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Hawaii   Hawaii Profile

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Last Updated: January 21, 2021

Overview

Isolated by the Pacific Ocean, Hawaii is the most petroleum-dependent U.S. state.

The Hawaiian Islands chain stretches more than 1,500 miles across the central Pacific Ocean, from the largest island, Hawaii, in the southeast to the Kure Atoll in the northwest. The eight main islands and the more than 100 uninhabited reefs, shoals, and atolls are about 2,400 miles from California and 3,900 miles from Japan, making them farther from a major landmass than any other island group on earth.1,2 Hawaii's geographic isolation makes its energy infrastructure unique among the states.3 Hawaii consumes about 11 times more energy than it produces.4 More than four-fifths of Hawaii's energy consumption is petroleum, making it the most petroleum-dependent state in the nation.5

Hawaii's islands, which are the tops of volcanos that rise more than 30,000 feet above the sea floor, are located about 1,500 miles north of the equator.6,7 The islands' climate is tropical, but it is moderated by steady trade winds and the surrounding ocean. Rainfall is heaviest on the windward side of the islands, where moisture is released as trade winds move up the mountain slopes, while the leeward slopes remain relatively dry. Extremes of heat, cold, and rainfall can occur at higher elevations. However, at lower elevations the state's climate is generally pleasant, with little variation year-round.8 Although the largest island in the state is Hawaii, most of the state's population lives on the island of Oahu. Residents on all of the islands are clustered at lower elevations in the coastal areas where the weather is mild and access to services is greatest.9,10

Hawaii's economy is not energy intensive and ranks among the five states that use the least amount of energy to produce one dollar of gross domestic product.11 Major contributors to the state's economy are real estate, tourism, and government, including the U.S. military.12 Hawaii is among the five states with the lowest total energy use and per capita energy consumption.13,14 Hawaii's mild climate contributes to the state's residential sector energy consumption being the lowest in the nation. The transportation sector accounts for more than half of all energy consumed in Hawaii.15

Petroleum

Jet fuel makes up slightly more than half of Hawaii’s petroleum consumption.

Hawaii has no proved crude oil reserves or production, but it does make petroleum products.16,17 The state had two crude oil refineries, located near each other in the Honolulu port area on Oahu. In late 2018, the owner of the larger refinery purchased the smaller refinery, and the combined operations have the capacity to process about 148,000 barrels per calendar day.18,19,20 In 2019, the refinery's imported foreign crude oil came primarily from Libya and Russia. Much of Hawaii's demand for petroleum products is supplied by the local refinery, but some refined petroleum products, including jet fuel, propane, and low-sulfur diesel fuel, are imported, primarily from Asia, the Caribbean, and South America.21,22 Crude oil is offloaded to storage tanks in the Oahu refinery area through offshore mooring systems, and refined products are loaded at Honolulu harbor terminals onto fuel barges for distribution to other islands. Hawaii has no inter-island pipelines, but there are pipeline systems on some islands that distribute petroleum products to customers.23,24

The transportation sector uses about two-thirds of all petroleum consumed in Hawaii, and the electric power sector uses almost one-fourth. Jet fuel accounts for slightly more than half of all petroleum products consumed in the state. Because of significant demand from military installations and commercial airlines, jet fuel makes up a larger share of total petroleum consumption in Hawaii than in any other state except Alaska.25,26

In 2006, Hawaii imposed a requirement that all motor gasoline be blended with 10% ethanol, in part to help spur creation of a local ethanol industry, using locally grown feedstocks. However, no ethanol refineries have been built in the state. The statewide ethanol blending requirement ended in 2016.27,28 To help reduce its reliance on petroleum, the state implemented the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative to displace 70% of petroleum-based ground transportation fuels with non-fossil fuels by 2030.29 Hawaii has instituted a series of incentives for electric vehicles (EVs), including discounted electricity rates for charging cars and free parking in government lots and at parking meters. Hawaii ranks fifth in the nation—behind California, Washington, Oregon, and the District of Columbia—in the percentage of total car and truck sales that are EVs, which is nearly 5%.30,31

