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Michigan   Michigan Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: August 18, 2022

Overview

Michigan ranks among the top 10 states in both population and total energy use.

Known as the Great Lakes State, Michigan's shores touch four of the five Great Lakes. The northern ends of two of the Great Lakes—Lake Michigan and Lake Huron—divide Michigan into the Upper and Lower Peninsulas. The northern shore of the Upper Peninsula is bordered by Lake Superior and a small portion of the southeastern shore of the Lower Peninsula touches Lake Erie.1,2 The state‘s geologic history includes ancient broad shallow seas in a basin that was centered in Michigan's Lower Peninsula.3 That basin was ringed by reefs that, now deeply buried, contain most of the state's crude oil and natural gas reserves.4 In addition to Michigan's natural gas and crude oil, the state has many renewable energy resources. Winds that sweep across the Great Lakes provide the state with substantial offshore wind energy resources and moderate onshore ones.5 Forests cover more than half of the state's land area and many cities and large towns provide municipal solid waste and landfill gas, giving Michigan considerable biomass resources.6,7,8 Dams on the state's rivers generate hydroelectric power despite the generally level terrain.9 Most of those dams and all of the largest ones are in the Lower Peninsula, where Michigan's largest and longest rivers are located.10,11

Most of Michigan's population and all of the major cities, manufacturing industries, commercial agriculture, crude oil, and natural gas production are located in the state's Lower Peninsula.12,13 The Upper Peninsula is lightly populated, heavily forested, and contains valuable iron and copper deposits.14 With 40,000 square miles of the Great Lakes and thousands of smaller inland lakes and ponds within Michigan's borders, the state's total area is more than two-fifths water.15 As a result, Michigan has one of the longest shorelines in the U.S., and vessels that move through the Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Seaway deliver coal and refined petroleum products at several of the state's Great Lakes ports.16,17,18

Michigan is among the top 10 states in the nation in both population and total energy consumption.19,20 Although the Great Lakes moderate Michigan's temperatures, extremes occur in the interior of the Lower Peninsula. Snowfalls are greatest on the Upper Peninsula and along the Lake Michigan shoreline of the Lower Peninsula.21 In part because of its cold winters, Michigan is among the top one-sixth of states in per capita residential energy use, but the state's total energy use per capita is below the U.S. average.22 The residential sector is the leading energy-consuming sector, accounting for 30% of the state's energy use, followed closely by the transportation sector at 25%, the industrial sector at 24%, and the commercial sector at 22%.23 Detroit is known as Motor City and Michigan employs the largest number of workers in the motor vehicles and parts manufacturing sectors in the nation.24 This sector accounts for two-fifths of the state's manufacturing gross domestic product (GDP). Other important contributors to the state's GDP include the manufacture of machinery, fabricated metal products, chemicals, food and beverage products, and plastics.25 Michigan's most important mined non-fuel mineral products include quarried limestone, iron ore, stone, sand and gravel, lime, copper, and cobalt.26

Natural gas

The Antrim Field in the northern portion of the Lower Peninsula contains most of Michigan's natural gas reserves, and the state holds about 0.2% of U.S. total proved reserves.27,28 Michigan's natural gas production declined each year from its 1997 peak of nearly 312 billion cubic feet to slightly less than 64 billion cubic feet in 2020, 0.2% of total U.S. production.29,30

Michigan has the largest underground natural gas storage capacity in the nation.

Several interstate pipelines cross Michigan and there are also five U.S.-Canadian natural gas pipeline border crossings, but the state does not have any natural gas market hubs.31 Natural gas enters Michigan from Ohio, Indiana, and Wisconsin. While a small amount of natural gas also arrives by pipeline from Canada, the bulk of the natural gas flowing across the border goes to Canada, most of it at St. Clair, located northeast of Detroit. Smaller volumes of natural gas also intermittently enter Canada at the Detroit, Sault St. Marie, and Marysville border crossings.32,33,34 More natural gas enters the state than is consumed there and most of the excess is exported to Canada.35

