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Hawaii   Hawaii Profile

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Last Updated: February 17, 2022

Overview

Isolated by the Pacific Ocean, Hawaii is the most petroleum-dependent U.S. state.

The Hawaiian Islands chain stretches more than 1,500 miles across the central Pacific Ocean, from the largest island, Hawaii, in the southeast to the Kure Atoll in the northwest. The eight main islands and the more than 100 uninhabited reefs, shoals, and atolls are about 2,400 miles from California and 3,900 miles from Japan, making them farther from a major landmass than any other island group on earth.1,2 Hawaii's geographic isolation makes its energy infrastructure unique among the states.3 Hawaii consumes about 12 times more energy than it produces.4 More than four-fifths of Hawaii's energy consumption is petroleum, making it the most petroleum-dependent state in the nation.5

Hawaii's islands, which are the tops of volcanos that rise more than 30,000 feet above the sea floor, are located about 1,500 miles north of the equator.6,7 Steady trade winds and the surrounding ocean moderate the temperatures on these tropical islands. Rainfall is heaviest on the windward side of the islands, where moisture is released as winds move up the mountain slopes, while the leeward slopes remain relatively dry. Hawaii is the only U.S. state with tropical rainforests. Extremes of heat, cold, rainfall and even snow can occur at higher elevations. However, at lower elevations the state's climate is generally pleasant, with little variation year-round.8,9 Although the largest island in the state is Hawaii, most of the state's population lives on the island of Oahu. On all of the islands, population centers cluster at lower elevations in the coastal areas where the weather is mild and access to services is greatest.10,11

Hawaii's economy is not energy intensive and ranks 13th among the states that use the least energy per dollar of GDP.12 Major contributors to the state's economy are real estate, tourism, construction, and government, including the U.S. military.13,14 Hawaii is among the five states with the lowest total energy use and among the 10 states with the lowest per capita energy consumption. Hawaii's mild climate contributes to the state's residential sector energy consumption being the lowest in the nation.15 The transportation sector accounts for almost three-fifths of the energy consumed in Hawaii, due in part to large jet fuel and marine fuel use, followed by the industrial sector at nearly one-fifth, the commercial sector at about one-seventh, and the residential sector at one-tenth.16

Petroleum

Hawaii has no proved crude oil reserves or production, but it does manufacture petroleum products.17,18 The state had two crude oil refineries, located near each other in the Honolulu port area on Oahu. In late 2018, the owner of the larger refinery purchased the smaller refinery, and the combined operations have the capacity to process about 148,000 barrels of oil per calendar day. In 2020, the owner idled the smaller refinery's 54,000-barrel-per-day capacity as petroleum product demand decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic.19,20,21,22 In 2020, the refinery's imported foreign crude oil came primarily from Russia, Argentina, and Libya. Hawaii also receives crude oil shipments from Alaska. The two local refineries supply much of Hawaii's demand for petroleum products, but the state also imports some refined petroleum products, including jet fuel, propane, and low-sulfur diesel fuel, from Asia, the Caribbean, and South America.23,24 Suppliers offload crude oil into storage tanks in the Oahu refinery area through offshore mooring systems, and load refined products at Honolulu harbor terminals onto fuel barges for distribution to other islands. Hawaii has no inter-island pipelines, but there are pipeline systems on some islands that distribute petroleum products to customers.25,26

Jet fuel makes up almost three-fifths of Hawaii’s petroleum consumption.

The transportation sector uses about two-thirds of all petroleum consumed in Hawaii, and the electric power sector uses about one-fifth. Together, the industrial, commercial, and residential sectors make up the remaining one-tenth of the state's petroleum use. Jet fuel accounts for nearly three-fifths of the petroleum products consumed in the state. Because of significant demand from military installations and commercial airlines, jet fuel makes up a larger share of total petroleum consumption in Hawaii than in any other state.27,28 In 2006, Hawaii imposed a requirement that all motor gasoline contain at least 10% ethanol, in part to help spur creation of a local ethanol industry, using locally grown feedstocks. However, no ethanol refineries have been built in the state. The statewide ethanol blending requirement ended in 2016.29,30 To help reduce its reliance on petroleum, Hawaii implemented a series of incentives for electric vehicles (EVs), including discounted electricity rates for charging cars, free parking in government lots and at parking meters, and rebates for installing charging stations.31,32

