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Tennessee   Tennessee Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: July 15, 2021

Overview

Tennessee stretches almost 500 miles across from the state's eastern border with Virginia and North Carolina to its western border at the Mississippi River.1 Tennessee's westernmost city, Memphis, is one of the world's busiest hubs for barge, air, truck, and rail cargo traffic.2 Wide bends in the Tennessee River divide the state into three regions: the largely mountainous east, a central basin rimmed by highlands, and the low, rolling plains of western Tennessee.3 The eastern part of the state produces coal, natural gas, and oil, although those fossil energy reserves are modest.4 Both the Tennessee River and the Cumberland River, which flows in an arc from Kentucky across north-central Tennessee, have histories of destructive floods.5,6 In the 20th Century, a series of dams built by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to control those rivers brought hydroelectricity to the region.7 The federal TVA, the largest government-owned electricity provider by generating capacity in the nation, operates many hydroelectric, nuclear, natural gas-fired, coal-fired, and renewable-energy powered electricity generating facilities in the state. The TVA serves almost all of Tennessee and parts of six other states.8,9,10

Tennessee ranks among the top one-third of states in total energy consumption.

Tennessee ranks among the top one-third of the states in total energy consumption and near the middle of the states in per capita energy consumption.11,12 The long travel distances across Tennessee, combined with the state's role as a logistics hub, contribute to the transportation sector accounting for three-tenths of the state's total energy consumption. Manufacturing is a leading component of the state's economy, and the industrial sector makes up about one-fourth of the state's energy consumption.13 The industrial activities that make the largest contributions to Tennessee's gross domestic product (GDP) include the manufacture of motor vehicles and automotive parts; food, beverages, and tobacco products; chemicals; fabricated metal products; and petroleum and coal products.14 Tennessee ranks near the middle of the states in the amount of energy consumption per dollar of GDP.15

Tennessee's climate is relatively mild, but it is greatly influenced by the state's topography. Much of the state experiences hot summers and mild winters. However, the mountains of eastern Tennessee, which include the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, are much colder.16 The residential sector, where both heating and air conditioning are widely used, accounts for slightly less than one-fourth of the state's end-use energy consumption. The commercial sector makes up about one-fifth of the state's energy use.17,18

Electricity

The TVA owns more than 90% of Tennessee’s electricity generating capacity.

About three-fifths of Tennessee's utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) electricity generating facilities, including the 10 largest power plants in the state by capacity, are owned and operated by the TVA.19,20 TVA facilities in Tennessee include 19 hydroelectric dams, 7 natural-gas fired plants, 4 coal-fired power plants, 2 nuclear power plants, and 1 pumped-storage hydroelectric plant. Those facilities have about 20,000 megawatts in combined generating capacity—more than 90% of the state's total generating capacity. The TVA also has one wind farm that has 18 turbines, most of which are 260 feet tall, with a combined 29 megawatts of generating capacity. TVA also has eight small solar power facilities in the state.21,22

The largest power plant by capacity in Tennessee is the 2,470-megawatt coal-fired Cumberland generating facility, but the plant ranks third in annual electricity generation. The state's next two largest power plants by capacity are both nuclear powered and each generates more electricity than the Cumberland plant.23,24 In 2020, nuclear power provided 47% of the state's generation. Natural gas-fired generation exceeded coal-fired electricity for the first time in 2020. Natural gas-fired generation began to rise sharply in 2010 and accounted for 20% of in-state electricity generation in 2020. Coal-fired power plants accounted for 18%—down from 41% five years earlier. Coal contributed more than half of the state's electricity generation as recently as 2011, but its share declined with the retirement of nearly 3,000 megawatts of coal-fired generating capacity since then. Hydroelectric power contributed 13% of the state's generation in 2020, and other renewables provided almost all the rest of Tennessee's net generation.25,26,27

Tennessee helped usher in the nuclear age with the nation's first nuclear fuel enrichment plant, built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory near Knoxville as part of the World War II Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb.28 Today, Tennessee has two nuclear power generating sites, the Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant and the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant, both located in southeastern Tennessee.29 The Watts Bar power plant has the nation's newest nuclear power reactors. Watts Bar Unit 1 began operating in 1996, and Watts Bar Unit 2 entered service in 2016—becoming the nation's first, and, so far, only new nuclear reactor to come online in the 21st century.30 The TVA is pursuing a federal permit for a possible new nuclear power plant using small modular reactors at a site near Oak Ridge.31

Despite its many TVA generating facilities, Tennessee is a net importer of electricity.32 Tennessee is among the top 15 states in total electricity consumption and among the top 5 states in residential sector per capita electricity use.33 The average electricity price in Tennessee is below the national average, and the average price for the residential sector is among the lowest 10 states.34 About 6 out of 10 households in Tennessee use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.35