Some of the natural gas that Michigan receives or produces is injected into underground natural gas storage fields. Michigan has the largest underground natural gas storage capacity in the nation at nearly 1.1 trillion cubic feet, which is almost one-eighth of the U.S. total. The state has 44 natural gas storage fields, the second-largest number after Pennsylvania.36,37 During high demand periods, typically between November and April, natural gas is withdrawn from storage to meet increased demand for space heating. Much smaller volumes of natural gas are withdrawn from storage in the summer months when natural gas-fueled power generation increases to meet cooling demand.38,39

In 2020, Michigan's total natural gas consumption was 14 times greater than the state's natural gas production.40,41 The residential sector, where more than three-fourths of Michigan households use natural gas as their primary source for home heating, is the largest natural gas consumer, accounting for one-third of the state's natural gas use.42,43 Michigan routinely ranks among the top 5 states in residential use of natural gas and in the top 10 for total natural gas consumption by all sectors combined.44,45 The electric power sector is the second-largest consumer of natural gas in the state and has been since 2016, making up three-tenths of natural gas consumption. Natural gas use by the state's electric power sector reached a record high in 2020. The commercial sector and the industrial sector each accounted for slightly less than one-fifth of the state's natural gas use.46

Petroleum

Michigan's crude oil reserves and production are modest. The state's crude oil reserves account for 0.1% of the nation's total reserve base, and Michigan's production also accounts for 0.1% of the U.S. total.47,48 Commercial quantities of crude oil were first found in Michigan in 1925.49 The state's oil production substantially increased in the 1970s when oil was produced from the deeply buried reefs that ringed the Michigan basin millions of years ago. Those reefs accounted for 29 million of the 35 million barrels of oil produced in Michigan's peak production year of 1979.50,51 Since then, Michigan's crude oil production declined steadily to about 4.5 million barrels in 2021.52

Michigan has the largest residential sector consumption of propane in the nation.

Michigan has one oil refinery, located near Detroit, that can process about 140,000 barrels per calendar day of light sweet and heavy sour crude oils into gasoline, asphalt, propane, and other petroleum products.53,54 Crude oil produced from wells in western Canada enters Michigan by pipelines through Wisconsin and Indiana. Crude oil produced in western Michigan is delivered by an intrastate pipeline to Lewiston, Michigan, where it is integrated into the Enbridge pipeline system that enters the state through northern Wisconsin. The Enbridge pipeline delivers crude oil to a Canadian refinery in Ontario and also has a branch that enters the state from Indiana and delivers crude oil to Michigan on its way to Ontario.55,56,57 Michigan's governor revoked the pipeline's permit in May 2021 because of safety concerns about a potential leak where an underwater section of the pipeline crosses the Mackinac Strait between the state's upper and lower peninsulas. Enbridge has refused to shut down the pipeline and the legal dispute remains.58,59 Another crude oil pipeline that originates in the U.S. Gulf Coast states enters Michigan through Ohio.60 Port Huron on the Lower Peninsula receives additional crude oil imports from Canada.61 Much of the crude oil that enters Michigan exits into Canada at a border crossing between Marysville in Michigan and Sarnia in Ontario.62,63

Petroleum product pipelines bring refined products to Michigan markets in the Lower Peninsula from the Chicago, Illinois, area to the southwest and from the Toledo, Ohio area to the southeast. There are no petroleum product pipelines in the Upper Peninsula, and most petroleum products are delivered to that region by truck from terminals in Wisconsin.64,65 The Lower Peninsula port cities of Port Huron and Detroit receive almost all the state's petroleum product imports from Canada. Some Canadian petroleum products also arrive at the Sault St. Marie port on the Upper Peninsula.66

Michigan ranks 11th among the states in total petroleum consumption. Four-fifths of the state's petroleum use is in the transportation sector, and motor gasoline accounts for almost 75% of that.67,68 Federal regulations allow conventional motor gasoline without ethanol to be sold in most of the state year-round. However, to reduce emissions that contribute to ground-level ozone, eight southeastern Michigan counties regulate the vapor pressure of motor gasoline sold during the summer.69,70,71,72 The state's industrial sector accounts for about one-tenth of petroleum use. Although the residential sector accounts for only about 7%, Michigan is among the top five states in residential sector petroleum use.73 Almost 1 in 10 Michigan households heat with petroleum products, and nearly 90% of those homes use hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL), mostly propane.74 Total consumption of HGLs is greater in Michigan than in all but six other states, and the state has the largest residential sector HGL consumption in the nation.75 The commercial sector accounts for most of the rest of the state's petroleum consumption. A small amount of petroleum is used intermittently for electricity generation.76

Electricity

Electricity net generation from natural gas-fired power plants has increased from 18% of Michigan’s in-state generation in 2015 to 27% in 2021.

