplies electricity in periods of peak demand when electricity prices are higher.105 Built in 1973, Michigan's Ludington pumped storage plant has a generating capacity of 2,250 megawatts. It is one of the largest pumped storage power plants in the world.106

Michigan produces and consumes biofuels. It has five fuel ethanol production plants, all located in the southern half of the Lower Peninsula.107 Those plants have a combined capacity of about 370 million gallons each year and produced nearly 360 million gallons in 2018.108,109 However, the state is among the nation's top 10 fuel ethanol consumers and uses more than it can produce. In 2019, state consumption of fuel ethanol was almost 451 million gallons.110 Michigan's two biodiesel plants are also on the Lower Peninsula.111 Those plants can produce 15 million gallons of biodiesel fuel each year, compared with almost 35 million gallons consumed in the state annually.112,113

Michigan enacted a renewable energy standard (RES) in 2008 that required the state's retail electricity providers, including investor-owned electric utilities, alternative retail suppliers, electric cooperatives, and municipal electric utilities, to obtain at least 10% of the electricity they sold from renewable energy resources by 2015. The RES goal was met, and, in December 2016, the state's RES requirement increased to 15% of electricity sales by 2021.114 Acceptable renewable energy resources for generating electricity include solar power, biomass, wind, geothermal energy, municipal solid waste, landfill gas, existing hydroelectricity, and tidal, wave, and river currents. The updated RES allows utilities to use energy efficiency to meet a portion of their requirements.115

Coal

Michigan has a small amount of economically recoverable coal reserves, but there are no active coal mines in the state.116 However, Michigan ports, including the Port of Detroit, handle about 30% of all Great Lakes coal shipments.117 The electric power sector uses about 90% of coal consumed in Michigan to generate electricity and heat. The industrial and commercial sectors use the other 10% to produce coke for steelmaking and for electricity and heat.118 Most of the coal consumed in Michigan comes by rail from the West, primarily from Wyoming and Montana. Coal also arrives from nearby states, including Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky.119

