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Michigan   Michigan Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: June 18, 2020

Overview

With more than half of the state’s land area forested, Michigan has abundant woody biomass resources.

Known as the Great Lakes State, Michigan has, within its boundaries, portions of four of the five Great Lakes. The northern ends of two of the Great Lakes—Lake Michigan and Lake Huron—divide Michigan into Upper and Lower Peninsulas.1 The state‘s geologic history includes ancient broad shallow seas in a basin that was centered in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula.2 That basin was ringed by reefs that, now deeply buried, contain most of the state’s crude oil and natural gas reserves.3 In addition to Michigan’s natural gas and crude oil, the state has many renewable energy resources. Winds that sweep across the Great Lakes provide Michigan with substantial offshore wind energy resources and moderate onshore ones.4 With more than half of the state’s land area covered in forests and many cities and large towns capable of providing municipal solid waste and landfill gas, Michigan has considerable biomass resources.5,6,7 Dams on the state’s rivers provide hydroelectric power despite the generally level terrain. Most of those dams and all of the largest ones are in the Lower Peninsula, where Michigan’s largest and longest rivers are located.8,9

Most of Michigan’s population and all of the major cities, manufacturing industries, commercial agriculture, and crude oil and natural gas production are located in the state’s Lower Peninsula.10,11 The Upper Peninsula is lightly populated, heavily forested, and contains valuable iron and copper deposits.12,13 With 40,000 square miles of the Great Lakes and thousands of smaller inland lakes and ponds within Michigan’s borders, the state is more than two-fifths water.14 As a result, Michigan has more shoreline than any other state except Alaska, and vessels that move through the Great Lakes–Saint Lawrence Seaway deliver coal and refined petroleum products at several of the state’s Great Lakes ports.15,16,17

Michigan is among the top 10 states in the nation in both population and total energy consumption.18,19 Although the Great Lakes moderate Michigan’s temperatures, extremes occur in the interior of the Lower Peninsula. Snowfalls are greatest on the Upper Peninsula and along the Lake Michigan shoreline of the Lower Peninsula.20 In part because of its cold winters, Michigan is among the top one-third of states in per capita residential energy use, but the state’s total energy use per capita is among the bottom two-fifths of all states.21 The transportation sector is the leading end-use energy-consuming sector in the state, followed closely by the residential and industrial sectors.22 Michigan is famous for manufacturing automobiles, and transportation equipment accounts for more than two-fifths of the state’s manufacturing gross domestic product (GDP). Other important contributors to the state’s GDP include the manufacture of machinery, fabricated metal products, chemicals and plastics, as well as food and beverage products.23 Michigan’s most important mined products include natural gas, iron ore, petroleum, and limestone.24

Natural gas

The Antrim Field in the northern portion of the Lower Peninsula contains most of Michigan’s natural gas reserves, and the state holds about 0.3% of the U.S. proved natural gas reserves.25,26 Although there are more than 9,300 producing natural gas wells in the state, Michigan’s natural gas production has declined from its 1997 peak of more than 311 billion cubic feet per year to less than 90 billion cubic feet in 2018.27,28

Several interstate pipelines cross Michigan and there are also five U.S.-Canadian natural gas pipeline crossings, but the state does not have any natural gas market hubs.29 Natural gas enters Michigan from Ohio, Indiana, and Wisconsin, and, although Michigan receives a small amount of pipeline natural gas from Canada, the bulk of the natural gas flowing across the border goes into Canada, most of it at St. Clair. Small amounts intermittently exit at the Detroit, Sault Sainte Marie, Marysville, and Port Huron border crossings.30,31,32 More natural gas enters the state than is consumed there and most of the excess is exported to Canada.33 Some of the natural gas that Michigan receives or produces is injected into underground natural gas storage fields. Michigan is the state with the largest underground natural gas storage capacity in the nation at nearly 1.1 trillion cubic feet, more than one-ninth of the U.S. total. The state also has the second-largest number of natural gas storage fields, after Pennsylvania.34,35 During high demand periods, typically between November and April, natural gas is withdrawn from storage to meet increased demand for use in space heating. Much smaller amounts of natural gas are withdrawn from storage in summer when natural gas-fueled power generation increases to meet cooling demand.36,37

Michigan has the largest underground natural gas storage capacity in the nation.