In 2020, natural gas fueled the largest share of Michigan's electricity generation, at 34%, for the first time, surpassing coal, which fell to third after nuclear power. In 2021, coal again provided the largest share of the state's electricity net generation (32%) after natural gas prices increased, followed by nuclear energy (30%) and natural gas-fired power (27%).77 Coal-fired plants made up 4 of the 10 largest power plants by generating capacity in the state, including the largest, and 3 of the top 10 were natural-gas fired.78 Generating units at over a dozen of Michigan's coal-fired power plants have retired in the past decade and no new coal-fired facilities are planned. The state's most recent operating coal-fired generating unit came online in 1990.79 Electricity net generation from natural gas-fired power plants has increased from 18% of Michigan's in-state generation in 2015 to 27% in 2021.80 Four new natural gas-fired power plants are expected to come on line by 2025 adding 3,200 megawatts of new generation capacity.81

Historically, Michigan's nuclear power plants have supplied about 30% of in-state electricity. However, this is expected to decline as more plants are decommissioned, such as the Palisades nuclear power plant that was shut down in May 2022.82,83,84 Wind energy accounts for a small, but growing share of Michigan's electricity generation and accounted for 7% of the state's total generation in 2021. Biomass, hydroelectric power, gases created as byproducts of industrial processes, petroleum coke, and solar energy provided most of the rest of the state's net generation.85,86 Most of Michigan's power plants are located in the more densely populated Lower Peninsula.87

In 2021, Michigan ranked 11th among the states in the amount of electricity generated. Because consumption was less than generation, Michigan sent its surplus electricity out of state via the regional grid.88,89 The commercial sector is the state's largest electricity consumer followed very closely by the residential sector, with each accounting for about 37% of the state's total electricity sales. The industrial sector accounts for 26% of sales. In part because of Michigan's large population—10th in the nation—residential electricity sales per person are less than in three-fourths of the states and less than the national average.90,91,92 Only 1 in 10 Michigan households rely on electricity as their primary source of energy for home heating.93

Michigan currently has about 1,100 charging stations for electric vehicles, with over 2,300 DC fast charging and Level 2 ports. The majority of charging stations are located on the Lower Peninsula around Detroit and Grand Rapids.94 The Charge Up Michigan Program provides grants to help expand the state's charging station network.95

Renewable energy

Renewable energy accounted for about 11% of Michigan's total in-state electricity net generation in 2021. Most of the state's renewable electricity generation comes from wind. In 2013, wind energy surpassed hydropower and biomass and became Michigan's largest source for renewable generation. In 2021, wind energy supplied more than three-fifths of the state's renewable electricity and 7% of Michigan's total net generation from all sources.96 The state's strongest onshore winds are along its curving Lake Huron coastline.97,98 Michigan ranks 17th in the nation in generation capacity and 14th in actual generation from wind energy.99 The state has 32 wind farms with a total generating capacity of just over 3,200 megawatts.100 Many of Michigan's wind farms are located between Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron in the eastern part of the state's Lower Peninsula.101

Michigan ranks among the top 15 states in the nation in electricity generation from wind.

In 2021, biomass provided one-fifth of Michigan's renewable electricity generation and 2% of the state's net generation from all sources.102 The state has three dozen biomass power plants with a combined generating capacity of 550 megawatts. A municipal solid waste plant in the Detroit area is one of the largest on the Lower Peninsula. The biomass plants that are fueled with wood and wood waste are primarily in more heavily forested northern Michigan, including on the Upper Peninsula. Several biomass facilities generate electricity using methane recovered from landfills.103,104 Additionally, the state has anaerobic digesters that convert animal and food waste into biogas (methane) that is used to fuel electricity generation.105,106 Michigan's forests also provide the feedstock for the state's five wood pellet manufacturing plants that have a combined capacity to produce 200,000 tons of pellets per year.107 Wood pellets are used as fuel for electricity generation and for space heating. About 3 out of 100 Michigan homes use wood for space heating.108