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, Michigan, The State of Michigan, updated July 28, 2017.
2 Michigan State University, Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region, The Michigan Basin, accessed May 18, 2021.
3 Michigan State University, Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region, Hydrocarbons: Oil and Gas, accessed May 18, 2021.
4 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Michigan, Maps & Data, accessed May 18, 2021.
5 U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, Michigan Forest Resource Fact Sheet 2021 (February 5, 2021).
6 NETSTATE, Michigan, Michigan Almanac, updated March 9, 2018.
7 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Biomass Power Plant, accessed May 18, 2021.
8 Michigan State University, Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region, Lakes, Rivers and Wetlands, accessed May 18, 2021.
9 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Hydroelectric Power Plant, accessed May 18, 2021.
10 NETSTATE, Michigan, The State of Michigan, updated July 28, 2017.
11 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells, accessed May 18, 2021.
12 NETSTATE, Michigan, The State of Michigan, updated July 28, 2017.
13 Michigan State University, Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region, Iron Mining: Where and Why? and Michigan's Copper Deposits and Mining, accessed May 18, 2021.
14 NETSTATE, Michigan, The Geography of Michigan, updated February 25, 2016.
15 NETSTATE, Michigan, The State of Michigan, updated July 28, 2017.
16 Michigan Economic Development Corporation, Michigan Commercial Ports, accessed May 18, 2021.
17 World Port Source, Michigan Port Index, Detroit/Wayne County Port Authority, Port Commerce, Port of Bay City, Port Commerce, Holland Harbor, Port Commerce, Manistee Harbor, Port Commerce, Wyandotte Harbor, Port Commerce, accessed May 18, 2021.
18 Statista, Resident population of the U.S. in 2020, by state (including the District of Columbia), accessed May 23, 2021.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
20 City-Data, Michigan Climate, accessed May 18, 2021.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
23 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Michigan, All statistics in table, 2019.
24 NETSTATE, Michigan, Michigan Economy, accessed May 18, 2021.
25 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2, Top 100 U.S. gas fields as of December 31, 2013, p. 8.
26 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2014-19.
27 U.S. EIA, Number of Producing Gas Wells, Annual, 2014-19.
28 U.S. EIA, Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2019.
29 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Natural Gas Interstate Pipeline, Natural Gas Pipeline Border Crossing, and Natural Gas Trading Hub, accessed May 18, 2021.
30 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Michigan, 2014-19.
31 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Imports by Point of Entry, Pipeline Volumes, 2015-20.
32 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Exports and Re-Exports by Point of Exit, Pipeline Volumes, 2015-20.
33 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Michigan, 2014-19.
34 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2014-19.
35 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2014-19.
36 U.S. EIA, Michigan Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals, Monthly, January 1990-February 2021.
37 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in Michigan (Including Vehicle Fuel), Monthly, January 2001-February 2021.
38 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2015-20.
39 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2014-19.
40 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Michigan.
41 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Michigan, Annual, 2015-20.
42 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Residential, Annual, 2015-20.
43 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2015-20.
44 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Michigan, Annual, 2015-20.
45 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2015-20.
46 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2014-19.
47 Central Michigan University, Clarke Historical Library, Commercial Quantities of Oil First Discovered in 1925, accessed May 19, 2021.
48 Michigan State University, Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region, Hydrocarbons: Oil and Gas, accessed May 19, 2021.
49 Michigan Public Service Commission, Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, Michigan Energy Overview (October 2011), p. 2.
50 U.S. EIA, Michigan Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 1981-2020.
51 Marathon Petroleum Corporation, Detroit Refinery, accessed May 19, 2021.
52 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 22, 2020), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2020.
53 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Crude Oil Pipeline, accessed May 23, 2021.
54 Markwest Hydrocarbon, Inc., U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Form 8-K (December 18, 2003), Item 2, Acquisition or Disposition of Assets.
55 Michigan Public Service Commission, Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, Michigan Energy Overview (October 2011), p. 2.
56 Fedor, Tyson, "Enbridge will continue operating Line 5 until a court stops them," CTV News (May 14, 2021).
57 Chase, Stephen, and Emma Graney, "Line 5 pipeline: What you need to know about the Enbridge route now at the centre of a U.S.-Canada legal dispute," The Globe and Mail (May 20, 2021).
58 A Barrel Full, Mid Valley Crude Oil Pipeline, accessed May 19, 2021.
59 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, accessed May 19, 2021.
60 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Crude Oil Pipeline and Liquids Pipeline Border Crossing , accessed May 19, 2021.
61 Michigan Public Service Commission, Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, Michigan Energy Overview (October 2011), p. 2.
62 Michigan Public Service Commission, Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, Petroleum Product Pipelines (May 2014).
63 Snyder, Richard D., Governor, State of Michigan, Executive Order No. 2012-12, State of Energy Emergency, Waiver of Regulations Relating to Motor Carriers and Drivers Transporting Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, and Jet Fuel (July 24, 2012).
64 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, accessed May 19, 2021.
65 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
66 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2018.
67 Gardner, K. W., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, American Petroleum Institute (January 2018).
68 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed May 19, 2021.
69 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, accessed May 19, 2021.
70 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
71 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Michigan.
72 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F11, Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Consumption Estimates, 2019.
73 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
74 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2017-20.
75 U.S. EIA, Michigan Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2019; Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2019.
76 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (May 25, 2021), Inventory of Operating, Planned, and Retired Generators as of March 2021, Plant State: Michigan, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
77 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2017-20.
78 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Michigan, updated March 19, 2020.
79 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2017-20.
80 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (May 25, 2021), Inventory of Operating Generators as of March 2021, Plant State: Michigan, Technology: Select All.
81 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2017-20.
82 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: All Power Plants, accessed May 20, 2021.
83 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 5.4.B.
84 U.S. EIA, Michigan Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
85 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), 2017-20.
86 Statista, Resident population of the U.S. in 2020, by state (including the District of Columbia), accessed May 23, 2021.
87 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
88 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Michigan.
89 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2017-20.
90 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Michigan Potential Wind Capacity Chart, Wind Resource Exclusion Table link, accessed May 20, 2021.
91 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Michigan 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed May 20, 2021.
92 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.14.B, 6.2.B.
93 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (May 25, 2021), Inventory of Operating Generators as of March 2021, Plant State: Michigan, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
94 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Wind Power Plant, accessed May 20, 2021.
95 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2017-20.
96 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (May 25, 2021), Inventory of Operating Generators as of March 2021, Plant State: Michigan, Technology: Landfill Gas, Municipal Solid Waste, Other Waste Biomass, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
97 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Biomass Power Plant, accessed May 21, 2021.
98 Scenic View Dairy, Energy, accessed May 21, 2021.
99 Fremont Regional Digester, Home, accessed May 21, 2021.
100 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (May 19, 2021), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, February 2021.
101 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Michigan.
102 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (May 25, 2021), Inventory of Operating Generators as of March 2021, Plant State: Michigan, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
103 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2017-20.
104 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Hydroelectric and Pumped Storage Power Plants, accessed May 21, 2021.
105 U.S. EIA, "Pumped storage provides grid reliability even with net generation loss," Today in Energy (July 8, 2013).
106 Worth, Dan, "The Back-to-the-Future Technology of Ludington's Pumped Storage Electricity Plant," Groundwork Press Release (September 12, 2018).
107 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Ethanol Plant, accessed May 21, 2021.
108 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 25, 2020), U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Production Capacities, January 2020 (Excel File).
109 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2018.
110 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
111 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Biodiesel Plant, accessed May 21, 2021.
112 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 26, 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
113 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
114 "All Michigan electric providers met or exceeded renewable energy standard in 2015, MPSC announces," Daily Energy Insider (February 21, 2017).
115 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Michigan Renewable Energy Standard, updated July 2, 2018.
116 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019, and Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018.
117 Port of Detroit, Facts and Statistics, About the Port of Detroit, accessed May 21, 2021.
118 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2019 and 2018.
119 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Domestic Distribution of U.S. coal by: Destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Michigan, Table DS-20, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.