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Connecticut   Connecticut Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: September 16, 2021

Overview

Connecticut is located in southern New England on hilly terrain between New York's Hudson River Valley and Rhode Island's Narragansett Bay.1 Although Connecticut does not have any fossil fuel reserves, it does have renewable resources.2 The river that shares its name forms a broad valley that runs through the center of the state and flows south, dividing Connecticut in two.3 That river and other Connecticut rivers provide the state with hydropower resources that have been used since colonial times.4 To the south, the hills of northern Connecticut give way to the coastal lowlands along the Long Island Sound, which forms the state's southern border.5 Winds that sweep along the shoreline of Long Island Sound give the state a moderate wind energy resource.6 Connecticut's population is concentrated in the southwestern part of the state and along the Connecticut River where the state capital, Hartford, is located.7 Municipal solid waste and landfill gas supplied by the state's many urban areas, along with wood and wood waste, provide Connecticut with abundant biomass resources.8,9

Connecticut is the fourth most densely populated state in the nation and the third-smallest in land area. On a per capita basis, Connecticut ranks among the five states that use the least amount of energy.10,11,12 The residential sector leads Connecticut's end-use energy consumption and accounts for about 33% of the energy use in the state. The transportation sector closely follows and accounts for about 32% of state energy consumption, and the commercial sector consumes about 26%. The industrial sector uses the least amount of energy at about 10% of the state total.13 The state's economy uses less energy to produce each dollar of gross domestic product (GDP) than all other states except Massachusetts, California, and New York.14 The largest contributors to Connecticut's GDP are finance, insurance, real estate, rentals, and leasing, all of which use relatively little energy. In 2020, Connecticut had the highest annual per capita personal income of any state—$79,771.15

Electricity

Connecticut ranks among the 10 states with the highest share of electricity generated from nuclear power.

In 2020, natural gas fueled 56% of Connecticut's electricity net generation, with the amount of natural gas-fired generation more than doubling from a decade earlier as about 2,100 megawatts in natural gas-fired generating units came online. Nuclear power provided 38% of in-state generation, the seventh-largest share of any state.16,17,18 Connecticut has one nuclear power plant, the 2,073-megawatt Millstone nuclear power station located in Waterford. The plant began operations in 1970 and has two reactors.19,20

Solar power provides the largest amount of Connecticut's remaining in-state electricity, accounting for slightly more than 2% of net generation in 2020 and exceeding biomass for the first time. Biomass provided slightly less than 2% of the state's net generation. Hydroelectric power generated about 1% of the state's electricity, and minor amounts of petroleum, wind, and coal provided the rest.21

Prior to 2009, coal typically supplied more than one-tenth of the state's electricity. In 2020, Connecticut's one remaining coal-fired power plant, located at Bridgeport Harbor Station, only ran during periods of peak demand during the winter and contributed less than 0.1% of the state's net generation.22,23 Coal-fired power generation in the state ended in mid-2021 with the closure of the plant.24 To help offset that shut generation a new 485-megawatt natural gas-fired combined-cycle unit came online at Bridgeport Harbor Station in June 2019.25

Petroleum fuels 2 of Connecticut's 10-largest power plants by capacity, and some of the state's other petroleum-fired generating capacity is at large dual-fueled power plants able to burn petroleum products or natural gas.26 Although about one-fifth of Connecticut's generating capacity is petroleum-fired, the use of petroleum has declined in the past decade with the increased use of natural gas and renewable energy resources for generation.27 In 2020, petroleum contributed less than 0.1% of the state's net generation.28 Higher-cost petroleum fuels are used when natural gas supplies are constrained, usually in winter.29

Connecticut has the highest average electricity retail price among the Lower 48 states.30 The state promotes energy efficiency and peak demand reduction to help consumers lower their electricity consumption and power bills.31 Connecticut's per capita electricity consumption is less than in all but five states.32 Air conditioning demand in the New England region is low during the mild summer months.33,34 About one in six Connecticut households use electricity as a primary source for home heating in winter.35 Connecticut has generated more electricity than it needs since 2009. About one-fourth of Connecticut's generation is excess power that is sent to other states over the regional electric grid.36

Renewable energy

In 2020, more than three-fourths of the solar power generation in Connecticut was from small-scale facilities, mostly rooftop solar panels.