Michigan has 50 conventional hydroelectric dams that accounted for 1% of the state's net generation in 2021. However, the state's largest hydroelectric facility by capacity is a pumped-storage plant on the shores of Lake Michigan on the Lower Peninsula.109,110,111 Built in 1973, Michigan's Ludington pumped storage plant has a nameplate generating capacity of about 2,000 megawatts and is one of the ten largest pumped storage power plant in the world.112,113 Pumped storage hydroelectric plants use relatively inexpensive power during periods of less electricity demand to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. During periods of high power demand, the water is released from the upper reservoir and flows to the lower reservoir. Electricity is generated as the water flows through turbines that are located in tunnels between the reservoirs. Although the plant uses more power than it generates, it supplies electricity in periods of peak demand when electricity prices are higher.114

Michigan produces and consumes biofuels. It has five fuel ethanol production plants, all located in the southern half of the Lower Peninsula.115 Those plants have a combined capacity of about 390 million gallons each year and produced nearly 310 million gallons in 2020.116,117 The state is among the nation's top 10 fuel ethanol consumers and uses more than it can produce. In 2020, state consumption of fuel ethanol was almost 400 million gallons.118 Michigan's two biodiesel plants are also on the Lower Peninsula.119 Those plants can produce 15 million gallons of biodiesel fuel each year, compared with the 32 million gallons consumed in the state annually.120,121

In 2021, utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) solar installations generated less than 1% of Michigan's total in-state electricity. Small-scale (less than 1 megawatt), customer-sited solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities provided almost 50% of the state's total solar power.122 The state's first utility-scale solar power facility, the 3-megawatt Grand Valley Solar Garden, began generating electricity in 2016. By 2021, total utility-scale solar generation capacity in Michigan increased to over 450 megawatts. In 2022, the largest solar farm, Assembly Solar, with 240 megawatts of capacity, came online. An additional 670 megawatts of solar power capacity are expected to be added in the state by 2024.123

Michigan enacted a renewable energy standard (RES) in 2008 that required the state's retail electricity providers, including investor-owned electric utilities, alternative retail suppliers, electric cooperatives, and municipal electric utilities, to obtain at least 10% of the electricity they sold be generated by renewable energy resources by 2015. The RES goal was met, and, in December 2016, the state's RES requirement increased to 15% of electricity sales by 2021.124 In 2020, all of Michigan's electric providers met the 15% RES.125 Acceptable renewable energy resources for generating electricity include solar power, biomass, wind, geothermal energy, municipal solid waste, landfill gas, existing hydroelectricity, and tidal, wave, and river currents. Utilities are allowed to use energy efficiency to meet a portion of their requirements.126

Coal

Michigan has a small amount of economically recoverable coal reserves, but there are no active coal mines in the state.127 However, Michigan ports, including the Port of Detroit, handle about 30% of all Great Lakes coal shipments.128 The electric power sector uses 93% of the coal consumed in Michigan to generate electricity. The industrial and commercial sectors use the other 7% to produce coke for steelmaking and for electricity and heat.129 Most of the coal consumed in Michigan comes by rail from the West, primarily from Wyoming and Montana. Coal also arrives from nearby states, including West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Colorado, Indiana, and Virginia.130