Electricity

Fossil fuels, mostly petroleum products, generate the vast majority of Hawaii's electricity, but renewable energy accounts for a growing share. During much of the past two decades, petroleum-fired power plants supplied more than three-fourths of Hawaii's electricity generation. In 2014, petroleum fueled less than 70% of the state's total electricity generation from utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) generating systems for the first time. In 2020, the total amount of petroleum-fired generation decreased to the lowest level in more than two decades, with petroleum's share of state generation falling to 60%. In 2020, coal fueled 11% of the state's generation, and total generation from coal was the lowest since 1992. The state has no natural gas-fired generation.33,34 Renewable energy sources—solar, wind, biomass, hydropower, and geothermal—supply most of the rest of the state's electricity. The share of Hawaii's total electricity generation produced by all renewable sources, including from small-scale solar such as rooftop solar panels, was a record 26% in 2020.35

About 95% of Hawaii's residents receive their power from Hawaiian Electric, which operates on five of the state's six main islands. An electric cooperative provides power on the island of Kauai. Each of the six islands has a separate electricity grid. The grids are not connected by undersea electricity transmission cables, so each island is responsible for generating its own power.36,37 Hawaii's government seeks to modernize the state's transmission grids and interconnect them to enable more efficient power generation. The state also supports increased development of renewable energy resources.38,39 Hawaii's utilities plan to retire many of their petroleum-fired generating units and replace them with renewable generation.40

Dependence on petroleum and isolated island grids contribute to Hawaii having the highest U.S. state electricity prices.

The state's dependence on imported petroleum for generating electricity and isolated island grids contribute to Hawaii having the highest average electricity retail price of any state and nearly triple the U.S. average rate.41,42 Hawaii's total electricity demand is the fourth-lowest in the nation, after Vermont, Alaska, and Rhode Island. The state also has the second-lowest per capita electricity consumption, after California.43,44 In 2020, the industrial sector accounted for the largest share of Hawaii's electricity retail sales, making up almost two-fifths of the total, followed by the residential sector at about one-third, and the commercial sector at three-tenths. In 2020, Hawaii's residential sector used more electricity than the commercial sector for the first time in more than two decades as mitigation efforts for the COVID-19 pandemic reduced tourism to the state. Hawaii's total visitor arrivals fell nearly 75% in 2020 from the prior year.45,46 About 3 out of 10 households in Hawaii use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating. However, with Hawaii's mild tropical climate, heating is rarely needed and about 60% of households have no heating system at all, the highest share of any state.47

Renewable energy

Hawaii has substantial renewable resources throughout the island chain.48 In 2020, solar power provided 64% of the state's total renewable electricity generation. Small-scale, customer-sited solar panel generation nearly doubled since 2015 and was two-and-a-half times larger than the state's utility-scale solar generation in 2020.49 Hawaii had the seventh-highest small-scale solar generation of any state in 2020.50 At the beginning of 2022, there was slightly more than 1,000 megawatts of solar capacity installed at about 92,500 small-scale residential and commercial generating systems on the five island grids operated by Hawaiian Electric. About one-fifth of Hawaiian Electric's residential customers have rooftop solar panels.51 Hawaii has a net metering program, but it closed to new applicants in 2015. The program reached the maximum number of customers who can send excess electricity from their privately installed rooftop solar panels or other renewable systems to the grid for payment.52 As part of Hawaii's commitment to its 100% renewable energy goal, state building codes require all new single-family homes to have solar hot water heaters, with some exceptions.53,54 Hawaii's largest solar farm, which went online in late 2019 with nearly 500,000 solar panels on the island of Oahu, has a generating capacity of about 49 megawatts. Two new solar farms, each with 60 megawatts of capacity, plan to come online in 2022.55,56

Hawaii has significant onshore and offshore wind resources, and wind energy generated 22% of the state's total renewable electricity in 2020.57,58 The state has more than 230 megawatts of installed generating capacity at eight utility-scale wind farms.59,60 Companies proposed several offshore wind projects for federal waters around Oahu, and the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management sought additional nominations from companies interested in offshore commercial wind energy leases.61 With the islands' small grids, some larger projects that use variable wind and solar technologies incorporate energy storage batteries to regulate power flows and ensure reliability, particularly at night.62,63,64