In 2018, Michigan’s total natural gas consumption was almost 11 times greater than the state’s natural gas production.38,39 The residential sector, where more than three-fourths of Michigan households use natural gas as their primary source for home heating, is the largest natural gas consumer in the state.40,41 Michigan routinely ranks among the top 5 states in residential use of natural gas and in the top 10 for total natural gas consumption by all sectors combined.42,43 The electric power sector is the second-largest consumer of natural gas in the state and has been since 2016.44

Petroleum

Michigan’s crude oil reserves and production are modest. The state’s crude oil reserves account for less than 0.1% of the nation’s total reserve base, and Michigan’s production accounts for less than 0.2% of the U.S. total.45,46 Commercial quantities of crude oil were first found in Michigan in 1925.47 However, the state’s oil production substantially increased in the 1970s when oil was produced from the deeply buried reefs that had ringed the Michigan basin millions of years ago. Those reefs accounted for 29 of the 35 million barrels of oil produced in Michigan’s peak production year of 1979.48,49 Since then, Michigan’s crude oil production has declined steadily, reaching a low of about 5 million barrels in 2019.50

Michigan has one oil refinery, located near Detroit, that can process about 140,000 barrels per calendar day of light sweet and heavy sour crude oils.51,52 Crude oil produced from wells in western Canada enters Michigan through Wisconsin and Indiana.53 Crude oil produced in western Michigan is delivered by an intrastate pipeline to Lewiston, Michigan, where it is integrated into the Canadian pipeline that enters the state through northern Wisconsin. That pipeline delivers crude oil to a Canadian refinery in Ontario. The Canadian pipeline system also has a branch that enters the state from Indiana and delivers crude oil to Michigan on its way to Ontario.54,55 Another crude oil pipeline that originates in the U.S. Gulf Coast states enters Michigan through Ohio.56 Port Huron on the Lower Peninsula receives additional crude oil imports from Canada.57 Much of the crude oil that enters Michigan exits into Canada at a border crossing between Marysville in Michigan and Sarnia in Ontario.58,59 Some of the crude oil that crosses Michigan is processed into motor gasoline, distillates, asphalt, fuel-grade coke, propane, chemical-grade propylene, and oil slurry at the Detroit oil refinery.60

Petroleum product pipelines bring refined products to Michigan markets in the Lower Peninsula from the Chicago, Illinois, area to the southwest and also from the Toledo, Ohio, area to the southeast. There are no petroleum product pipelines in the Upper Peninsula, and most petroleum products are delivered to that region by truck from terminals in Wisconsin.61,62 The Lower Peninsula port cities of Port Huron and Detroit receive almost all the state’s petroleum product imports from Canada. Some Canadian petroleum products also arrive at the Sault Sainte Marie port on the Upper Peninsula.63

Michigan has the largest residential sector HGL consumption in the nation.

Michigan is among the top 11 states in total petroleum consumption. Four-fifths of the state’s petroleum use is in the transportation sector, and motor gasoline accounts for two-thirds of Michigan’s total petroleum consumption.64,65 Federal regulations allow conventional motor gasoline without ethanol to be sold in most of the state year-round. However, in order to reduce emissions that contribute to ground-level ozone, the vapor pressure of motor gasoline sold during the summer is regulated in eight southeastern Michigan counties.66,67 The state’s industrial sector accounts for about one-tenth of petroleum use. Although the residential sector accounts for only about 7%, Michigan is among the top five states in residential sector petroleum use.68 Almost 1 in 10 Michigan households heat with petroleum products, and nearly 90% of those homes use propane.69 Total consumption of hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL), including propane, is greater in Michigan than in all but five other states, and Michigan has the largest residential sector HGL consumption in the nation.70 The commercial sector accounts for most of the rest of the state’s petroleum consumption. A small amount is used for electricity generation.71

Electricity

Coal-fired power plants provide the largest share of Michigan’s net electricity generation.

Coal fuels the largest share of Michigan’s electricity generation, and 4 of the 10 largest power plants in the state are coal-fired.72,73 However, generating units at a dozen coal-fired power plants have been retired in the past decade and no new coal-fired facilities have been added or proposed.74 In 2019, coal fueled nearly one-third of the state’s net generation, down from about half five years earlier. Natural gas-fired power plants’ share of Michigan’s electricity generation almost tripled in the same period. In 2019, natural gas provided three-tenths of the state’s electricity generation, exceeding nuclear power’s contribution for the second year in a row.75 Michigan’s three nuclear power plants typically supply slightly more than one-fourth of the state’s net generation.76,77 Wind energy contributes a small share of the electricity delivered to the Michigan grid, but its contribution increased from about 1,130 megawatts in 2012 to more than 5,800 in 2019. Biomass, gases created as byproducts of industrial processes, and hydroelectric power provide most of the rest of Michigan’s net generation. Petroleum coke and solar energy fuel a small amount of Michigan’s electricity generation. Although there are 39 petroleum-fired power plants in Michigan, they supply very little of the state’s net generation and are used primarily to meet peak demand.78,79,80 Most of Michigan’s power plants are located in the more densely populated Lower Peninsula.81