Renewable energy

Renewable resources, mostly hydropower, supply about 15% of Tennessee's total in-state electricity net generation. Tennessee is the third-largest hydroelectric power producer east of the Rocky Mountains, after New York and Alabama.36,37 There are 26 hydroelectric power plants operating in Tennessee, plus a large pumped storage hydroelectric facility.38 In 2020, hydroelectric power accounted for 13% of the state's total generation and almost 90% of the state's renewable generation.39

The TVA’s Raccoon Mountain pumped storage plant is the largest hydroelectric facility by generating capacity in Tennessee.

The TVA's 1,616-megawatt Raccoon Mountain pumped storage plant, which began operating in 1978, is the fourth-largest power plant and the largest hydroelectric facility by generating capacity in Tennessee.40,41 During periods of low power demand, which are usually at night, less costly electricity is used to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. Then, during periods when power demand and electricity prices are higher, the water is released from the upper reservoir and flows down through generating turbines on its way back to the lower reservoir, producing electricity. Although the plant uses more power than it generates, it supplies power in periods of peak demand when electricity prices are highest.42

Biomass in the form of wood, wood waste, and landfill gas contributes the second-largest share of renewable generation in Tennessee. Seven utility-scale biomass facilities provided about 6% of the state's renewable net generation and about 1% of total generation in 2020.43,44 Tennessee's wood waste is also used as feedstock for the state's three wood pellet manufacturing plants that can produce about 172,000 tons of pellets annually. Wood pellets are burned for electricity generation and for heating.45,46

Solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities provided about 4% of Tennessee's renewable generation in 2020. About three-fourths of that solar generation was at utility-scale facilities that have a capacity of 1 megawatt or larger.47 By early 2021, utility-scale solar power sites with a combined generating capacity of 182 megawatts were operating in the state. Most of the state's utility-scale solar PV generating facilities are located in southwestern Tennessee. The state's largest, a 53-megawatt solar farm, came online in December 2018. A new 150-megawatt solar farm is scheduled to begin operating in the state at the end of 2021. In 2020, about one-fourth of Tennessee's solar power generation came from customer-sited, small-scale (less than 1 megawatt each) solar PV installations that are located mostly on residential and business rooftops.48,49

Although Tennessee does not have a renewable portfolio standard requiring that a certain amount of its electricity come from renewable energy sources, the state was among the first Southeast region states to develop renewable generation beyond hydroelectric power.50 The region's first major wind farm, located on Buffalo Mountain near Oliver Springs in eastern Tennessee, began operating as a 2-megawatt generating facility in 2000 and expanded to 18 wind turbines with 29 megawatts of capacity in 2004.51 However, in 2020, wind power was not a large contributor to Tennessee's energy mix, providing less than 0.1% of the state's net generation.52 The state's best wind resources are along the Appalachian Mountains in eastern Tennessee.53

Tennessee is also a biofuels producer. It is the largest ethanol-producing state in the Southeast and the 15th-largest in the nation.54 The state has three fuel ethanol plants—two use corn as feedstock and a third, smaller plant uses recycled waste—that have a combined production capacity of about 237 million gallons of ethanol per year.55,56,57 In addition, Tennessee has two biodiesel plants with a combined production capacity of about 38 million gallons annually.58

Petroleum

Tennessee has minor proved crude oil reserves and accounts for less than 0.01% of the nation's crude oil output.59,60 The first commercial crude oil production in Tennessee occurred in 1866, but only small amounts of crude oil have been produced in the state. Tennessee's oil output peaked at slightly over 1 million barrels in 1982 and 1983, but declined since then. In 2020, the state's annual oil output of less than 200,000 barrels was the lowest since 1969.61,62,63 Most of the oil wells in Tennessee are in the Appalachian Basin in the northeastern part of the state.64

Tennessee has one petroleum refinery, located in Memphis, which can process about 180,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day and accounts for about 1% of U.S. refining capacity.65 The refinery receives most of its light, low-sulfur crude oil supply via a pipeline from the oil storage hub in Cushing, Oklahoma. The Memphis refinery also receives additional crude oil transported by barge on the Mississippi River.66,67 The refinery's products include motor gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and petrochemicals. Refined petroleum products are shipped out by truck and barge, and a pipeline delivers jet fuel directly to the Memphis airport.68,69 Tennessee also receives motor gasoline and diesel fuel from the Colonial Pipeline and the PPL Pipeline (formerly known as the Plantation Pipeline) that serve the state as they transport petroleum products from the Gulf Coast region to Mid-Atlantic and Northeast states.70,71,72