Biomass accounted for 10% of the state's total renewable generation in 2020.65 Biomass, mainly agricultural wastes such as bagasse from sugarcane, has long been used in rural Hawaii to generate heat and electricity. However, that source of biomass declined with the closure of many sugar plantations.66 Currently, Honolulu's 90-megawatt waste-to-energy power plant, which uses municipal solid waste to generate nearly one-tenth of Oahu Island's electricity, provides most of the state's biomass-fueled electricity.67,68 Several other smaller waste-to-energy and biomass generators operate on Oahu and Maui.69 A new biomass facility, located on a former sugar plantation, planned to burn local forest waste to generate electricity, but that project was delayed.70,71,72,73,74 Unlike in most other states, biofuels also play an important role in Hawaii's power generation. The 120-megawatt Campbell Industrial Park Generating Station, which began service on Oahu in 2010, is believed to be the world's largest commercial power generator fueled exclusively with biodiesel.75 Hawaii's single operating biodiesel production plant has a capacity of 6 million gallons per year.76

Hawaii does not have rivers with large water flows that can support hydroelectric dams, but it still produces some hydropower.77,78 The small hydroelectric turbines in use are run-of-river and run-of-the-ditch systems at sites on Maui, Kauai, and the Big Island. Although hydropower provided about 4% of the state's renewable generation and 1% of total generation from all sources in 2020, on Kauai it supplied about 11%, and on the island of Hawaii it provided about 3%.79,80 There are several other proposed and active hydro projects under development. Additional studies identified other potential sites for small hydroelectric projects in the state.81,82,83

Hawaii is one of seven states with utility-scale electricity generation from geothermal resources, which provided less than 1% of the state's renewable electricity in 2020.84,85 The state's single geothermal power plant, located on the Kilauea Volcano on the Big Island, accounted for one-tenth of the island's electricity during the first half of 2018. In May 2018, operators temporarily shut down the plant after ground fissures and lava blocked access to it following an eruption of the Kilauea Volcano. In late 2020, the plant came back online with limited generating capacity and was closer to full operating levels at the beginning of 2022.86,87,88,89

Hawaii also looks to its surrounding ocean waters for renewable energy.90 The U.S. Navy and other research organizations tested wave energy technologies, and studies indicate wave energy could provide a significant amount of electricity.91,92 Ocean thermal energy technology, which generates electricity through temperature differences between warm, shallow waters and cooler, deep waters, is also being explored.93,94 A district cooling project, which would have pumped deep sea water through a nearly 5-mile pipeline to chill air-conditioning units in 40 buildings in downtown Honolulu, was abandoned in late 2020 due to its high costs.95,96,97

In 2015, Hawaii was the first state to set a deadline for generating 100% of its electricity sales from renewable energy sources.

In 2015, the Hawaii legislature amended the state's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and made Hawaii the first state to set a legally required deadline, the year 2045, to obtain 100% of its electricity sales from renewable energy sources. Hawaii's electricity suppliers met the RPS interim requirement that 30% of their electricity sales come from renewables by 2020.98,99,100,101,102 Hawaii set a separate energy efficiency standard to reduce electricity consumption by 40% by 2030. Originally, the energy efficiency standard was part of the RPS, but, in 2015, the standards were separated because of the different technologies and measurements required to assess each goal.103,104

Natural gas

Hawaii has the lowest natural gas consumption in the nation.

