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Connecticut   Connecticut Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: August 20, 2020

Overview

Connecticut is located in southern New England on hilly terrain between New York’s Hudson River Valley and Rhode Island’s Narragansett Bay.1 Although Connecticut does not have any fossil fuel reserves, it does have renewable resources.2 The river that shares its name forms a broad valley that runs through the center of the state and flows south, dividing Connecticut in two.3 That river and other Connecticut rivers provide the state with hydropower resources that have been used since colonial times.4 To the south, the hills of northern Connecticut give way to the coastal lowlands along the Long Island Sound, which forms the state’s southern border.5 Winds that sweep along the shoreline of Long Island Sound give the state a moderate wind energy resource.6 Connecticut’s population is concentrated in the southwestern part of the state and along the Connecticut River where the state capital, Hartford, is located.7 Municipal solid waste and landfill gas supplied by the state’s many urban areas, along with wood and wood waste, provide Connecticut with abundant biomass resources.8,9

Connecticut is the fourth most densely populated state in the nation and the third-smallest in land area. On a per capita basis, it uses less energy than all but six other states.10,11,12 The residential sector leads Connecticut's end-use energy consumption and accounts for about one-third of the energy used in the state. The transportation sector accounts for slightly more than three-tenths of state energy consumption, and the commercial sector consumes about one-fourth. The industrial sector uses the least energy at about one-tenth.13 The state’s economy uses less energy to produce each dollar of gross domestic product (GDP) than all other states except California, Massachusetts, and New York.14 The largest contributors to Connecticut’s GDP are real estate; finance and insurance; and professional and business services, all of which use relatively little energy. In 2019, Connecticut had the highest annual per capita personal income of any state—$79,087.15

Electricity

Connecticut has the highest average electricity retail price among the Lower 48 states.

Natural gas and nuclear power together fueled almost 95% of Connecticut's utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) electricity net generation in 2019. Natural gas accounted for more than half of the state’s net generation, more than double the amount of a decade earlier.16 Connecticut has one nuclear power plant, the 2,073-megawatt Millstone nuclear power station.17 In 2019, the plant’s two reactors supplied slightly more than two-fifths of Connecticut’s net generation, a larger share of state generation from nuclear power than in all but four other states.18 Prior to 2009, coal-fired generation typically supplied more than one-tenth of the state’s power. By 2019, Connecticut’s only remaining coal-fired power plant, which is located at Bridgeport Harbor Station and runs only during periods of peak demand, contributed less than 0.2% of the state’s net generation.19,20 Coal-fired power generation in the state will end with the scheduled closure of the plant in mid-2021.21 Biomass, which provided about 2% of the state’s net generation in 2019, fueled almost six times as much electricity generation as coal and petroleum combined. Other renewable resources—mainly solar, hydropower, and wind—provided most of the remainder of the state’s net generation.22

Two of Connecticut’s largest power plants by capacity are petroleum fired, and some of the state’s other petroleum-fired generating capacity is at large dual-fueled power plants able to burn petroleum products or natural gas.23 However, although about one-fifth of Connecticut’s generating capacity is petroleum-fired, the use of petroleum has declined in the past decade with the increased use of natural gas and renewable energy resources for generation.24 In 2019, petroleum contributed less than 1% of the state’s net generation.25 Higher-cost petroleum fuels are used when natural gas supplies are constrained, usually in winter.26 As older petroleum-generating units require maintenance and face competition from other fuels, more petroleum units are being shut down. This has raised concerns about how to replace their generating capacity because they reliably supply power in periods of peak demand.27

Connecticut has the highest average electricity retail price among the Lower 48 states.28 The state promotes energy efficiency and peak demand reduction to help consumers cut their electricity consumption and lower their power bills.29 In 2019, Connecticut’s per capita electricity consumption was less than in all but five states.30,31 Air conditioning demand in the New England region is low during the mild summer months.32,33 Only one in six Connecticut households use electricity as a primary source for home heating in winter.34 Although Connecticut generated less electricity than needed in the past, the state has produced more than it needs since 2009. The excess power is sent to other states.35

Renewable energy

Renewable resources at both utility- and small-scale (less than 1-megawatt) facilities provided about 5% of Connecticut’s electricity net generation in 2019. Solar power and biomass contributed almost equal amounts of generation and together accounted for about three-fourths of the state’s total renewable generation. Hydroelectric sources provided about one-fourth.36

In 2019, more than three-fourths of the solar PV electric generation in Connecticut was from small-scale facilities.