Nearly 90% of Tennessee's petroleum consumption is in its transportation sector, and about three out of five petroleum barrels consumed in the state are motor gasoline.73,74 Conventional gasoline without ethanol can be sold statewide, although almost all motor gasoline sold in the state contains 10% ethanol.75,76 The residential sector, where about 4 in 100 Tennessee households use fuel oil, kerosene, or propane for home heating, consumes a small amount of petroleum.77

Natural gas

Tennessee has no significant proved natural gas reserves and its natural gas production is small.78,79 Most of the state's natural gas-producing wells are located in northeastern Tennessee on the Cumberland Plateau.80 Natural gas exploration permits issued in the past 10 years have focused on exploration in the Chattanooga Shale play, which underlies the northeastern part of the state.81

Tennessee's natural gas needs are met by several interstate pipelines that supply the state as they transport natural gas to markets in the East and the Midwest.82,83 Historically, most of the state's natural gas supply entered Tennessee from the south through Mississippi, but, in 2015, volumes from the south began to decline as more natural gas entered the state from the Marcellus and Utica shale regions in Mid-Atlantic states. Nearly fourth-fifths of the natural gas that enters Tennessee now comes by pipeline through Kentucky, and almost all of the rest arrives by way of Mississippi. Typically, about four-fifths of the natural gas that enters Tennessee continues on to other states.84

Natural gas consumption by Tennessee’s electric power sector in 2019 was about 32 times greater than a decade earlier.

The industrial sector typically consumes the largest share of natural gas delivered to end users in Tennessee and accounts for 38% of state natural gas demand. The recent steady increase in natural gas consumption in the state is mainly due to increases in the electric power sector, where use was about 32 times greater in 2019 than in 2009. Prior to 2010, the electric power sector accounted for less than 4% of the natural gas consumed in Tennessee, but the sector in 2019 consumed 30% of the natural gas delivered to customers in the state. About 18% of the natural gas delivered to consumers goes to the residential sector, where one in three Tennessee households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating. About 14% of the state's natural gas deliveries go to the commercial sector.85,86

Coal

Tennessee's estimated recoverable coal reserves are small, accounting for about 0.2% of the U.S. total, and the state's coal production—the second-lowest of all coal-producing states—contributes less than 0.02% of the nation's coal output.87 Commercial coal mining began in Tennessee in the mid-1800s and expanded as railroads were built across the state. Coal production in Tennessee peaked in 1972 at around 11 million tons, but has steadily fallen since then.88,89,90 The state's coal production at its three operating mines fell to 92,000 tons in 2020, and there was no coal production in the state during the last three quarters of that year. The Tennessee legislature passed legislation in 2021 to return regulation of the mining industry from the federal government to the state, after the state lost regulatory oversight in the 1980s.91,92,93 Only bituminous coal is mined in the state, and all the producing mines are located in the northeastern corner of Tennessee near the Kentucky border. There are untapped lignite coal reserves in western Tennessee.94,95,96

Tennessee uses about 50 times more coal than it produces. About 80% of the coal consumed in the state is used for electric power generation, and the rest is used at industrial facilities. Tennessee's coal-fired power plants rely on coal delivered by rail and river barge from other states, primarily Illinois and Kentucky.97,98 Almost two-fifths of the coal mined in Tennessee is exported to other countries.99