Electricity

Petroleum-fired power plants have supplied more than three-fourths of Hawaii's electricity net generation for most of the past two decades. In 2014, petroleum fueled less than 70% of the state's net generation from utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) and small-scale generating systems for the first time. Although the total amount of petroleum-fired generation increased in 2019 to the highest level in four years, petroleum's share of state generation fell to 63%. Coal fueled 12% of the state's generation in 2019, when the total amount of electricity from coal-fired power plants was the lowest since 1992.32,33

Renewable energy sources—mainly solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, and hydropower—supply most of the rest of the state's electricity. The share of Hawaii's total electricity generation fueled by all renewable sources, including from small-scale, customer-sited generating systems of less than 1 megawatt each, was about 21% in 2019. Small-scale generation from renewable sources, mainly rooftop solar panels systems, has more than doubled since 2015 and was more than four times larger than the state's utility-scale solar generation in 2019.34

About 95% of Hawaii's residents receive their electricity from three electric power utilities owned by Hawaiian Electric Industries Inc. that operate on five of the state's main islands. Power is provided on the island of Kauai by an electric cooperative. Each of the six islands has a separate electricity grid, owned either by the electric power utilities or by the cooperative. The grids are not connected by undersea electricity transmission cables, so each island is responsible for generating its own power.35,36 Hawaii's government seeks to modernize the state's transmission grids and interconnect them to enable more efficient power generation. The state also supports increased development of renewable energy resources.37,38 Hawaii's utilities plan to retire many of their petroleum-fired generating units and replace them with generation fueled by renewables. The utilities were expected to meet a state requirement that 30% of their total electricity sales come from renewables by the end of 2020.39,40

Dependence on petroleum and isolated island grids contribute to Hawaii having the highest U.S. state electricity prices.

The state's dependence on imported petroleum and isolated island grids contribute to Hawaii having the highest average electricity retail price of any state and nearly triple the U.S. average rate.41,42 Hawaii's total electricity demand is the fourth-lowest in the nation, and second-lowest in per capita electricity consumption.43,44 The industrial sector accounts for the largest share of the state's electricity retail sales, making up almost two-fifths of the total, followed by the commercial sector at about one-third of total sales. Three-tenths of electricity sales go to the residential sector.45 About 3 in 10 households in Hawaii use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating. However, with the state's mild tropical climate, heating is rarely needed and about 6 in 10 households have no heating system at all.46

Renewable energy

In 2015, Hawaii was the first state to set a deadline for generating 100% of its electricity from renewable energy sources.

Hawaii has substantial renewable resources throughout the island chain.47 Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy entered a partnership in 2008 called the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) to help reduce the state's dependence on petroleum and optimize use of local energy sources.48,49 The initial HCEI goal was for the state to meet 70% of its total energy needs with clean and renewable energy resources, particularly in electricity generation, and with energy efficiency measures. In 2015, the Hawaii legislature amended the state's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and made Hawaii the first state to set a legally required deadline—2045—for obtaining 100% of its electricity from renewable energy sources.50,51,52 Hawaii has set a separate energy efficiency standard to reduce electricity consumption by 40% by 2030. Originally, the energy efficiency standards were part of the RPS, but, in 2015, the standards were separated because of the different technologies and measurements required to assess each goal.53,54

In 2019, solar power provided three-fifths of the state's renewable generation, primarily because of the growth of small-scale, customer-sited solar panel generation, which has more than doubled since 2015.55 Hawaii produced the sixth-highest small-scale solar generation of any state in 2019.56 Hawaii has a net metering program, but the small-scale generation cap has been reached for the number of customers who can connect and send excess electricity from their privately installed rooftop solar panels or other renewable systems to the grid. The state's net metering program is closed to new applicants.57 As part of Hawaii's commitment to its 100% renewable energy goal, state building codes require all new single-family homes to have solar hot water heaters.58,59 Hawaii's largest solar farm, which went online in late 2019 with nearly 500,000 solar panels on the island of Oahu, has a generating capacity of about 49 megawatts.60,61