The amount of electricity generated in Michigan in 2019 was greater than in almost four-fifths of the states. Because consumption was less than generation, Michigan sent its surplus electricity out of state.82,83 The commercial sector is the state’s largest electricity consumer followed by the residential sector. In part because of the state’s large population—10th in the nation—residential electricity sales per person in Michigan are less than in three-fourths of the states and are well below the national average.84,85,86 Only about 1 in 10 Michigan households rely on electricity as their primary source of energy for home heating.87

Renewable energy

Michigan ranks among the top 15 states in the nation in electricity generation from wind.

Renewable energy resources are used to generate about 8% of Michigan’s electricity. Most of the state’s renewable electricity generation comes from wind. In 2013, wind energy surpassed hydropower and biomass for the first time and became Michigan’s largest source for renewable generation. In 2019, wind energy supplied three-tenths of the state’s renewable generation and almost 5% of Michigan’s total in-state electricity generation from all sources.88 Estimates of Michigan’s potential generating capacity from wind have increased with improved turbine technologies and greater turbine heights.89 Michigan is among the top 15 states in the nation in terms of both capacity and generation from wind energy.90 The state has more than two dozen wind farms with a total generating capacity in excess of 2,100 megawatts.91,92 Many of Michigan’s wind farms are located between Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron in the eastern part of the state’s Lower Peninsula.93

Biomass provides one-fourth of Michigan’s renewable electricity generation, or 2% of the state’s net generation from all sources.94 The largest biomass power plant uses municipal solid waste, and the next nine largest biomass plants are fueled with wood and wood waste. The municipal solid waste plant is in the Detroit area on the Lower Peninsula, and the plants that are fueled with wood and wood waste are primarily in more heavily forested northern Michigan, including on the Upper Peninsula. Several biomass facilities generate electricity using methane recovered from landfills, and the rest use other waste biomass or municipal solid waste.95 Michigan’s forests provide the feedstock for the state’s five wood pellet manufacturing plants that have a combined ability to produce more than 200,000 tons of pellets per year.96 Wood pellets are used as fuel for electricity generation and for space heating. Almost 3% of Michigan homes use wood in some form for space heating.97 Additionally, Michigan has anaerobic digesters that convert animal and food waste into biogas (methane) that is used to fuel electricity generation.98,99

Michigan has more than 50 conventional hydroelectric dams that typically supply less than 1.5% of the state’s net generation.100,101 However, Michigan’s largest hydroelectric facility by capacity is a pumped-storage plant on the shores of Lake Michigan on the Lower Peninsula.102 Pumped storage hydroelectric plants use relatively inexpensive power acquired from the electric power grid during periods of low demand to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. During periods of high demand, the water is released from the upper reservoir and flows to the lower reservoir. Electricity is generated as the water flows through turbines that are located in tunnels between the reservoirs. Although the plant uses more power than it generates, it supplies lower cost power in periods of peak demand when electricity prices are highest.103 Built in 1973, Michigan’s Ludington pumped storage plant has been upgraded, and now, with a nameplate generating capacity of more than 2,000 megawatts, it is one of the largest pumped storage power plants in the world.104

Michigan produces and consumes biofuels. It has five fuel ethanol production plants, all located in the southern half of the Lower Peninsula.105 Those plants have a combined capacity of about 370 million gallons each year and produced nearly 350 million gallons in 2017.106,107 However, the state is among the nation’s top 10 fuel ethanol consumers and uses more than it can produce. In 2018, state consumption of fuel ethanol was almost 450 million gallons.108 Michigan’s two biodiesel plants are also on the Lower Peninsula.109 Those plants can produce about 15 million gallons of biodiesel fuel each year, much less than the almost 35 million gallons consumed in the state.110,111