Renewable resources at both utility- and small-scale (less than 1-megawatt) facilities provided about 5% of Connecticut's electricity net generation in 2020. Solar power accounted for slightly more than two-fifths of the state's renewable electricity generation, followed by biomass at about one-third. Hydroelectric sources provided about one-fifth.37 All utility-scale renewable electricity generation in Connecticut came from hydroelectric power and biomass until December 2013, when a small amount of utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) generation came online.38 By the summer of 2021, about 820 megawatts of utility-scale and small-scale solar power generating capacity had been installed in Connecticut.39 In 2020, more than three-fourths of the state's solar power came from small-scale, customer-sited facilities like rooftop solar panels.40

Most of Connecticut's biomass generating capacity is at facilities fueled by municipal solid waste. Those facilities have 160 megawatts of capacity. Additionally, there is a single 38-megawatt biomass power plant that uses wood recovered from construction, demolition, forestry, and land clearing activities.41 There is one landfill gas-fired power facility in the state with 2.4 megawatts of generating capacity.42 The state's biomass resources also provide feedstock for its one wood pellet manufacturing plant, which can produce up to 14,000 tons of pellets each year. Wood pellets are used for heating and as a fuel for generating electricity.43,44

Connecticut's 13 conventional hydroelectric facilities provide about 120 megawatts of generating capacity. The state also has a pumped storage hydroelectric facility with about 30 megawatts of generating capacity.45 The Rocky River Generating Station in New Milford, Connecticut, was completed in 1929 and was the first pumped storage hydroelectric project built in the United States. The power station pumps water from the Housatonic River into the Candlewood Lake reservoir and later releases it to generate electricity during periods of peak demand. The facility uses reversible pumps that also act as generators, an innovation at the time the facility was built.46

Connecticut's first and only onshore utility-scale wind project—two turbines with 1 megawatt of generating capacity—went online in the northwestern corner of the state in 2015.47,48 However, the state's strongest wind power resources are offshore along the Long Island Sound coastline.49 Connecticut's governor signed legislation into law in June 2019 requiring the state's Department of Energy and Environmental Protection to solicit proposals to procure 2,000 megawatts of offshore wind by 2030.50 The state has acquired 300 megawatts of offshore wind power generation from the Revolution Wind project and 800 megawatts from the Park City Wind project, which is Phase 1 of the Vineyard Wind project. Both wind power projects are located off the coastlines of nearby states and are expected to be online by 2025.51,52,53,54 The New England regional transmission operator, Independent System Operator—New England (ISO-NE), is assessing infrastructure upgrades needed to connect wind power resources throughout the region.55

Connecticut's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) was established in 1998 and has been revised several times since then. The RPS requires that increasing amounts of electricity sold in the state be generated from renewable resources, including solar and wind power, biomass, and wave or tidal power, reaching 44% of electricity sales by 2030.56,57 Connecticut's governor issued an executive order for 100% of the state's electricity supply to be generated by renewable resources by 2040.58,59 To encourage the use of renewable resources and energy efficiency, Connecticut requires both of its investor-owned utilities to offer net metering and time-of-use pricing. In 2021, state regulators changed how customers are credited for the excess solar power they generate and put back on the grid.60,61

Connecticut promotes the use of alternative fuels for transportation, including biofuels and electricity, through financial incentives and regulatory relief.62 There are about 450 public electric vehicle charging stations in the state with about 1,200 charging outlets, the second-largest amount among the New England states.63 Connecticut does not have any ethanol production, but about 156 million gallons of ethanol were consumed in the state in 2019.64,65 In addition to the many fueling stations that sell motor gasoline blended with 10% ethanol, there are three E85 (85% ethanol, 15% motor gasoline) public fueling stations in the state.66 Connecticut also has one biodiesel production plant, which is the largest in New England. The plant is located in New Haven and uses multiple feedstocks to produce about 18 million gallons per year, which is more than double the state's annual biodiesel use.67,68,69,70

Petroleum

Connecticut receives much of its petroleum products through its three deepwater ports.

Connecticut does not have any crude oil reserves and does not produce or refine petroleum.71,72 Much of the heating oil and other petroleum products that enter Connecticut travel through the port of New Haven, one of the state's three deepwater ports. Connecticut's other two deepwater ports—New London and Bridgeport—also receive petroleum products.73,74 A pipeline originating in New Haven delivers refined petroleum products to central Connecticut and terminates in south-central Massachusetts.75,76

The transportation sector uses about seven-tenths of the petroleum consumed in Connecticut, primarily as motor gasoline and diesel fuel.77,78 Connecticut is one of several New England states that requires the statewide use of reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol to reduce smog-forming pollutants, and its total ethanol consumption is the second highest among the New England states.79,80 The residential sector accounts for nearly one-fifth of the petroleum used in the state.81 About 4 in 10 households use heating oil or other petroleum products for home heating, the fourth-highest share in the country. The commercial and industrial sectors together account for one-tenth of state petroleum use.82,83 Connecticut, like several nearby states, has phased in the use of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) heating oil that has a maximum sulfur content of 15 parts per million.84 In 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy created the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to protect residents and businesses in the northeastern United States against heating fuel supply disruptions during the winter. The reserve holds 1 million barrels of USLD at three storage sites, including one in Groton, Connecticut, where 300,000 barrels of heating fuel are stored.85 The Groton site's first release of emergency supplies occurred in November 2012 because of regional fuel delivery shortages resulting from Hurricane Sandy.86

