U.S. Energy Information Administration logo
‹ U.S. States

Hawaii   Hawaii Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: November 15, 2018

Overview

Isolated by the Pacific Ocean, Hawaii is the most petroleum-dependent state in the nation.

The Hawaiian islands stretch more than 1,500 miles across the central Pacific Ocean, from the largest island, Hawaii, in the southeast to the Kure Atoll in the northwest. The eight main islands, and the more than 100 uninhabited reefs, shoals, and atolls, are farther from a major landmass than any other island group on earth.1,2 Hawaii's geographic isolation makes its energy infrastructure unique among the states.3 With few energy resources, Hawaii consumes much more energy than it produces.4 More than four-fifths of Hawaii's energy comes from petroleum, making it the most petroleum-dependent state in the nation.5

Hawaii's islands, which are the tops of volcanos that rise almost 34,000 feet above the sea floor, are located about 1,500 miles north of the equator.6,7 The climate is tropical, but it is moderated by steady trade winds and the surrounding ocean. Rainfall is heaviest on the windward side of the islands where moisture is released as trade winds move up the mountain slopes, while the leeward slopes remain relatively dry. Extremes of heat, cold, and rainfall can occur at higher elevations. However, at lower elevations the state's climate is generally pleasant, with little variation year-round.8 Although the largest island in the state is Hawaii, most of the state's population lives on the island of Oahu. Residents on all of the islands are clustered at lower elevations in the coastal areas where the weather is mild.9,10

Hawaii's economy is not energy intensive.11 The major industries in the state are real estate, tourism, and government, including the U.S. military.12 Hawaii's per capita energy consumption is among the lowest in the nation.13 Hawaii's mild climate contributes to the state's residential sector energy consumption being the lowest in the nation. The transportation sector accounts for more than half of all energy consumed in Hawaii.14

Petroleum

Hawaii has no proved crude oil reserves or production, but it does make petroleum products.15,16 The state has two crude oil refineries, located in the Honolulu port area on Oahu.17 However, one refinery recently announced that it will cease operations and sell its refining units to the other refinery.18,19,20 Crude oil imported from Russia and other Pacific Rim producers, as well as from Africa and the Middle East, are refined on Oahu. Much of Hawaii's demand for petroleum products is supplied by the local refineries except for refined petroleum products, such as jet fuel and propane, which are imported from Asia, the Caribbean, South America, and Europe.21 Crude oil is offloaded to storage tanks in the Oahu refinery area through offshore mooring systems, and refined products are loaded at Honolulu harbor terminals onto fuel barges for distribution to other islands.22,23 Hawaii has no inter-island pipelines, but there are pipeline systems on some islands that distribute petroleum products to customers.24

The transportation sector uses almost two-thirds of all petroleum consumed in Hawaii, and the electric power sector uses about one-fourth. Jet fuel accounts for half of all transportation fuels consumed in the state, and, because of significant demand from military installations and commercial airlines, jet fuel makes up a larger share of total petroleum consumption in Hawaii than in any other state except Alaska.25,26 In 2006, Hawaii imposed a requirement that all motor gasoline be blended with 10% ethanol to help spur creation of a local ethanol industry, using locally grown feedstocks, but no ethanol refineries have been built in the state. The statewide ethanol blending requirement ended in 2016.27,28 A major goal of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative is to displace 70% of petroleum-based ground transportation fuels by 2030.29 Hawaii has instituted a series of incentives for electric vehicles (EVs), including discounted electricity rates for charging cars and free parking in government lots and at parking meters. Hawaii ranks fourth in the nation, behind California, Washington, and Oregon, in total EV sales, and is second in the nation, after California, in the number of EVs per capita.30

Electricity

Petroleum-fired power plants have supplied more than three-fourths of Hawaii's net electricity generation for most of the past two decades. In 2014, for the first time, net generation from petroleum was below 70% of total generation. In 2017, petroleum fueled about two-thirds of the state's net generation, and coal fueled one-seventh.31

Renewable sources—mainly wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, and hydropower—supplied slightly more of the state's electricity from utility-scale generators than was generated by coal in 2017. Generation from distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) renewable sources, like rooftop solar panels, has increased rapidly. The share of Hawaii's net electricity generation from both utility- and small-scale renewable sources was about one-fourth in 2017.32

Dependence on petroleum and isolated island grids contribute to Hawaii having the highest U.S. electricity prices.