Significant wind resources are found both onshore and offshore in Hawaii, and wind energy generated almost 23% of the state's renewable-based electricity in 2019.62,63 The state has more than 200 megawatts of installed generating capacity at seven utility-scale wind farms located on Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii. Other utility-scale wind generation projects are in advanced development.64,65,66,67 Several offshore wind projects were proposed for federal waters around Oahu, and the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management seeks additional nominations from companies interested in offshore commercial wind energy leases.68 With the islands' small grids, some larger projects that use variable wind and solar technologies incorporate energy storage batteries to regulate power flows and ensure reliability, particularly at night.69,70,71,72,73

Biomass accounted for about 13% of the state's total renewable generation in 2019.74 Biomass, mainly agricultural wastes such as bagasse from sugarcane, has long been used in rural Hawaii to generate heat and electricity. With the closure of many sugar plantations, that source of biomass has declined.75 A new biomass facility, which will be located on a former sugar plantation, is planned to burn local forest waste to generate electricity, but that project has been delayed.76,77 Biomass electricity is now largely provided by Honolulu's 90-megawatt waste-to-energy power plant, which uses municipal solid waste to generate nearly one-tenth of Oahu Island's electricity.78,79 Several other smaller waste-to-energy and biomass generators operate on Oahu and Maui.80 Biofuels also play an important role in Hawaii's power generation. The 120-megawatt Campbell Industrial Park Generating Station, which began service on Oahu in 2010, is believed to be the world's largest commercial electricity generator fueled exclusively with biodiesel.81 Hawaii's only operating biodiesel production plant has a capacity of 6 million gallons per year.82

Hawaii is one of seven states with utility-scale electricity generation from geothermal resources, which provided about 5% of the state's renewable electricity supplies in 2018.83,84 The state's only geothermal power plant is located on the Kilauea Volcano on the Big Island, and it supplied about one-tenth of the island's electricity during the first half of 2018. The plant was temporarily shut down in May 2018 after fissures opened near the plant and lava blocked access to it following an eruption of the Kilauea Volcano. The plant's owners drilled new geothermal wells at the site and the facility came back online in late 2020. The power plant is expected to be back at full generating levels by mid-2021.85,86,87

The state does not have rivers with large water flows that could be held in reservoirs to support hydroelectric dams, but it still produces hydropower.88,89 The small hydroelectric turbines in use are run-of-river and run-of-the-ditch systems at sites on Maui, Kauai, and the Big Island. Although hydropower provided about 4% of the state's renewable generation and 1% of total utility-scale net generation in 2019, on Kauai it supplied about 11% and on the island of Hawaii it provided 3.4% of the electricity sold.90,91 Several other hydro projects have been proposed or are under development, and studies have identified other potential sites for small hydroelectric projects in the state.92,93

Hawaii also looks to its surrounding ocean for renewable energy.94 The U.S. Navy and other research organizations have tested wave energy technologies, and studies indicate wave energy could provide a significant amount of electricity.95,96 Ocean thermal energy technology, which generates electricity through temperature differences between warm, shallow waters and cooler, deep waters, is also being explored.97,98 District cooling, which will pull up deep sea water via a nearly 5-mile pipeline to chill air-conditioning units in 40 buildings, is being developed in for downtown Honolulu.99,100,101,102

Natural gas

Hawaii has no natural gas reserves and produces no natural gas, but it produces synthetic natural gas and has imported liquefied natural gas (LNG).103,104 Hawaii and North Dakota are the only two states that produce synthetic natural gas, called syngas, which in Hawaii can be combined with LNG supplies in the natural gas distribution system.105 Syngas is produced in an Oahu processing plant using naphtha feedstock from a local refinery. The syngas is delivered by pipeline to parts of Oahu.106 Customers in rural areas of Oahu and on other islands, who are not connected to the Hawaii Gas utility's distribution system, can be supplied with propane.107 Hawaii encourages the use of local biomass as a feedstock for the production of renewables-based synthetic natural gas (RNG) as part of the state's efforts to use more renewables.108,109 The natural gas utility diversified its supply by acquiring methane captured at a Honolulu wastewater treatment plant starting in late 2018 and by importing LNG.110,111

Hawaii Gas has obtained state regulatory approval to convert up to 30% of its total natural gas supply to LNG.112,113,114 However, there has been opposition to importing LNG as a transition fuel away from oil while the state increases its production and use of renewable energy.115,116 Hawaii's electric utility in 2016 dropped its plan to use LNG as a fuel for electricity generation and instead said it would focus on renewable energy sources.117,118

With its limited supply and distribution network, Hawaii has the lowest total natural gas consumption in the nation and the lowest per capita consumption.