All utility-scale renewable electricity generation in Connecticut came from hydroelectric power and biomass until December 2013, when a small amount of utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) generation came online.37 By May 2020, about 690 megawatts of utility-scale and small-scale solar PV capacity had been installed in Connecticut.38 In 2019, more than three-fourths of the state’s solar PV electric generation came from small-scale, customer-sited facilities.39

Most of Connecticut’s biomass generating capacity is at facilities fueled by municipal solid waste. Those facilities have 160 megawatts of capacity. Additionally, there is a single 38-megawatt biomass power plant that uses wood recovered from construction and demolition as well as wood from forestry and land clearing activities.40 There are also three landfill gas-fired facilities in the state with a total of 2.4 megawatts of generating capacity.41 Connecticut also produces wood pellets at the state’s one pellet manufacturing plant. That plant can produce up to 15,000 tons of pellets each year. Wood pellets are used for heating and as a fuel for generating electricity.42,43

About 120 megawatts of generating capacity is provided by Connecticut’s 13 conventional hydroelectric facilities. The state also has a pumped storage hydroelectric facility with about 30 megawatts of generating capacity.44 Rocky River Generating Station in New Milford, Connecticut, was completed in 1929 and was the first pumped storage hydroelectric project built in the United States. The project pumps water from the Housatonic River into the Candlewood Lake reservoir and later releases it to generate electricity during periods of peak demand. The facility uses reversible pumps that also act as generators, an innovation at the time the facility was built.45

Connecticut’s first and only onshore utility-scale wind project, with two turbines, went online in the northwestern corner of the state in 2015.46,47 However, the state’s best wind power potential is offshore along the Long Island Sound coastline.48 Three offshore wind farm proposals were submitted to the state in early 2018.49 Connecticut’s governor signed legislation into law in June 2019 requiring the state’s Department of Energy and Environmental Protection to solicit proposals to install up to 2,000 megawatts of offshore wind generating capacity by 2030.50 The New England regional transmission operator, Independent System Operator—New England (ISO-NE) is assessing infrastructure upgrades needed to connect wind resources throughout the region.51

Connecticut promotes the use of alternative fuels for transportation, including biofuels and electricity, through financial incentives and regulatory relief.52 There are about 440 public electric vehicle charging stations in the state with more than 1,100 charging outlets. Connecticut does not have any ethanol production, but about 3.7 million barrels of ethanol were consumed in the state in 2018.53,54 In addition to the many fueling stations that sell motor gasoline blended with 10% ethanol, there are three E85 (85% ethanol, 15% motor gasoline) public fueling stations in the state.55 Connecticut also has one biodiesel production plant, which is the largest in New England. The plant is located in New Haven and uses multiple feedstocks to produce up to 33 million gallons per year, almost three times more than the amount of biodiesel consumed in the state in 2018.56,57,58

Connecticut’s renewable portfolio standard (RPS) was created in 1998 and has been revised several times since then. The RPS requires that increasing amounts of electricity sold in the state be generated from renewable resources, reaching 40% by 2030. The RPS also requires that an additional 4% be produced from either renewable resources or trash-to-energy facilities. Another 4% must come from commercial and industrial combined-heat-and-power or waste-heat recovery systems or from conservation or demand-side management project savings.59,60 Connecticut’s two investor-owned utilities are required to offer net metering and time-of-use pricing to encourage the use of renewable resources and the adoption of energy efficiency measures. In mid-2018, the state scaled back net metering for new customers but grandfathered existing net metering customer agreements until the end of 2039.61,62

Petroleum

Connecticut receives much of its petroleum products through its three deepwater ports.

Connecticut does not have any crude oil reserves and does not produce or refine petroleum.63,64 Much of the heating oil and other petroleum products that enter Connecticut travel through the port of New Haven, one of the state’s three deepwater ports. Connecticut’s other two deepwater ports—New London and Bridgeport—also receive petroleum products.65,66 A pipeline originating in New Haven delivers refined petroleum products to central Connecticut and terminates in central Massachusetts.67,68