Hawaii's electricity is supplied by electric power utility Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) and, on Kauai, by an electric cooperative. Each of Hawaii's six main islands has its own separate electricity grid, owned either by the electric power utility or by the cooperative. The grids are not connected by undersea electric transmission cables, and each island must generate its own power.33 Hawaii encourages initiatives to modernize its transmission grids and interconnect them to enable more efficient power generation and to support increased development of renewable energy resources.34,35

The state's heavy dependence on imported petroleum and isolated island grids contribute to Hawaii having the highest retail electricity prices of any state in the nation.36,37 Hawaii's electricity demand is among the lowest in the nation, both in total amount consumed and in per capita consumption.38,39 About 3 in 10 households in Hawaii use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating, but with the mild tropical climate, heating is rarely needed, and nearly two-thirds of households have no heating system at all.40

Renewable energy

Hawaii was the first state to set a deadline for producing 100% of its electricity from renewable sources.

The state of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy entered a partnership in 2008 called the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) to help reduce the state's dependence on petroleum and optimize use of local energy sources.41 The initial overall HCEI goal was a 70% clean energy economy by 2030, counting both renewable resources and efficiency gains. In 2015, the Hawaii legislature amended the state's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and made Hawaii the first state to set a legally required deadline—2045—for obtaining 100% of its electricity from sustainable renewable resources.42,43,44 Hawaii has set a separate energy efficiency standard aimed to reduce electricity consumption by 30% by 2030. Originally, the energy efficiency standards were part of the RPS, but, in 2015, the standards were separated because of the different technologies and measurements required to assess each goal.45,46

Hawaii has substantial renewable resources throughout the island chain.47 Hawaii's largest solar farm went online in early 2017. Located on the island of Oahu, the solar plant has a generating capacity of about 28 megawatts.48 In 2017, solar power provided half of the state's renewable generation, primarily because of the growth of distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) generation, which has nearly doubled since 2014.49 Hawaii produces more distributed solar generation per capita than any other state.50,51 By the summer of 2018, almost 220,000 homes, which account for nearly half the households in the state, had solar panels installed.52,53 State regulators and grid operators balance increasing requests to connect customer solar panels to the grid with grid stability requirements.54 As part of Hawaii's commitment to its 100% renewable energy goal, state building codes require all new single-family homes to have solar hot water heaters.55

Significant wind resources are found both onshore and offshore in Hawaii.56 The state has more than 200 megawatts of installed capacity at seven utility-scale wind farms that combined have nearly 120 wind turbines located on Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii. Other utility-scale wind generation projects are in advanced development, including a 24-megawatt wind project on Oahu.57,58,59 Several offshore wind projects have been proposed for federal waters around Oahu, and the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management has sought additional nominations from companies interested in offshore commercial wind energy leases.60 With the islands' small grids, some larger projects that use variable wind and solar technologies incorporate energy storage batteries to regulate power flows and ensure reliability.61,62,63

Biomass, mainly agricultural wastes such as bagasse from sugarcane, has long been used in rural Hawaii to generate heat and electricity. With the closure of many sugar plantations, that source of biomass has declined.64 A new biomass facility located on a former sugar plantation will use local forestry waste to generate electricity.65,66 Biomass electricity is now largely provided by Honolulu's 90-megawatt waste-to-energy power plant, which provides nearly one-tenth of Oahu's electricity from municipal solid waste.67 Several other smaller waste-to-energy and biomass generators operate on Oahu and Maui.68,69 Biofuels also play an important role in Hawaii's power generation. HECO's 120-megawatt Campbell Industrial Park Generating Station, which began service on Oahu in 2010, is believed to be the world's largest commercial electricity generator fueled exclusively with biodiesel.70 Hawaii's one operational biodiesel production plant has a capacity of 5.5 million gallons per year.71

Hawaii is one of seven states with utility-scale electricity generation from geothermal resources.72 The state's only geothermal power plant is located on the Kilauea Volcano on the Big Island, and it supplied nearly one-fourth of the island's electricity in 2016. The plant was shut down in May 2018 after fissures opened near the plant and lava blocked access to it following the eruption of the Kilauea Volcano. The plant's owners do not expect it to reopen until sometime in 2020. More geothermal projects are being considered to tap the earth's heat, particularly on the Big Island of Hawaii and Maui.73,74,75,76