With its limited supply and distribution network, Hawaii has both the lowest total natural gas consumption in the nation and the lowest per capita consumption.119 The commercial sector, which includes hotels and restaurants, consumes four-fifths of the natural gas distributed in Hawaii. The residential sector accounts for almost all the rest.120 Only about two-fifths of Hawaiian households have heating systems, and very few of those households, about 1 in 20, rely on natural gas as their primary heating fuel.121

Coal

Hawaii has no coal reserves and does not produce coal.122,123 Coal use began in Hawaii in the 1980s as a way to reduce the state's dependence on petroleum in both the industrial and electric power sectors.124 In the past, coal was used for industrial purposes to supplement the agricultural waste burned to power sugarcane processing operations, but those operations have ceased.125 Currently, coal is consumed only by Hawaii's electric power sector.126 Coal shipped in by ocean freighter is consumed at Hawaii's one coal-fired power plant, a 180-megawatt facility on Oahu, which supplied about 12% of the state's total net generation in 2019. The plant has a planned retirement date in 2022. The coal-fired plant can also burn waste oil, tire-derived fuels, biomass, and distillate fuel oil.127,128,129,130

Endnotes

1 To-Hawaii.com, Hawaii Geography, accessed December 2, 2020.
2 Netstate, Hawaii, The Geography of Hawaii, updated February 25, 2016.
3 Glick, Mark, State Energy Administrator, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawaii, Testimony before U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (July 14, 2015), p. 1.
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
5 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
6 Geology.com, Plate Tectonics and the Hawaiian Hot Spot, accessed December 2, 2020.
7 TimeandDate.com, Distance from Honolulu to Equator, accessed December 2, 2020.
8 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, Honolulu, HI, Climate of Hawai'i, accessed December 2, 2020.
9 To-Hawaii.com, Hawaii Population, accessed December 2, 2020.
10 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Hawaii Profile.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
12 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Hawaii, All statistics in the table, 2019.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
16 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Annual, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2019.
17 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, Thousand Barrels, 2019.
18 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 22, 2020), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2020.
19 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 21, 2019), Table 12, Refinery Sales During 2018.
20 Par Pacific, "Par Pacific to Buy Select Refining Assets from Island Energy Services Following IES' Announcement of Cessation of their Refining Operations," Press Release (August 29, 2018).
21 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, Hawaii, monthly, 2019-20.
22 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Import Tracking Tool, Crude imports, Imports of all grades to Hawaii, Annual, 2016-19.
23 Island Energy, Our Operations, accessed December 3, 2020.
24 Par Hawaii, Services, Refining, Distribution, accessed December 3, 2020.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2018.
27 Bussewitz, Cathy "Hawaii lawmakers vote to get rid of ethanol in gas mandate," Associated Press (July 25, 2015).
28 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 25, 2020), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District) are available in XLS.
29 Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), HCEI Roadmap (2011), Transportation, Strategy, p. vii.
30 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Energy Facts & Figures (November 2020), Electric Vehicles, p. 30-31.
31 Auto Alliance, Advanced Technology Vehicle Sales Dashboard, ATV Market Share, U.S. Light-Duty Advanced Technology Vehicle (ATV) Market Share (2013--2019), Top States by ATV Market Share.
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Hawaii, 2001-19.
33 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, State Electricity Profiles, Hawaii Electricity Profile 2019, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2019.
34 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Hawaii, 2001-19.
35 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Energy Facts & Figures (November 2020), Hawaii's Electric Utilities, p. 7.
36 Hawaiian Electric, Power Facts, accessed December 16, 2020.
37 Hawaii State Energy Office, Energy Policy, State of Hawaii Energy Policy Directives, accessed December 16, 2020.
38 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Energy Facts & Figures (November 2020), Renewable Electricity, Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), p. 18-19.