Michigan enacted a renewable energy standard (RES) in 2008 that required the state’s retail electricity providers, including investor-owned electric utilities, alternative retail suppliers, electric cooperatives, and municipal electric utilities, to obtain at least 10% of the electricity they sell from renewable energy resources by 2015. The RES goal was met, and in December 2016, the state’s RES requirement was increased to 15% of electricity sales by 2021.112 Acceptable renewable energy resources for generating electricity include solar power, biomass, wind, geothermal energy, municipal solid waste, landfill gas, existing hydroelectricity, and tidal, wave, and river currents. The updated RES allows utilities to use energy efficiency to meet a portion of their requirements.113

Coal

Michigan has a small amount of economically recoverable coal reserves, but there are no active coal mines in the state.114 However, Michigan’s ports handle about three-tenths of all Great Lakes coal shipments.115 In 2018, more than 26 million tons of coal were consumed in Michigan, with more than nine-tenths of it used by the electric power sector. Coal is also used to produce the coke consumed in steelmaking and some is used by other industrial and commercial consumers in Michigan.116 Most of the coal consumed in Michigan comes by rail from the West, primarily from Wyoming and Montana but also Colorado. Coal also arrives from nearby states, including Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, and Indiana.117

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, Michigan, The State of Michigan, updated July 28, 2017.
2 Michigan State University, Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region, The Michigan Basin, accessed May 1, 2020.
3 Michigan State University, Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region, Hydrocarbons: Oil and Gas, accessed May 1, 2020.
4 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Michigan, accessed May 1, 2020.
5 U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, Michigan Forest Resource Fact Sheet 2020 (April 30, 2020).
6 NETSTATE, Michigan, Michigan Almanac, updated March 9, 2018.
7 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Michigan Profile Overview, Biomass Power Plant Map Layer, accessed May 1, 2020.
8 Michigan State University, Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region, Lakes, Rivers and Wetlands, accessed May 1, 2020.
9 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Hydroelectric Power Plant Map Layer, accessed May 1, 2020.
10 NETSTATE, Michigan, The State of Michigan, updated July 28, 2017.
11 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Oil and Gas Wells Map Layer, accessed May 1, 2020.
12 NETSTATE, Michigan, The State of Michigan, updated July 28, 2017.
13 Michigan State University, Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region, Iron Mining: Where and Why? and Michigan’s Copper Deposits and Mining, accessed May 2, 2020.
14 NETSTATE, Michigan, The Geography of Michigan, updated February 25, 2016.
15 NETSTATE, Michigan, The State of Michigan, updated July 28, 2017.
16 Michigan Economic Development Corporation, Michigan Commercial Ports, accessed May 2, 2020.
17 World Port Source, Michigan Port Index, Detroit/Wayne County Port Authority, Port Commerce, Port of Bay City, Port Commerce, Holland Harbor, Port Commerce, Manistee Harbor, Port Commerce, Wyandotte Harbor, Port Commerce, accessed May 2, 2020.
18 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2019, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019 (NST-EST2019-01).
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
20 City-Data, Michigan Climate, accessed May 2, 2020.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
23 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars (SAGDP2), Michigan, All statistics in table, 2017.
24 NETSTATE, Michigan, Michigan Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
25 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2, Top 100 U.S. gas fields as of December 31, 2013, p. 8.
26 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2013–18.
27 U.S. EIA, Number of Producing Gas Wells, Annual, 2013–18.
28 U.S. EIA, Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967–2018.
29 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map Layers/Legend, Natural Gas Interstate Pipeline, Natural Gas Pipeline Border Crossing, and Natural Gas Trading Hub, accessed May 2, 2020.
30 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Michigan, 2013–18.
31 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Imports by Point of Entry, Pipeline Volumes, 2014–19.
32 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Exports and Re-Exports by Point of Exit, Pipeline Volumes, 2014–19.
33 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Michigan, 2013–18.
34 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2013–18.
35 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2013–18.
36 U.S. EIA, Michigan Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals, Monthly, January 1990–February 2020.
37 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in Michigan (Including Vehicle Fuel), Monthly, January 2001–February 2020.
38 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2014–19.
39 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2014–19.
40 U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, House Heating Fuel, Michigan, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
41 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Michigan, Annual, 2014–19.
42 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Residential, Annual, 2014–19.
43 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2014–19.
44 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Michigan, Annual, 2014–19.
45 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Estimated Production, 2013–18.
46 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2013–18.
47 Central Michigan University, Clarke Historical Library, Commercial Quantities of Oil First Discovered in 1925, accessed May 1 2020.
48 Michigan State University, Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region, Hydrocarbons: Oil and Gas, accessed May 1, 2020.
49 Michigan Public Service Commission, Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, Michigan Energy Overview (October 2011), p. 2.
50 U.S. EIA, Michigan Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 1981–2020.
51 Marathon Petroleum Corporation, Detroit Refinery, accessed May 4, 2020.
52 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2018), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2019.
53 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline, accessed May 4, 2020.
54 Markwest Hydrocarbon, Inc., U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Form 8-K (December 18, 2003), Item 2, Acquisition or Disposition of Assets.