Natural gas

Connecticut does not have any natural gas reserves or production.87,88 Interstate pipelines bring in the natural gas the state uses.89 Natural gas arrives in Connecticut from the Appalachian region and also from Canada, the U.S. Gulf Coast, and the U.S. Mid-Continent region.90,91,92,93 Almost all of the natural gas that enters Connecticut comes through the state of New York. Minor amounts are delivered through Massachusetts. Three-fifths of the natural gas that enters Connecticut is consumed in the state, and the rest is transported on to Rhode Island or back into New York.94

Natural gas consumption by Connecticut’s electric power plants has more than doubled since 2009.

The electric power sector uses the largest share of natural gas consumed in Connecticut. That sector accounted for just over half of the natural gas delivered to consumers in the state in 2019, more than double the amount used in 2009. The commercial and residential sectors each typically consume almost equal amounts, and together they account for about two-fifths of the natural gas delivered to consumers. The industrial sector accounted for slightly less than one-tenth of the state's natural gas consumption. The transportation sector consumes a small amount of natural gas as vehicle fuel.95 Almost 4 in 10 Connecticut households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating.96 As increasing amounts of natural gas are used for electricity generation in Connecticut and throughout New England, assurance of a sufficient natural gas supply has become a critical energy issue for the region.97 Like other New England states, Connecticut does not have any underground natural gas storage facilities and depends on underground storage capacity in nearby states to help meet peak gas demand in the winter.98

Coal

Connecticut’s last coal-fired power plant retired in the summer of 2021.

Connecticut has no coal reserves or production.99 No domestically produced coal has been received in the state since 2011.100,101 The state's use of coal for electricity generation declined significantly during the past decade.102 The 258-megawatt coal-fired electric generating unit at Bridgeport Harbor Station was the only coal-fired power plant still operating in the state until it closed in the summer of 2021.103,104 Connecticut's industrial sector has not consumed any coal since 2005.105