Hawaii has no natural gas reserves and produces no natural gas, but it produces synthetic natural gas (syngas).105,106 Hawaii and North Dakota are the only two states that produce syngas.107 An Oahu processing plant produces syngas, using naphtha feedstock from a local refinery, and delivers it via pipeline to parts of Oahu.108 Customers in rural areas of Oahu and on other islands, who are not connected to the Hawaii Gas utility's distribution system, can be supplied with propane.109,110 Hawaii encourages the use of local biomass as a feedstock for the production of renewables-based synthetic natural gas (RNG) as part of the state's efforts to use more renewables.111,112 In 2018, Hawaii Gas Utility diversified its supply by acquiring methane captured at a Honolulu wastewater treatment plant.113,114

With its limited supply and distribution network, Hawaii has both the lowest total natural gas consumption in the nation and the lowest per capita consumption.115 In 2020, the commercial sector, which includes hotels and restaurants, consumed about 72% of the natural gas distributed in Hawaii. The residential sector accounted for 25% and the industrial sector was 3%.116 Only about two-fifths of Hawaiian households have heating systems, and very few of those households, about 1 in 20, use natural gas as their primary heating fuel.117

Coal

Hawaii has no coal reserves and does not produce coal, but receives coal from ocean freighters.118 Hawaii's coal use began in the 1980s as a way to reduce the state's dependence on petroleum in both the industrial and electric power sectors.119 In the past, industrial plants used coal to supplement the agricultural waste burned to power sugarcane processing operations, but those operations ceased.120 Currently, only Hawaii's electric power sector consumes coal.121 Hawaii's single coal-fired power plant, a 180-megawatt facility on Oahu, supplied about 11% of the state's total net generation in 2020.122 The plant is scheduled to close in September 2022, as required by state law.123,124