About seven-tenths of the petroleum consumed in Connecticut is used in the transportation sector, primarily as motor gasoline. More than one-third of the distillate fuel oil sold in Connecticut is also for on highway use.69,70,71 Connecticut is one of several New England states that requires the statewide use of reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol to reduce smog-forming pollutants, and per capita ethanol consumption in the state’s transportation sector is near the national average.72,73,74 The residential sector, where about two in five households use fuel oil or other petroleum products for home heating, accounts for one-fifth of the petroleum used in the state. The commercial and industrial sectors together account for one-tenth of state energy use.75,76 Connecticut, like several nearby states, has phased in the use of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) heating oil that has a maximum sulfur content of 15 parts per million.77 In 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy created the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to protect consumers in the northeastern United States against heating fuel supply disruptions. The Reserve holds 1 million barrels of USLD at three storage sites, including one in Groton, Connecticut, where 300,000 barrels of heating fuel are stored.78 The Groton site’s first release of emergency supplies occurred in November 2012 because of regional fuel delivery shortages resulting from Hurricane Sandy.79

Natural gas

Connecticut does not have any natural gas reserves or production.80,81 Interstate pipelines supply the state with natural gas.82 Natural gas arrives in Connecticut from the Appalachian region and also from producing areas in Canada, the U.S. Gulf Coast, and the U.S. Mid-Continent region.83,84,85,86 Almost all of the natural gas that enters Connecticut comes through the state of New York. Minor amounts are delivered through Massachusetts. Nearly three-fifths of the natural gas that enters Connecticut is consumed in the state, and the rest is transported on to Rhode Island or back into New York.87

Natural gas consumption by Connecticut’s electric power plants has more than doubled since 2009.

The electric power sector uses the largest share of natural gas consumed in Connecticut. That sector accounted for more than half of the natural gas delivered to consumers in the state in 2019, more than double the amount used in 2009. The commercial and residential sectors typically consume almost equal amounts. Together they accounted for about two-fifths of the natural gas delivered to consumers in 2019. The industrial sector used almost all the rest. A small amount was used in the transportation sector as vehicle fuel.88 Almost two out of every five Connecticut households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating.89 As increasing amounts of natural gas are used for electricity generation in Connecticut and throughout New England, assurance of a sufficient natural gas supply has become a critical energy issue for the region.90 Like other New England states, Connecticut does not have any underground natural gas storage facilities and depends on underground storage capacity in nearby states to meet winter peak demand.91

Coal

Connecticut has no coal reserves or production, and the state’s use of coal for electricity generation has declined significantly in the past decade.92,93 No domestically produced coal has been received in the state since 2011.94,95 The limited amount of coal consumed for power generation in Connecticut is imported from other countries.96 The 383-megawatt coal-fired unit at Bridgeport Harbor Station is more than 50 years old and is the only coal-fired power plant still operating in the state. It is scheduled to close in 2021, but it currently provides additional electricity to the Bridgeport area only during periods of peak demand.97 As a replacement, a new 485-megawatt natural gas-fired combined-cycle unit came online at Bridgeport Harbor Station in June 2019.98