The state does not have rivers with large water flows that could be held in reservoirs to support hydroelectric dams, but it still produces hydropower.77 The small hydroelectric turbines in use are run-of-river and run-of-the-ditch systems that flow at sites on Maui, Kauai, and the Big Island. Although hydropower provides less than 1% of the state's net generation, on Kauai it supplies 7% and on the Island of Hawaii it provides almost 3% of the electricity generated.78,79 The Kauai electric cooperative plans to acquire power from the first new utility-scale hydroelectric plant on Kauai Island in 80 years. The 6-megawatt project is expected to come online by early 2019.80,81 Kauai's electric cooperative is developing a 25-megawatt pumped storage hydroelectric project to integrate with solar facilities to meet nighttime peak electricity demand.82 Studies have identified other potential sites for small-scale hydroelectric projects in the state.83

Hawaii also looks to the surrounding ocean for renewable energy.84 The U.S. Navy and other researchers have tested wave energy technologies, and studies indicate wave energy could provide a significant amount of the electricity Hawaiians use.85 Ocean thermal energy technology, which generates electricity through temperature differences between warm, shallow waters and cooler, deep waters, is also being explored.86,87 District cooling, drawing up deep sea water to chill air-conditioning units, is being commercially developed in Honolulu.88

Natural gas

Hawaii has no proved natural gas reserves and produces no natural gas, but produces synthetic natural gas and imports liquefied natural gas (LNG).89,90 Hawaii and North Dakota are the only two states that produce synthetic natural gas, called syngas, which in Hawaii is combined with the state's LNG supplies in the natural gas distribution system.91 Syngas is produced in an Oahu processing plant using naphtha feedstock from a local refinery. The syngas is delivered by pipeline to parts of Oahu.92 Customers in rural areas of Oahu and on other islands, who are not connected to utility Hawaii Gas's distribution system, can be supplied with propane.93 Hawaii encourages the use of local biomass as a feedstock for the production of renewables-based synthetic natural gas (RNG) as part of the state's shift to renewables.94,95 The natural gas utility is diversifying its supply by acquiring RNG manufactured from methane captured at the wastewater treatment plant and by importing LNG as a backup fuel supply.96,97 Hawaii's first LNG shipment arrived in April 2014 in a standardized cryogenic container from a liquefaction plant in California. Standardized shipping containers can serve markets that do not have terminals for LNG tankers. The LNG was regasified and injected into the Hawaii Gas distribution system, becoming the first non-synthetic natural gas ever put into the system.98 Hawaii Gas has obtained state regulatory approval to convert up to 30% of its supply to LNG.99 The company also plans to bring bulk LNG into Hawaii by tanker, which would be unloaded via an offshore mooring system and a subsea pipeline that would deliver the gas onshore.100

With its limited supply and distribution network, Hawaii has the lowest total natural gas consumption in the nation.

With its limited supply and distribution network, Hawaii has the lowest total natural gas consumption in the nation and the lowest per capita consumption.101,102 The commercial sector, which includes hotels and restaurants, consumes almost four-fifths of the natural gas distributed in Hawaii. The residential sector accounts for almost all the rest.103 Only slightly more than one-third of Hawaiians heat their homes, and very few of those households, about 1 in 16, rely on natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating.104

Coal

Hawaii has no demonstrated coal reserves and does not produce coal.105,106 Coal use began in Hawaii in the 1980s as a way to reduce the state's dependence on petroleum in both the industrial sector and the electric power sector.107 Coal shipped in by ocean freighter is consumed at Hawaii's only coal-fired power plant, a 180-megawatt facility on Oahu, which fueled about one-seventh of the state's net generation in 2017. The plant has a planned retirement date in 2022. The plant can burn waste oil, tire-derived fuels, biomass, and distillate fuel oil in addition to coal.108 In the past, coal was used for industrial purposes to supplement the agricultural waste burned to power sugarcane processing operations, but those operations have ceased.109 Currently, coal is consumed only by Hawaii's electric power sector.110