39 Kavoleski, Dave, "Hawaiian Electric to shut down oil-fired plants as it transitions to renewables," Daily Energy Insider (October 27, 2020).
40 "Hawaiian Electric renewable energy use increased last year," Associated Press (February 14, 2020).
41 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.6.B.
42 Hawaiian Electric Company, Billing & Payment, Rates & Regulations, Average Price of Electricity, accessed December 16, 2020.
43 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.4.B.
44 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), Hawaii, 2001-19.
46 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Hawaii.
47 Hawaii State Energy Office, Renewable EnerGIS Map, accessed December 11, 2020.
48 Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, About the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, accessed December 13, 2020.
49 Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, "Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative Marks 10-Year Anniversary," Press Release (January 9, 2018).
50 Lincoln, Malika, "Gov. Ige Signs Bill Setting 100% Renewable Energy Goal for State," Hawaii News Now (June 8, 2015).
51 Hawaii State Legislature, §269-92, Renewable portfolio standards, accessed December 13, 2020.
52 U.S. EIA, "Hawaii and Vermont Set High Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets," Today in Energy (June 29, 2015).
53 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Hawaii, Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard, Program Overview, updated July 30, 2020.
54 Hawaii State Energy Office, Energy Resources Coordinator's Report on the Status and Progress of Clean Energy Initiatives and the Energy Security Special Fund (December 2017), p. 8-13.
55 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Hawaii, 2001-19.
56 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.17.B.
57 Hawaiian Electric, Customer Renewable Programs, Net Energy Metering, accessed December 16, 2020.
58 Hawaii State Energy Office, Solar Water Heating Variance, accessed December 13, 2020.
59 Burnett, John, "Judge: DBEDT must adhere to solar water heater mandate," Hawaii Tribune Herald (February 7, 2019).
60 Fernandes, Megan, "Renewable energy projects that came online in 2019," Pacific Business News (December 27, 2019).
61 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2020, Hawaii, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
62 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Hawaii, Maps & Data, accessed December 13, 2020.
63 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Hawaii, 2001-19.
64 American Wind Energy Association, AWEA State Wind Energy Facts, accessed December 13, 2020.
65 Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, "Na Pua Makani Wind Project Given the Go Ahead by the State Land Board; North Shore Facility Planned with Eight Turbines," Press Release (May 18, 2018).
66 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Renewable Energy Projects Directory, Search Renewable Energy Projects, Wind, Proposed/Under Development, accessed December 13, 2020.
67 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2020, Hawaii, Technology: Offshore Wind Turbine, Inventory of Planned Generators as of September 2020, Hawaii, Technology: Offshore Wind Turbine.
68 U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Hawaii Activities, accessed December 13, 2020.
69 Hawaiian Electric Companies, "Hawaiian Electric Companies select 7 solar-plus-storage projects for record increase in renewable energy," Press Release (October 9, 2018).
70 Walton, Rob, "Sempra Renewables Selling Wind and Energy Storage Assets to AEP for $1.05B," Renewable Energy World (February 12, 2019).
71 Spector, Julian, "AES' New Kauai Solar-Storage ‘Peaker' Shows How Fast Battery Costs Are Falling," Greentech Media (January 16, 2017).
72 Hawaiian Electric Companies, "Utility-Scale Battery System Goes Into Service at Campbell Industrial Park," Press Release (September 23, 2016).
73 Scully, Jules "Hawaiian Electric backs new solar-storage projects to ‘significantly advance' energy transformation," Pv-Tech (September 17, 2020).
74 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Hawaii, 2001-19.
75 Hawaiian Electric Company, Renewable Energy Sources, Biomass, accessed December 14, 2020.
76 Segal, David, "Former Hawaii Governors Support Big Isle Energy Project," Honolulu Star Advertiser (October 23, 2020).
77 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Renewable Energy Projects Directory, Project Details, Honua Ola Bioenergy Facility, accessed December 14, 2020.
78 Covanta, Covanta Honolulu, accessed December 14, 2020.
79 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Energy Facts & Figures (November 2020), Biomass Energy Projects and Production (July 2019), p. 23.
80 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2020, Hawaii, Technology: Other Waste Biomass.
81 Hawaiian Electric Company, Renewable Energy Sources, Biofuels, accessed December 14, 2020.