Endnotes

1 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates’ Series, Connecticut’s Climate, An Overview of Climate in Connecticut, accessed July 20, 2020.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Connecticut Profile Data, Reserves and Environment, accessed July 16, 2020.
3 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates’ Series, Connecticut’s Climate, An Overview of Climate in Connecticut, accessed July 20, 2020.
4 Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, Dams in Connecticut: Their History, Use and Regulation, updated September 2019.
5 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates’ Series, Connecticut’s Climate, An Overview of Climate in Connecticut, accessed July 20, 2020.
6 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Connecticut, accessed July 16, 2020.
7 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Connecticut Profile, accessed July 16, 2020.
8 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3.1, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
9 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Biomass Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, accessed July 16, 2020.
10 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Population Density Data (Text Version).
11 U.S. Census Bureau, State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates, accessed July 16, 2020.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
15 U.S Bureau of Economic Analysis, Connecticut (March 24, 2020).
16 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Connecticut, Fuel Type-Check all, Annual, 2001–19.
17 U.S. EIA, Nuclear Reactor, State, and Net Capacity (December 2019).
18 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B.
19 “Connecticut’s last coal-fired power plant expected to shut down,” The New Haven Register (February 11, 2016).
20 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Connecticut, Fuel Type-Check all, Annual, 2001–19.
21 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3.1, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
22 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net Generation for all sectors, Connecticut, Fuel Type-Check all, Annual, 2001–19.
23 U.S. EIA, Connecticut Electricity Profile 2018, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2018.
24 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3.1, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
25 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Connecticut, All fuels, Petroleum liquids, Annual, 2001–19.
26 Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, 2018 Connecticut Comprehensive Energy Strategy (February 8, 2018), Electric Power Sector, ISO-NE Winter Reliability Program, p. 153.
27 ISO-New England, Resource Mix, Markets Respond to Changing Times: Resources on the Way Out, accessed July 20, 2020.
28 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.6.B.
29 Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, Energy Efficiency, updated January 2020.
30 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.4.B.
31 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2019, Table 1, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019.
32 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2009 RECS Survey Data Housing Characteristics, Air Conditioning in Northeast Region, divisions, and states (HC7.8).
33 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates’ Series, Connecticut’s Climate, An Overview of Climate in Connecticut, accessed July 20, 2020.
34 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, Connecticut, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
35 U.S. EIA, Connecticut Electricity Profile, 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018.
36 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Connecticut, Fuel Type-Check all, Annual, 2001–19.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3.1, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
38 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (July 2020), Table 6.2.B.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net Generation for all sectors, Connecticut, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Utility-scale photovoltaic, 2001–19.
40 Greenleaf Power, Facilities, Plainfield, accessed July 20, 2020.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3.1, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
42 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, April 2020.
43 U.S. EIA, Glossary, Wood Pellets, accessed July 22, 2020.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3.1, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
45 American Society of Civil Engineers, Rocky River Pumped Storage Hydraulic Plant, accessed July 22, 2020.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3.1, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
47 Windpower, Colebrook South (USA), updated October 25, 2017.
48 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Connecticut, Maps & Data, accessed July 21, 2020.
49 Turmelle, Luther, “Three wind power projects submitted to Connecticut DEEP,” The Hour (April 4, 2018).
50 Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, 2019 Procurement of Offshore Wind Resources, updated January 2020.
51 ISO-New England, Transmission, accessed July 21, 2020.
52 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Connecticut Laws and Incentives, updated June 2020.
53 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2018, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2018.
54 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2018.
55 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Advanced Filters, E85 Fueling Station Locations, and Electric Charging Station Locations, accessed July 21, 2020.
56 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity, by state, April 2020.
57 American Green Fuels LLC, About and Our Facility, accessed July 22, 2020.
58 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2018.
59 Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, Public Utilities Regulatory Authority, Connecticut Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated March 2020.
60 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Connecticut, Renewables Portfolio Standard, updated July 12, 2018.
61 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Connecticut, Net Metering, updated November 26, 2018.
62 Direct Energy, Connecticut-Only Time of Use (TOU) Offer, accessed July 22, 2020.
63 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Estimated Production and Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2013–18.
64 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report, Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2020.
65 Connecticut Port Authority, About Us, Why Connecticut?, accessed July 22, 2020.
66 City of New Haven, Port Authority, Terminals, accessed July 22, 2020.
67 Buckeye Partners, L.P., System Map, accessed July 23, 2020.
68 Buckeye Partners, L.P., Pipeline Transportation Operations, accessed July 23, 2020.
69 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
70 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2018.
71 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use, Total and On-Highway, Annual, 2013–18.
72 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
73 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2018.
74 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2019, Table 1, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019.
75 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
76 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, Connecticut, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
77 New England Fuel Institute, Guidance, Exemptions and Enforcement Discretion for New England’s ULSHO Transition, accessed July 23, 2020.
78 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR), About NEHHOR, accessed July 23, 2020.
79 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR), Releases, accessed July 23, 2020.
80 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2013–18.
81 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2014–19.
82 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Connecticut, 2013–18.
83 ISO-New England, Natural Gas Infrastructure Constraints, accessed July 24, 2020.
84 Enbridge, Algonquin Gas Transmission, accessed July 23, 2020.
85 Kinder Morgan, Natural Gas Pipelines, Tennessee Gas Pipeline, accessed July 23, 2020.
86 Iroquois Gas Transmission System, Iroquois Company Facts, accessed July 23, 2020.
87 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Connecticut, 2013–18.
88 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Connecticut, Annual, 2013–18.
89 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, Connecticut, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
90 ISO-New England, Natural Gas Infrastructure Constraints, accessed July 24, 2020.
91 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, by State, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2013–18.
92 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Tables 1, 15.
93 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Connecticut, All fuels, Coal, Annual, 2001–19.
94 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal: destination state, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Connecticut.
95 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report, Archive, 2011–17, Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination state, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Connecticut.
96 Bailey, Hugh, “Bridgeport’s coal plant in for the long run,” CT Post (October 11, 2014).
97 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3.1, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
98 PSEG, Bridgeport Harbor Station, Bridgeport Harbor Station History, accessed July 24, 2020.