Endnotes

1 To-Hawaii.com, Hawaii Geography, accessed October 18, 2018.
2 Netstate, Hawaii, The Geography of Hawaii, updated February 25, 2016.
3 Glick, Mark, State Energy Administrator, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawaii, Testimony before U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (July 14, 2015), p. 1.
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2016.
5 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2016.
6 Geology.com, Plate Tectonics and the Hawaiian Hot Spot, accessed October 18, 2018.
7 TimeandDate.com, Distance from Honolulu to Equator, accessed October 19, 2018.
8 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, Honolulu, HI, Climate of Hawai'i, accessed October 21, 2018.
9 To-Hawaii.com, Hawaii Population, accessed October 18, 2018.
10 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Hawaii Profile.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2016.
12 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, All Industries, Hawaii, 2016, 2017.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
15 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Annual, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2016.
16 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, Thousand Barrels, 2017.
17 Hawaii's Export-Import Resource Center, Hawaii Foreign-Trade Zone No. 9, FTZ Locations, Oahu, subzone 9A, Par Petroleum Refinery, and subzone 9E, Island Energy Refinery.
18 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2018 (June 25, 2018), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2018.
19 Island Energy, "IES Shifting Strategic Focus to Logistics and Retail Operations, Selling Select Refinery Assets to Par Pacific Holdings, Inc.," Press Release (August 29, 2018).
20 Par Hawaii, "Par Pacific to Buy Select Refining Assets from Island Energy Services Following IES' Announcement of Cessation of their Refining Operations," Press Release (August 29, 2018).
21 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports (January-July 2018), Hawaii.
22 Island Energy, Our Operations, accessed October 23, 2018.
23 Par Hawaii, Services, accessed October 23, 2018.
24 Island Energy, "IES Shifting Strategic Focus to Logistics and Retail Operations, Selling Select Refinery Assets to Par Pacific Holdings, Inc.," Press Release (August 29, 2018).
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2016.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2016.
27 American Fuel and Petroleum Manufacturers, Hawaii, Current Regulations, updated November 2017.
28 "U.S. Ethanol Plants," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated September 6, 2018.
29 Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), HCEI Roadmap (2011), p. vii.
30 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (June 2018), p. 44.
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Hawaii, 2001-2017.
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Hawaii, 2001-2017.
33 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (June 2018), p. 4-5.
34 Hawaii State Energy Office, Energy Policy, State of Hawaii Energy Policy Directives, accessed October 25, 2018.
35 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures, Renewable Energy (June 2018), p. 18.
36 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 5.6.B.
37 Hawaiian Electric Company, Billing & Payment, Rates & Regulations, Average Price of Electricity, accessed October 25, 2018.
38 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 5.4.B.
39 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Table PEPANNRES, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017, 2017 Population Estimates.
40 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Hawaii, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, 2017.
41 Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, About the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, accessed October 25, 2018.
42 Lincoln, Malika, "Gov. Ige Signs Bill Setting 100% Renewable Energy Goal for State," Hawaii News Now (June 8, 2015).
43 Hawaii State Legislature, §269-92, Renewable portfolio standards, accessed October 25, 2018.
44 U.S. EIA, "Hawaii and Vermont Set High Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets," Today in Energy (June 29, 2015).
45 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Hawaii, Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard, Program Overview, updated September 4, 2014.
46 Hawaii State Energy Office, Energy Resources Coordinator's Report on the Status and Progress of Clean Energy Initiatives and the Energy Security Special Fund (December 2017) p. 8-13.
47 Hawaii State Energy Office, Renewable EnerGIS Map, accessed October 25, 2018.
48 Mykleseth, Kathryn, "Hawaii's largest solar farm goes online in Waianae," Honolulu Star Advertiser (January 25, 2017).
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Hawaii, 2001--2017.
50 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.17.B.
51 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Table PEPANNRES, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017, 2017 Population Estimates.
52 Solar Energy Industries Association, Hawaii Solar, accessed October 25, 2018.
53 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Hawaii, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
54 Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (June 2018), p. 31.
55 Hawaii State Energy Office, Solar Water Heating Variance, accessed October 25, 2018.
56 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Hawaii, Maps & Data, Hawaii 80-Meter Wind Resource Map and Hawaii Offshore 90-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential, accessed October 25, 2018.