Endnotes

1 To-Hawaii.com, Hawaii Geography, accessed January 19, 2022.
2 Netstate, Hawaii, The Geography of Hawaii, updated February 25, 2016.
3 Glick, Mark, State Energy Administrator, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawaii, Testimony before U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (July 14, 2015), p. 1.
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
5 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
6 Geology.com, Plate Tectonics and the Hawaiian Hot Spot, accessed January 19, 2022.
7 TimeandDate.com, Distance from Honolulu to Equator, accessed January 19, 2022.
8 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, Honolulu, HI, Climate of Hawai'i, accessed January 19, 2022.
9 EdTechLens, One of a Kind: Visiting the Hawaiian Rainforest, accessed January 21, 2022.
10 To-Hawaii.com, Hawaii Population, accessed January 19, 2022.
11 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Hawaii Profile.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
13 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Hawaii, All statistics in the table, 2020.
14 Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development, Alaska Population Overview 2019 Estimates (December 2020), Chapter 3, Special Population and Areas, Armed Forces, p. 105.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
17 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production (Million Barrels), Annual, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2020.
18 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, Thousand Barrels, 2020.
19 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 25, 2021), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2021.
20 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 21, 2019), Table 12, Refinery Sales During 2018.
21 Brelsford, Robert, "Par Pacific's Hawaii refining system cuts run rates, defers turnaround," Oil & Gas Journal (March 25, 2020).
22 McInnis, Brian, "Five questions with Eric Wright of Par Hawaii," Pacific Business News (March 17, 2021).
23 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, Hawaii, monthly, 2020-21.
24 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Import Tracking Tool, Crude imports, Imports of all grades to Hawaii, Annual, 2017-20.
25 Island Energy Services, Our Operations, accessed January 19, 2022.
26 Par Hawaii, Services, Refining, Distribution, accessed January 19, 2022.
27 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
28 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
29 Bussewitz, Cathy "Hawaii lawmakers vote to get rid of ethanol in gas mandate," Associated Press (July 25, 2015).
30 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 3, 2021), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District) are available in XLS.
31 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Energy Facts & Figures (November 2020), Electric Vehicles, p. 30-31.
32 Hawaiian Electric, Electric Vehicle Incentives, accessed January 22, 2022.
33 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-20.
34 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, State Electricity Profiles, Hawaii Electricity Profile 2020, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2020.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-20.
36 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Energy Facts & Figures (November 2020), Hawaii's Electric Utilities, p. 7.
37 Hawaiian Electric, Power Facts, accessed January 20, 2020.
38 Hawaii State Energy Office, Energy Policy, State of Hawaii Energy Policy Directives, accessed January 20, 2022.
39 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Energy Facts & Figures (November 2020), Renewable Electricity, Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), p. 18-19.
40 Kavoleski, Dave, "Hawaiian Electric to shut down oil-fired plants as it transitions to renewables," Daily Energy Insider (October 27, 2020).
41 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (October 29, 2021), Table 2.10, Average Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sector, by state, 2020 and 2019 (Cents per Kilowatthour).
42 Hawaiian Electric, Rates & Regulations, Average Price of Electricity, accessed January 20, 2022.
43 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (October 29, 2021), Table 2.8, Sales of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sector, by State, 2020 and 2019 (Thousand Megawatthours).
44 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-20.
46 Hawaii Tourism Authority, "Hawai‘i Visitor Statistics Released for December 2020," Press Release (January 28, 2021), p. 2.
47 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Hawaii.
48 Hawaii State Energy Office, Renewable EnerGIS Map, accessed January 20. 2022.
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-20.
50 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (October 29, 2022), Table 3.21, Net Generation from Solar Photovoltaic by State, by Sector, 2020 and 2019 (Thousand Megawatthours).
51 Hawaiian Electric, "Solar hits new milestone with over 1,000 megawatts now online on five islands served by Hawaiian Electric," Press Release (January 13, 2022).
52 Hawaiian Electric, Customer Renewable Programs, Net Energy Metering, accessed January 20, 2022.
53 Hawaii State Energy Office, Solar Water Heating Variance, accessed January 20, 2022.
54 Burnett, John, "Judge: DBEDT must adhere to solar water heater mandate," Hawaii Tribune Herald (February 7, 2019).
55 Fernandes, Megan, "Renewable energy projects that came online in 2019," Pacific Business News (December 27, 2019).
56 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of November 2021, Plant State: Hawaii, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic, Inventory of Planned Generators as of November 2021, Plant State: Hawaii, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic
57 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Hawaii, Maps & Data, accessed January 20, 2022.
58 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-20.
59 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Renewable Energy Projects Directory, Search Renewable Energy Projects, Wind, Proposed/Under Development, accessed January 20, 2022.
60 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of November 2021, Plant State: Hawaii, Technology: Offshore Wind Turbine, Inventory of Planned Generators as of November 2021, Plant State: Hawaii, Technology: Offshore Wind Turbine.
61 U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Hawaii Activities, accessed January 20, 2022.
62 Hawaiian Electric, "Hawaiian Electric Companies select 7 solar-plus-storage projects for record increase in renewable energy," Press Release (October 9, 2018).
63 U.S. EIA, "Most of Hawaii's electric battery systems are paired with wind or solar power plants," Today in Energy (March 20, 2020).