82 U.S. EIA, U.S. Biodiesel Plant Production Capacity (October 23, 2020), Detailed annual production capacity of biodiesel plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District) are available in XLS, Hawaii.
83 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.16.B.
84 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Hawaii, 2001-19.
85 Hawaiian Electric Company, Renewable Energy Sources, Geothermal, Puna Geothermal Venture, accessed December 14, 2020.
86 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Energy Facts & Figures (November 2020), Geothermal, p. 24.
87 Richter, Alexander, "Ormat resumes operation of the Puna geothermal power plant on Hawaii," Thinking Geoenergy (November 12, 2020).
88 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2020, Hawaii, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric.
89 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Hawaii, 2001-19.
90 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Energy Facts & Figures (November 2020), Hydropower, p. 24.
91 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Hawaii, 2001-19.
92 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (July 2019), Hydropower, Table 10, Hydropower projects in the Hawaii Renewable Energy Projects Directory, p. 24.
93 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures (July 2019), Hydropower, Hawaii Hydropower Assessment, p. 23.
94 Hawaii State Energy Office, Hawaii's Energy Facts & Figures (November 2020), Ocean Energy, p. 24.
95 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, "Innovative Wave Power Device Starts Producing Clean Power in Hawaii" (July 6, 2015).
96 "Stand-Alone Wave Power Generator Starts Testing off Hawaii," The Maritime Executive (November 11, 2020).
97 Hawaii National Marine Renewable Energy Center, Final Technical Report (June 30, 2020).
98 Hawaiian Electric Company, Renewable Energy Sources, Ocean Energy, accessed December 14, 2020.
99 Mai, JH, "Hawaii finalizes deal to use chilled seawater to cool state office buildings in Honolulu," Pacific Business News (October 9, 2018).
100 Gomes, Andrew, "Officials move on seawater AC project," Honolulu Star Advertiser (June 3, 2019).
101 Swan, Noelle, and Nathan Eagle, "Hawaii Wants to Lead the Renewable Revolution," Scientific American (September 21, 2019).
102 Honolulu Seawater Air Conditioning, accessed January 12, 2021.
103 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2014-19.
104 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2014-19.
105 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Supplemental Gas Supplies, Synthetic, Annual, Hawaii, 2014-19.
106 Hawai'i Gas, Clean Energy, Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG), How SNG is Made and Distributed, accessed December 15, 2020.
107 Hawai'i Gas, Clean Energy, Propane, accessed December 15, 2020.
108 Hawaii Gas, "Hawaii Gas receives approval from the PUC to make renewable natural gas from Honouliuli biogas," Press Release (September 13, 2017).
109 Nemec, Richard, "Hawaii Gas to Tap Honolulu Wastewater for Synthetic NatGas," Natural Gas Intelligence's Daily Gas Price Index (August 4, 2016).
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112 Hawai'i Gas, "Hawaii Gas Brings First Shipment of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) to Hawaii," Press Release (April 7, 2014).
113 Mykleseth, Kathryn, "Hawaii Gas Will Bring in More LNG," Honolulu Star Advertiser (April 6, 2016).
114 Hawai'i Gas, Company Profile (November 2019), p. 9.
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116 Walton, Robert "Hawaii Gov. Ige reveals opposition to utility LNG import plans," Utility Dive (August 26, 2015).
117 "Hawaiian Electric LNG Plan Withdrawn," The Maritime Executive (July 20, 2016).
118 Eagle, Nathan, "Hawaiian Electric's New Plan: 100 Percent Renewable By 2040," Honolulu Civil Beat (December 23, 2016).
119 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
120 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Hawaii, Annual, 2014-19.
121 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Hawaii.
122 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018.
123 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
124 Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawaii Energy Data and Trends (November 2015), p. 11, 21.
125 Gomes, Andrew, "Last sugar plantation in Hawaii to close this year," Honolulu Star Ledger (January 6, 2016).
126 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Total Consumption, 2016-19.
127 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Hawaii, 2016-19.
128 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2020, Hawaii, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
129 WikiVisually, AES Hawaii Power Plant, accessed December 10, 2020.
130 Wu, Nina, "Hawaiian Electric seeks renewable options as end nears for 2 plants," Honolulu Star Advertiser (April 4, 2019).