57 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in Hawaii, accessed October 25, 2018.
58 Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, "Na Pua Makani Wind Project Give the Go Ahead by the State Land Board; North Shore Facility Planned with Eight Turbines," Press Release (May 18, 2018).
59 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Renewable Energy Projects Directory, Na Pua Makani Wind Project, accessed October 25, 2018.
60 U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Hawaii Activities, accessed October 25, 2018.
61 Sempra Energy, Sempra Renewables, Wind In Operation, Auwahi Wind, accessed October 25, 2018.
62 Spector, Julian, "AES' New Kauai Solar-Storage ‘Peaker' Shows How Fast Battery Costs Are Falling," Greentech Media (January 16, 2017).
63 "Utility-Scale Battery System Goes Into Service at Campbell Industrial Park," Hawaiian Electric Company, Press Release (September 23, 2016).
64 Hawaiian Electric Company, Renewable Energy Sources, Biomass, accessed October 25, 2018.
65 Hu Honua Bioenergy, LLC, Project Overview, accessed October 25, 2018.
66 Mai, HJ, "Big Island biomass plant back on track to open in late 2018," Pacific Business News (August 9, 2017).
67 Covanta, Covanta Honolulu, accessed October 25, 2018.
68 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures, Bioenergy, Active Bioenergy Facilities, (June 2018), p. 23.
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
70 Hawaiian Electric Company, Renewable Energy Sources, Biofuels, accessed October 25, 2018.
71 Biodiesel Magazine, U.S. Biodiesel Plants, operational, updated December 13, 2017.
72 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.16.B.
73 Hawaiian Electric Company, Renewable Energy Sources, Geothermal, Puna Geothermal Venture, accessed October 25, 2018.
74 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (June 2018) Geothermal, p. 23-24.
75 Perez, Rob, "Puna Geothermal Venture faces challenges amid uncertainty," Honolulu Star Advertiser (July 8, 2018).
76 Brestovansky, Michael, "PGV 18 months out from restarting," Hawaii Tribune-Herald (August 10, 2018).
77 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
78 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (June 2018), Hydropower, Current Production, p. 27.
79 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Hawaii, 2017.
80 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (June 2018), Hydropower, Proposed Production, p. 27.
81 Kauai Island Utility Cooperative, "2 Kaua‘i renewable energy projects receive PUC approval," Press release (March 22, 2016).
82 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (June 2018), Hydropower, Pumped Storage Hydropower, p. 28.
83 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (June 2018), Hydropower, Hawaii Hydropower Assessments, p. 28.
84 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (June 2018), Ocean and Marine Energy, p. 29.
85 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, "Innovative Wave Power Device Starts Producing Clean Power in Hawaii" (July 6, 2015).
86 Hawaii National Marine Renewable Energy Center, Hawai'i Marine Energy Resources, accessed October 25, 2018.
87 Hawaiian Electric Company, Renewable Energy Sources, Ocean Energy, accessed October 25, 2018.
88 Mai, JH, "Hawaii finalizes deal to use chilled seawater to cool state office buildings in Honolulu," Pacific Business News (October 9, 2018).
89 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, 2016, Dry Natural Gas, Annual.
90 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2017.
91 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Supplemental Gas Supplies, Synthetic, Annual, 2017.
92 Hawai'i Gas, Clean Energy, Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG), How SNG is Made and Distributed, accessed October 23, 2018.
93 Hawai'i Gas, Clean Energy, Propane, accessed October 23, 2018.
94 Hawaii Gas, "Hawaii Gas receives approval from the PUC to make renewable natural gas from Honouliuli biogas," Press Release (September 13, 2017).
95 Nemec, Richard, "Hawaii Gas to Tap Honolulu Wastewater for Synthetic NatGas," Natural Gas Intelligence's Daily Gas Price Index (August 4, 2016).
96 Hawai'i Gas, Clean Energy, Renewable Natural Gas (RNG), accessed October 23, 2018.
97 Hawai'i Gas, Clean Energy, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), accessed October 23, 2018.
98 Hawai'i Gas, "Hawaii Gas Brings First Shipment of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) to Hawaii," Press Release (April 7, 2014).
99 Mykleseth, Kathryn, "Hawaii Gas Will Bring in More LNG," Honolulu Star Advertiser (April 6, 2016).
100 Hawai'i Gas, Company Profile, accessed October 23, 2018, p. 8.
101 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2016.
102 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2011-2017, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-01) .
103 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Hawaii, Annual, 2017.
104 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Hawaii, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
105 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2017 (November 2018), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2017 and 2016.
106 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2017 (November 2018), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2017.
107 Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawaii Energy Data and Trends (November 2015), p. 11, 21.
108 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
109 Gomes, Andrew, "Last sugar plantation in Hawaii to close this year," Honolulu Star Ledger (January 6, 2016).
110 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, List of plants for Hawaii, all coal, 2008-17.