Endnotes

1 U.S. Census Bureau, Michigan, updated October 8, 2021.
2 Great Lakes Commission, About the Lakes, accessed July 11, 2022.
3 Michigan State University, Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region, The Michigan Basin, accessed July 6, 2022.
4 Michigan State University, Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region, Hydrocarbons: Oil and Gas, accessed July 6, 2022.
5 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Michigan, Maps & Data, accessed July 6, 2022.
6 Michigan State University, Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region, Forestry, accessed July 6, 2022.
7 U.S. Census Bureau, Michigan: 2020 Census, updated August 25, 2021.
8 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Biomass Power Plant, accessed July 6, 2022.
9 Michigan Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy, Dams Regulated by the State of Michigan, accessed July 11, 2022.
10 Michigan State University, Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region, Lakes, Rivers and Wetlands, accessed July 6, 2022.
11 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Hydroelectric Power Plant, accessed July 6, 2022.
12 Britannica, Michigan, Economy, accessed July 11, 2022.
13 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells, accessed July 11, 2022.
14 Michigan State University, Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region, Iron Mining: Where and Why? and Michigan's Copper Deposits and Mining, accessed July 11, 2022.
15 Michigan Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy, Learn About our Great Lakes, accessed July 11, 2022.
16 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Shoreline Mileage Of the United States, accessed July 11, 2022.
17 Michigan Economic Development Corporation, Michigan Commercial Ports, accessed July 11, 2022.
18 World Port Source, Michigan Port Index, Detroit/Wayne County Port Authority, Port Commerce, Port of Bay City, Port Commerce, Holland Harbor, Port Commerce, Manistee Harbor, Port Commerce, Wyandotte Harbor, Port Commerce, accessed July 11, 2022.
19 U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2020 to July 1 2021 (Table NST_EST2021_POP).
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
21 Britannica, Climate of Michigan, accessed July 11, 2022.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
23 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
24 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Automotive Industry; Employment, Earnings, and Hours, Employment in Selected States, Annual average 2021 (NAICS 3361, 2, 3).
25 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars (SAGDP2), NAICS, Michigan, All statistics in table, 2021.
26 U.S. Geological Survey, The Mineral Industry of Michigan, accessed July 11, 2022.
27 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2, Top 100 U.S. gas fields as of December 31, 2013, p. 8.
28 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2014-20.
29 U.S. EIA, Number of Producing Gas Wells, Annual, 2014-20.
30 U.S. EIA, Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2020.
31 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Natural Gas Interstate Pipeline, Natural Gas Pipeline Border Crossing, and Natural Gas Trading Hub, accessed July 18, 2022.
32 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Michigan, 2014-20.
33 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Imports by Point of Entry, Pipeline Volumes, 2015-21.
34 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Exports and Re-Exports by Point of Exit, Pipeline Volumes, 2015-21.
35 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Michigan, 2014-20.
36 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2014-20.
37 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2014-20.
38 U.S. EIA, Michigan Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals, Monthly, January 1990-April 2022.
39 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in Michigan (Including Vehicle Fuel), Monthly, January 2001-April 2022.
40 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2015-20.
41 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2014-20.
42 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2020 ACS 5-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Michigan.
43 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Michigan, Annual, 2015-20.
44 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Residential, Annual, 2015-21.
45 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2015-20.
46 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Michigan, Annual, 2015-21.
47 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2015-21.
48 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2014-20.
49 Central Michigan University, Clarke Historical Library, Commercial Quantities of Oil First Discovered in 1925, accessed July 18, 2022.
50 Michigan State University, Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region, Hydrocarbons: Oil and Gas, accessed July 18, 2022.
51 Harrison, William, History and Development of Oil and Gas Plays of the Michigan Basin, Oil, Gas and Salt Resources Library, p. 4, accessed July 18, 2022.
52 U.S. EIA, Michigan Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 1981-2021.
53 Marathon Petroleum Corporation, Detroit Refinery, accessed July 18, 2022.
54 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 21, 2022), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2022.
55 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Crude Oil Pipeline, accessed July 18, 2022.
56 MarkWest Hydrocarbon, Inc., U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Form 8-K (December 18, 2003), Item 2, Acquisition or Disposition of Assets.
57 U.S. Department of Energy, State of Michigan Energy Sector Risk Profile, Petroleum, p. 4, accessed July 18, 2022.
58 House, Kelly, "Regulators: No Enbridge Line 5 tunnel decision without more safety info," Great Lakes Now (July 18, 2022).
59 Williams, Nia, "Michigan orders more information from Canada's Enbridge on Line 5 tunnel application," Reuters (July 7, 2022).
60 A Barrel Full, Mid Valley Crude Oil Pipeline, accessed July 18, 2022.
61 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, monthly (Excel File), accessed July 18, 2022.
62 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Crude Oil Pipeline and Liquids Pipeline Border Crossing, accessed July 18, 2022.
63 Michigan Public Service Commission, Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, Petroleum Product Pipelines (May 2014).
64 Snyder, Richard D., Governor, State of Michigan, Executive Order No. 2012-12, State of Energy Emergency, Waiver of Regulations Relating to Motor Carriers and Drivers Transporting Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, and Jet Fuel (July 24, 2012).
65 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, monthly (Excel File), accessed July 18 2022.
66 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
67 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Unit, 2020.
68 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, American Petroleum Institute (January 2018).