64 Scully, Jules "Hawaiian Electric backs new solar-storage projects to ‘significantly advance' energy transformation," Pv-Tech (September 17, 2020).
65 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-20.
66 Hawaiian Electric, Renewable Energy Sources, Biomass, accessed January 22, 2022.
67 Covanta, Covanta Honolulu, accessed January 20, 2022.
68 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Energy Facts & Figures (November 2020), Biomass Energy Projects and Production (July 2019), p. 23.
69 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of November 2021, Plant State: Hawaii, Technology: Other Waste Biomass.
70 Segal, David, "Former Hawaii Governors Support Big Isle Energy Project," Honolulu Star Advertiser (October 23, 2020).
71 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Renewable Energy Projects Directory, Project Details, Honua Ola Bioenergy Facility, accessed January 22, 2022.
72 Honua Ola Bioenergy, accessed January 22, 2022.
73 Segal, Dave, "Big Isle energy plant Hu Honua Bioenergy wins Hawaii Supreme Court appeal," Honolulu Star Advertiser (May 24, 2021).
74 Burnett, John, "Another blow for Honua Ola," Hawaii Herald Tribune (January 2, 2022).
75 Hawaiian Electric, Renewable Energy Sources, Biofuels, Biofuel for Oahu, Campbell Industrial Park, accessed January 20, 2022.
76 U.S. EIA, U.S. Biodiesel Plant Production Capacity (September 3, 2021), Detailed annual production capacity by plant is available in XLS, Hawaii.
77 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of November 2021, Plant State: Hawaii, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric.
78 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-20.
79 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Energy Facts & Figures (November 2020), Hydropower, p. 24.
80 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-20.
81 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hydroelectricity, accessed January 21, 2022.
82 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (July 2019), Hydropower, Table 10, Hydropower projects in the Hawaii Renewable Energy Projects Directory, p. 24.
83 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (July 2019), Hydropower, Hawaii Hydropower Assessment, p. 23.
84 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual (October 29, 2021), Table 3.20. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Geothermal by State, by Sector, 2020 and 2019 (Thousand Megawatthours).
85 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-20.
86 Hawaiian Electric, Renewable Energy Sources, Geothermal, Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV), accessed January 21, 2022.
87 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Energy Facts & Figures (November 2020), Geothermal, p. 24.
88 Richter, Alexander, "Ormat resumes operation of the Puna geothermal power plant on Hawaii," Thinking Geoenergy (November 12, 2020).
89 Puna Geothermal Venture, Public Meetings, January 12, 2022 Community Meeting.
90 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Energy Facts & Figures (November 2020), Ocean Energy, p. 24.
91 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, "Innovative Wave Power Device Starts Producing Clean Power in Hawaii" (July 6, 2015).
92 "Stand-Alone Wave Power Generator Starts Testing off Hawaii," The Maritime Executive (November 11, 2020).
93 Hawaii National Marine Renewable Energy Center, Final Technical Report (June 30, 2020).
94 Hawaiian Electric, Renewable Energy Sources, Ocean Energy, accessed January 21, 2022.
95 Mai, JH, "Hawaii finalizes deal to use chilled seawater to cool state office buildings in Honolulu," Pacific Business News (October 9, 2018).
96 Swan, Noelle, and Nathan Eagle, "Hawaii Wants to Lead the Renewable Revolution," Scientific American (September 21, 2019).
97 Ulupono Initiative, Honolulu Seawater Air Conditioning, accessed January 21, 2022.
98 Lincoln, Malika, "Gov. Ige Signs Bill Setting 100% Renewable Energy Goal for State," Hawaii News Now (June 8, 2015).
99 Hawaii State Legislature, §269-92, Renewable portfolio standards, accessed January 21, 2022.
100 U.S. EIA, "Hawaii and Vermont set high renewable portfolio standard targets," Today in Energy (June 29, 2015).
101 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Hawaii, Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated November 19, 2021.
102 Hawaii State Energy Office, 2021 Annual Report, p. 17-18.
103 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Hawaii, Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard, Program Overview, updated July 30, 2020.
104 Hawaii State Energy Office, Energy Resources Coordinator's Report on the Status and Progress of Clean Energy Initiatives and the Energy Security Special Fund (December 2017), p. 8-13.
105 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31 (Billion Cubic Feet), Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2015-20.
106 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production (Volumes in Million Cubic Feet), Marketed Production, Annual, 2015-20.
107 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Supplemental Gas Supplies (Million Cubic Feet), Synthetic, Annual, Hawaii, 2015-20.
108 Hawai'i Gas, Clean Energy, Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG), How SNG is Made and Distributed, accessed January 21, 2022.
109 Hawai'i Gas, Clean Energy, Propane, What is Propane, accessed January 21, 2022.
110 LPGas, Propane Fuels America: Hawaii, accessed January 21, 2022.
111 Hawaii Gas, "Hawaii Gas receives approval from the PUC to make renewable natural gas from Honouliuli biogas," Press Release (September 14, 2017).
112 Nemec, Richard, "Hawaii Gas to Tap Honolulu Wastewater for Synthetic NatGas," Natural Gas Intelligence's Daily Gas Price Index (August 4, 2016).
113 Hawai'i Gas, Clean Energy, Renewable Natural Gas (RNG), accessed January 21, 2022.
114 Hawai'i Gas, Clean Energy, Clean Energy For Hawaii, accessed January 21, 2022.
115 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
116 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use (Million Cubic Feet), Hawaii, Annual, 2015-20.
117 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Hawaii.
118 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019, Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
119 Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawaii Energy Data and Trends (November 2015), p. 11, 21.
120 Gomes, Andrew, "Last sugar plantation in Hawaii to close this year," Honolulu Star Ledger (January 6, 2016).
121 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Total Consumption, 2017-20.
122 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, Hawaii, 2001-20.
123 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of November 2021, Plant State: Hawaii, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
124 LPDD, Hawaii's Coal Ban (2020), accessed January 22, 2022.