Endnotes

1 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, Connecticut's Climate, An Overview of Climate in Connecticut, accessed August 16, 2021.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Connecticut Profile Data, Reserves and Environment, accessed August 16, 2021.
3 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, Connecticut's Climate, An Overview of Climate in Connecticut, accessed August 16, 2021.
4 Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, Dams In Connecticut: Their History, Use and Regulation, updated October 2020.
5 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, Connecticut's Climate, An Overview of Climate in Connecticut, accessed August 16, 2021.
6 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Connecticut, Maps & Data, accessed August 16, 2021.
7 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Connecticut Profile, accessed August 16, 2021.
8 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2021, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Landfill Gas, Municipal Solid Waste, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
9 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Biomass Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, accessed August 16, 2021.
10 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, Historical Population Density Data (1910-2020).
11 U.S. Census Bureau, State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates, accessed August 16, 2021.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
15 U.S Bureau of Economic Analysis, Connecticut (March 24, 2021).
16 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Connecticut, 2001-20.
17 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B.
18 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2021, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Natural Gas Fired Combustion Turbine, Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle, Natural Gas Internal Combustion Engine, Other Natural Gas.
19 U.S. EIA, Nuclear Reactor, State, and Net Capacity (September 2020).
20 Yale School of Public Health, The History of the Millstone Nuclear Power Plant, accessed September 7, 2021.
21 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Connecticut, 2001-20.
22 "Connecticut's last coal-fired power plant expected to shut down," The New Haven Register (February 11, 2016).
23 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Connecticut, 2001-20.
24 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2021, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal; Inventory of Retired Generators as of June 2021, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
25 PSEG Power, "PSEG Power retires Bridgeport Harbor Station coal plant, effective May 31," Press Release (June 1, 2021).
26 U.S. EIA, Connecticut Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2019.
27 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2021, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Select All, Petroleum Liquids.
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Connecticut, 2001-20.
29 Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, 2018 Connecticut Comprehensive Energy Strategy (February 8, 2018), Electric Power Sector, ISO-NE Winter Reliability Program, p. 153.
30 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.6.B.
31 Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, Energy Efficiency, updated October 2020.
32 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
33 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2009 RECS Survey Data Housing Characteristics, Air Conditioning in Northeast Region, divisions, and states (HC7.8).
34 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, Connecticut's Climate, An Overview of Climate in Connecticut, accessed August 18, 2021.
35 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Connecticut.
36 U.S. EIA, Connecticut Electricity Profile, 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Connecticut, 2001-20.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3.1, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
39 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (June 2021), Table 6.2.B.
40 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Connecticut, 2001-20.
41 Greenleaf Power, Facilities, Plainfield, accessed August 19, 2021.
42 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2021, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Landfill Gas, Municipal Solid Waste, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
43 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, May 2021.
44 U.S. EIA, "New EIA survey collects data on production and sales of wood pellets," Today in Energy (December 14, 2016).
45 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2021, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
46 American Society of Civil Engineers, Rocky River Pumped Storage Hydraulic Plant, accessed August 19, 2021.
47 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2021, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
48 Windpower, Colebrook South (USA), updated October 25, 2017.
49 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Connecticut, Maps & Data, accessed August 19, 2021.
50 Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, 2019 Procurement of Offshore Wind Resources, updated January 2020.
51 Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, "Regional Wildlife Science Entity Launched to Research and Monitor Effects of Offshore Wind Development on Wildlife, Ecosystems," Press Release (July 22, 2021).
52 Revolution Wind, About Revolution Wind, accessed August 22, 2021.
53 Dunavin, Davis "Offshore Wind HQ Established In Bridgeport, Auguring 800-Megawatt Project," WSHU (July 19, 2021).
54 U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, "BOEM Announces Environmental Review of Wind Energy Project Proposed for Offshore Rhode Island and Massachusetts," Press Release (June 28, 2021).
55 ISO-New England, Transmission, accessed August 19, 2021.
56 Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, Public Utilities Regulatory Authority, Connecticut Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated July 2021.
57 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Connecticut, Renewables Portfolio Standard, updated July 12, 2018.
58 State of Connecticut Governor Ned Lamont, "Governor Lamont Signs Executive Order Strengthening Connecticut's Efforts to Mitigate Climate Change," Press Release (September 3, 2019).
59 Prevost, Lisa, "Connecticut plan lays out options for reaching zero-carbon power by 2040," Energy News Network (January 13, 2021).
60 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Connecticut, Net Metering, updated November 26, 2018.
61 Prevost, Lisa, "Five takeaways from Connecticut's new residential solar program changes," Energy News Network (February 17, 2021).
62 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Connecticut Laws and Incentives, accessed August 19, 2021.
63 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Advanced Filters, E85 Fueling Station Locations, and Electric Charging Station Locations, accessed August 19, 2021.
64 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2019, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2019.
65 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
66 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Advanced Filters, E85 Fueling Station Locations, and Electric Charging Station Locations, accessed August 19, 2021.
67 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 26, 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity, by state, December 2020.
68 American Green Fuels LLC, About and Our Facility, accessed August 19, 2021.
69 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2019, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2019.
70 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
71 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Estimated Production and Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2014-19.
72 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2021 (June 25, 2021), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2021.
73 Connecticut Port Authority, Impacts on the Connecticut Maritime Industry (July 2019), p. 9-13.
74 City of New Haven, Port Authority, Terminals, accessed August 18, 2021.
75 Buckeye Partners, L.P., System Map, accessed August 18, 2021.
76 Buckeye Partners, L.P., Pipeline Transportation Operations, accessed August 18, 2021.
77 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
78 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
79 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
80 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel Ethanol Consumption Estimates, 2019.
81 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
82 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
83 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Connecticut.
84 New England Fuel Institute, Guidance, Exemptions and Enforcement Discretion for New England's ULSHO Transition, accessed August 18, 2021.
85 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR), About NEHHOR, accessed August 18, 2021.
86 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR), Releases, accessed August 18, 2021.
87 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2014-19.
88 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2015-20.
89 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Connecticut, 2014-19.
90 U.S. EIA, Connecticut Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Natural Gas Interstate Pipeline, accessed August 20, 2021.
91 Enbridge, Algonquin Gas Transmission, accessed August 20, 2021.
92 Kinder Morgan, Natural Gas Pipelines, Tennessee Gas Pipeline, accessed August 20, 2021.
93 Iroquois Gas Transmission System, Iroquois Interactive Map accessed August 20, 2021.
94 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Connecticut, 2014-19.
95 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Connecticut, Annual, 2015-20.
96 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Connecticut.
97 ISO-New England, Natural Gas Infrastructure Constraints, accessed August 20, 2021.
U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, by State, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2014-19.
98 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Tables 1, 15.
99 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by: destination state, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Connecticut.
100 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report, Archive, 2011-18, Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination state, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Connecticut.
101 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Connecticut, Coal, Annual, 2001-20.
102 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of June 2021, Plant State: Connecticut, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
103 PSEG Power, "PSEG Power retires Bridgeport Harbor Station coal plant, effective May 31," Press Release (June 1, 2021).
104 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table CT6, Industrial Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, Selected105Years, 1960-2019, Connecticut.