55 Michigan Public Service Commission, Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, Michigan Energy Overview (October 2011), p. 2.
56 A Barrell Full, Mid Valley Crude Oil Pipeline, accessed May 4, 2020.
57 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, accessed May 4, 2020.
58 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline and Liquids Pipeline Border Crossing Map Layers, accessed May 4, 2020.
59 Michigan Public Service Commission, Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, Michigan Energy Overview (October 2011), p. 2.
60 Marathon Petroleum Corporation, Detroit Refinery, accessed May 4, 2020.
61 Michigan Public Service Commission, Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, Petroleum Product Pipelines (May 2014).
62 Snyder, Richard D., Governor, State of Michigan, Executive Order No. 2012–12, State of Energy Emergency, Waiver of Regulations Relating to Motor Carriers and Drivers Transporting Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, and Jet Fuel (July 24, 2012).
63 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, March 2019–February 2020.
64 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
65 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2017.
66 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed May 5, 2020.
67 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, accessed May 5, 2020.
68 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
69 U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, House Heating Fuel, Michigan, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
70 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F11, Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Consumption Estimates, 2018.
71 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
72 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Michigan, Fuel Type-all, Annual, 2019.
73 U.S. EIA, Michigan Electricity Profile 2018, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2018; Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2018.
74 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Retired & Canceled Units Only), (Operable Units Only), and (Proposed Units Only).
75 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Michigan, All fuels, Coal, Natural gas, Nuclear, Annual, 2001–19.
76 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Michigan, updated October 5, 2016.
77 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Michigan, All fuels, Nuclear, Annual, 2001–19.
78 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
79 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Michigan, All fuels, Petroleum liquids, Petroleum coke, Other gases, Conventional hydroelectric, Wind, Biomass, All solar, Annual, 2001–19.
80 Michigan Public Service Commission, Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, Michigan Energy Overview (October 2011), p. 4.
81 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, All Power Plants Map Layer, accessed May 8, 2020.
82 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 5.4.B.
83 U.S. EIA, Michigan Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018.
84 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 5.4.B.
85 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010–2019, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019.
86 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2017.
87 U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, House Heating Fuel, Michigan, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
88 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Michigan, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Biomass, Annual, 2001–19.
89 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Michigan Potential Wind Capacity Chart, Wind Resource Exclusion Table link, accessed May 9, 2020.
90 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.14.B.
91 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in Michigan, accessed May 27, 2020.
92 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (May 2020), Table 6.2.B.
93 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed May 9, 2020.
94 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Michigan, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Biomass, Annual, 2001–19.
95 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Biomass Power Plant Map Layer, accessed May 9, 2020.
96 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, January 2020.
97 U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, House Heating Fuel, Michigan, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
98 Scenic View Dairy, Energy, accessed May 9, 2020.
99 Fremont Regional Digester, Home, accessed May 9, 2020.
100 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
101 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Michigan, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2001–19.
102 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Hydroelectric and Pumped Storage Power Plant Map Layers, accessed May 10, 2020.
103 U.S. EIA, “Pumped storage provides grid reliability even with net generation loss,” Today in Energy (July 8, 2013).
104 Worth, Dan, “The Back-to-the-Future Technology of Ludington's Pumped Storage Electricity Plant,” Groundwork Press Release (September 12, 2018).
105 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Ethanol Plant Map Layer, accessed May 10, 2020.
106 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2019 (Excel File).
107 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2017.
108 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2018.
109 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Biodiesel Plant Map Layer, accessed May 10, 2020.
110 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Report (May 2020), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, March 2020.
111 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2018.
112 Michigan Public Service Commission, Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, “MPSC: All Michigan electric providers met or exceeded renewable energy standard in 2015, state poised to increase renewables to 15 percent by 2021,” Press Release (February 15, 2017).
113 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Michigan Renewable Energy Standard, updated July 2, 2018.
114 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018, and Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2018 and 2017.
115 Port of Detroit, Facts and Statistics, About the Port of Detroit, accessed May 10, 2020.
116 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2018 and 2017.
117 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), By Coal Destination State, Michigan, Table DS-19, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2018.