69 Midwest Independent Retailed Association, Michigan Summertime Low RVP Gasoline Restrictions, accessed July 18, 2022.
70 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed July 18, 2022.
71 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, accessed July 18, 2022.
72 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
73 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 5-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Michigan.
74 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F11, Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Consumption Estimates, 2020.
75 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
76 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2017-21.
77 U.S. EIA, Michigan Electricity Profile 2020, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2019; Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2020.
78 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (July 6, 2022), Inventory of Operating, Planned, and Retired Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Michigan, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
79 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2017-21.
80 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (July 6, 2022), Inventory of Operating, Planned, and Retired Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Michigan, Technology: Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle.
81 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Michigan, updated March 9, 2021.
82 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2017-21.
83 Freebairn, William, "Entergy's Palisades nuclear plant in Michigan shuts permanently," S&P Global (May 20, 2022).
84 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (July 6, 2022), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Michigan, Technology: Select All.
85 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2017-21.
86 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: All Power Plants, accessed July 12, 2022.
87 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Tables 1.3.B, 5.4.B.
88 U.S. EIA, Michigan Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020.
89 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), 2017-21.
90 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2020-2021, Population Estimates, Population Change, and Components of Change, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, District of Columbia and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2020 to July 1 2021 (NST-EST2021-POP) (Excel File).
91 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
92 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2020 ACS 5-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Michigan.
93 U.S. Department of Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Finder, Missouri, accessed July 11, 2022.
94 Michigan Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy, Charge Up Michigan Program, accessed July 11, 2022.
95 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2017-21.
96 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Michigan, accessed July 18, 2022.
97 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Michigan 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed July 18, 2022.
98 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Tables 1.14.B, 6.2.B.
99 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (July 6, 2022), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Michigan, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
100 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Wind Power Plant, accessed July 18, 2022.
101 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2017-21.
102 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (July 6, 2022), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Michigan, Technology: Landfill Gas, Municipal Solid Waste, Other Waste Biomass, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
103 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Biomass Power Plant, accessed July 18, 2022.
104 Scenic View Dairy, Energy, accessed July 19, 2022.
105 Fremont Regional Digester, Home, accessed July 19, 2022.
106 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (June 15, 2022), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, March 2022.
107 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2020 ACS 5-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Michigan.
108 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (July 6, 2021), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Michigan, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
109 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2017-21.
110 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Hydroelectric and Pumped Storage Power Plants, accessed July 18, 2022.
111 Consumers Energy, Pumped Storage Hydro Electricity, accessed July 18, 2022.
112 Stocks, Carrieann, "Largest pumped storage plants in operations and development," NS Energy (May 13, 2020).
113 U.S. EIA, "Pumped storage provides grid reliability even with net generation loss," Today in Energy (July 8, 2013).
114 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Ethanol Plant, accessed July 18, 2022.
115 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 3, 2021), U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Production Capacities, January 1, 2021 (Excel File).
116 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2020.
117 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2020.
118 U.S. EIA, Michigan Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Biodiesel Plant, accessed July 18, 2022.
119 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 26, 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
120 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2020.
121 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), 2017-21.
122 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (July 6, 2021), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Michigan, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
123 Michigan Public Service Commission, Renewable Energy, accessed July 18, 2022.
124 Michigan Public Service Commission, Report on the Implementation and Cost-Effectiveness of the P.A. 295 Renewable Energy Standard, (February 15, 2022), p. i.
125 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Michigan Renewable Energy Standard, updated July 2, 2018.
126 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020, and Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
127 Mall, Scott, "FreightWaves Classics: Port of Detroit is an economic engine for the region," FreightWaves (March 25, 2021).
128 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 4, 2021), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2020 and 2019.
129 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 4, 2021), Domestic Distribution of U.S. coal by: Destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Michigan, Table DS-17, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.