Endnotes

1 World Atlas, Tennessee, accessed June 3, 2021.
2 Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development, Location and Infrastructure, Make It Here, Take It Anywhere, accessed June 3, 2021.
3 Freeworldmaps.Net, Physical Map of Tennessee, accessed June 3, 2021.
4 Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee's Mineral Industry, updated January 2020.
5 Tennessee Valley Authority, Flood Damage Reduction, accessed June 3, 2021.
6 Hodges, James A., Tennessee, Drainage and soils, Encyclopedia Britannica, accessed June 3, 2021.
7 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA in Tennessee, River Management, Fiscal Year 2020.
8 Tennessee Valley Authority, About TVA, accessed June 3, 2021.
9 Tennessee Valley Authority, Energy, accessed June 3, 2021.
10 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA at a Glance, accessed July 6, 2021.
11 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
14 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, NAICS, Tennessee, All statistics in table, 2019.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
16 Logan, Joanne, "Tennessee, A Tale of Three Climates," Tennessee's Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climate' Series, accessed June 3, 2021.
17 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2009 RECs Survey Data, Space Heating, Table HC6.10, and Air Conditioning, Table HC7.10.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
19 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (June 24, 2021), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2021, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Select All.
20 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2019, Tables 2A, 2B.
21 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA in Tennessee, Fiscal Year 2020.
22 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (June 24, 2021), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2021, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Select All.
23 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2019, Tables 2A, 2B.
24 Tennessee Valley Authority, Cumberland Fossil Plant, accessed June 4, 2021.
25 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-20.
26 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (June 24, 2021), Inventory of Retired Generators as of April 2021, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
27 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Tennessee Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2020.
28 U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Manhattan Project National Historical Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Where Science Made History (2016).
29 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Tennessee, accessed June 4, 2021.
30 Tennessee Valley Authority, Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, accessed June 4, 2021.
31 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Early Site Permit Application, Clinch River Nuclear Site, updated January 8, 2021.
32 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2019, Tables 10.
33 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
34 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.6.B.
35 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Tennessee.
36 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-20.
37 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 1.10.B.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (June 24, 2021), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2021, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-20.
40 Tennessee Valley Authority, Raccoon Mountain, accessed June 5, 2021.
41 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2A.
42 Energy Storage Association, Pumped Hydroelectric Storage, accessed June 5, 2021.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-20.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (June 24, 2021), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2021, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Landfill Gas, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass, Other Waste Biomass.
45 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, February 2021.
46 U.S. EIA, "New EIA survey collects data on production and sales of wood pellets," Today in Energy (December 14, 2016).
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-20.
48 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Solar Power Plant, accessed June 5, 2021.
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), (June 24, 2021), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2021, Inventory of Planned Generators as of March 2021, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
50 National Conference of State Legislatures, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals, updated April 17, 2020.
51 Tennessee Valley Authority, Wind Q+A, accessed June 5, 2021.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-20.
53 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Tennessee, Maps & Data, accessed June 5, 2021.
54 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2019.
55 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 25, 2020), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District) are available in XLS file.
56 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated May 26, 2021.
57 Dynamic Recycling, Ethanol Processing, accessed June 5, 2021.
58 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 26, 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
59 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2015-20.
60 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2019, Table 6, Proved reserves, reserves changes, and production of crude oil and lease condensate, 2019.
61 Berwind, Marvin B., "The History and Development of the Oil and Gas Industry in Tennessee," Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, Vol. 62, No. 3 (July 1987).
62 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981-2020.
63 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table PT1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Tennessee, 1960-2019.
64 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Oil Wells: High-Level View, Tight Oil/Shale Gas Play, accessed June 5, 2021.
65 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2021 (June 25, 2021), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2021, Tennessee.
66 Valero, Memphis Refinery, Overview, accessed June 5, 2021.
67 Plains All American Pipeline, Diamond Pipeline LLC, Planned Diamond Pipeline Route, accessed June 5, 2021.
68 International Port of Memphis, Valero Memphis Refinery, accessed June 5, 2021.
69 Valero, Memphis Refinery, Overview, accessed June 5, 2021.
70 Colonial Pipeline Company, About Us, System Map, accessed June 5, 2021.
71 Kinder Morgan, Products Pipelines, Southeast Operations, accessed June 5, 2021.
72 Kinder Morgan, Form 10-K, For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, Products Pipeline, Southeast Refined Products, PPL Pipeline, p. 10.
73 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
74 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2019.
75 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements (January 2018).
76 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
77 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Tennessee.
78 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, 2014-19.
79 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2015-20.
80 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Gas Wells: High-Level View, accessed June 11, 2021.
81 Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee Division of Water Resources, Oil and Gas Data, Oil and Gas Well Permits, accessed June 11, 2021.
82 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Interstate Natural Gas Inter/Intrastate Pipeline, accessed June 11, 2021.
83 U.S. EIA, About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines, Natural Gas Pipelines in the Southeast Region, accessed June 11, 2021.
84 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Tennessee, Annual, 2014-19.
85 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Tennessee, Annual, 1997-2020.
86 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Tennessee.
87 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
88 Tennessee Encyclopedia, Mining, accessed June 11, 2021.
89 Mining Artifacts, Tennessee Mines, accessed June 11, 2021.
90 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018.
91 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2020 (April 1, 2021), Table 2, Coal production by state.
92 Whetstone, Tyler, "Mines haven't produced coal for months, but Tennessee legislature OKs $1M for regulation," Knoxville News Sentinel (May 11, 2021).
93 Stockard, Sam, "State of Tennessee to Retake Coal Mining Regulation," Tennessee Lookout (May 26, 2021).
94 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, All Coal Mines, accessed June 11, 2021.
95 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
96 Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee's Mineral Industry, updated January 2020.
97 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019, and Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2019 and 2018.
98 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, and destination and method of transportation, Tennessee, Table DS-39, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
99 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by origin state, Tennessee, 2019.