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Tennessee   Tennessee Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: May 17, 2018

Overview

The Tennessee Valley Authority is the largest public power provider in the nation.

Tennessee stretches almost 500 miles westward from the state's border with Virginia and North Carolina in the east to the Mississippi River on the state's western border.1,2 Tennessee's westernmost city, Memphis, is one of the world's busiest hubs for barge, air, truck, and rail cargo traffic.3 Wide bends in the Tennessee River divide the state into three regions: the largely mountainous east, the central basin rimmed by highlands, and the low, rolling plains of western Tennessee.4,5 The eastern part of the state produces coal, natural gas, and oil, although reserves are modest.6,7 Both the Tennessee River and the Cumberland River, which flows in an arc from Kentucky across north-central Tennessee, have histories of destructive floods.8,9 In the 20th century, a series of dams built by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to control those rivers brought hydroelectricity to the region.10 The federal TVA, the largest public power organization in the nation, owns and operates many hydroelectric, nuclear, natural gas-fired, and coal-fired electricity generating facilities in the state and serves almost all of Tennessee and parts of six other states.11

Distances traveled across Tennessee, combined with the state's role as a logistics hub, contribute to the transportation sector's consumption of nearly three-tenths of the energy delivered to the state's end-use sectors. Manufacturing is a leading component of the state's economy, and the industrial sector uses slightly less energy than the transportation sector.12 Tennessee's industrial activities include the production of motor vehicles and automotive parts; food, beverages, and tobacco products; and chemicals.13

Tennessee's climate is relatively mild, but it is greatly influenced by the state's topography. Much of the state experiences hot summers and mild winters, except in the mountains, which are cooler at higher elevations.14 The residential sector, where both heating and air conditioning are prevalent, accounts for one-fourth of the state's end-use energy consumption.15,16 Overall, Tennessee's economy is above the national median in the amount of energy consumed per dollar of state gross domestic product.17 The cost of electricity in Tennessee is below the national average, but the state is above the national median in energy expenditures per person.18,19

Electricity

The TVA owns more than nine-tenths of Tennessee’s electricity generation capacity.

Tennessee is the headquarters of the TVA, a federal public power corporation that serves parts of six southeastern states. More than half of Tennessee's electricity generating facilities are operated by the TVA, including the 10 largest power plants in the state.20,21 TVA facilities in Tennessee include 19 hydroelectric dams, 8 natural-gas fired plants, including 3 combined-cycle plants, 4 coal-fired power plants, 2 nuclear plants and a pumped-storage hydroelectric plant. The TVA also operates a number of small solar facilities in Tennessee. Prior to December 2017, the TVA had six coal-fired power plants in the state, but one was shut down in December 2017 and a second closed in May 2018. A new natural gas-fired combined cycle plant became operational in May 2018. In total, TVA's Tennessee facilities have a combined capacity of about 20,000 megawatts. The TVA owns more than nine-tenths of Tennessee's electricity generation capacity and provides wholesale electricity to local power providers in almost all of the state's 95 counties.22,23

The largest power plant in Tennessee, the coal-fired Cumberland Fossil Plant with 2,470 megawatts of capacity, generates about 16 million megawatthours of electricity each year.24 However, the second-largest power plant by capacity, the Sequoyah nuclear plant, produces more electricity.25 In 2017, nuclear power provided two-fifths of state generation, coal-fired power plants generated about one-third, and hydroelectric power provided about one-tenth. Natural gas use for electricity generation began to rise sharply in 2009, reaching one-seventh of state generation in 2016, and has remained high despite a slight dip in 2017.26 During the same period, coal's contribution has declined with the retirement of older coal-fired generators, falling from more than half to just over one-third of state electricity generation.27,28,29,30 Renewable technologies other than hydroelectricity contribute less than 2% of Tennessee's net generation.31

Tennessee helped usher in the nuclear age with the nation's first nuclear fuel enrichment plant, built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the World War II Manhattan Project.32,33 Today, Tennessee has two TVA-owned nuclear facilities, the Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant and the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant, both located in southeastern Tennessee.34,35 The Watts Bar power plant has the nation's newest nuclear power reactors. Watts Bar Unit 1 began operating in 1996, and Watts Bar Unit 2 entered service in 2016, becoming the nation's first, and, so far, only, new nuclear reactor in the 21st century.36 The TVA is also pursuing a federal site permit for a possible new nuclear plant using small modular reactors at a site near Oak Ridge.37

Tennessee is among the top five states in residential electricity consumption per capita.38 Average residential electricity prices place the state among the 10 states with the lowest prices in the nation. Three out of five Tennessee households use electricity as their primary source of energy for home heating.39,40

Renewable energy

Tennessee does not have a renewable portfolio standard, but the state was an early leader among southeastern states in developing renewable energy.41 The southeastern region's first major wind farm, located on Buffalo Mountain near Oliver Springs, Tennessee, began operating as a 2-megawatt facility in 2001 and has since been expanded to 29 megawatts.42,43 Tennessee has additional renewable resources including hydroelectric, biomass, solar, and wind energy potential.44,45,46

The TVA’s Raccoon Mountain pumped storage plant is the third-largest pumped storage hydroelectric facility in the nation.

Tennessee is one of the top three hydroelectric power producers east of the Rocky Mountains, and hydroelectricity contributes the largest share of the state's renewable generation.47 Hydroelectric generation varies with precipitation but, with 109 hydroelectric turbines operating at dams on the Tennessee and Cumberland River systems, in some years, hydropower has provided more than 15% of the state's total annual net generation.48,49 In 2017, hydroelectric facilities contributed nearly 10% of the state's total net generation and close to 90% of the state's net generation from renewable sources.50 The TVA's 1,616-megawatt Raccoon Mountain pumped storage plant, which began operating in 1978, is the third-largest pumped storage hydroelectric facility in the United States, after plants in Virginia and Michigan, and the fourth-largest power plant by generating capacity in Tennessee.51,52 During periods of low demand, inexpensive power is taken from conventional power plants to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. During periods of high demand, the water is released from the upper reservoir and flows to the lower reservoir through turbines that are located between the reservoirs. Electricity is generated as the water flows through the turbines. Although the plant uses more power than it generates, it supplies power in periods of peak demand when electricity prices are highest.53

Biomass from wood, wood waste, and landfill gas contributes the second-largest share of renewable generation in Tennessee, but it provided only a little more than one-tenth of the state's net renewable generation and about 1% of total generation in 2017.54,55 The TVA also used methane gas from the Memphis wastewater treatment plant to boost generating capacity at the Allen Fossil Plant, a coal-fired power plant.56,57 However, that plant was retired in early 2018.58

Solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities provided about 0.3% of total generation and almost 3% of Tennessee's renewable generation in 2017. The state's largest solar PV facilities are near the town of Selmer, Tennessee. At the end of 2016, two new solar farms with a combined capacity of 24 megawatts began operating there, in addition to two existing solar farms that have a combined capacity of about 32 megawatts.59 In 2017, another approximately 22 megawatts of solar PV capacity was added in the state, and three more solar projects are in various stages of regulatory review or planning.60 The state's largest industrial solar PV facility is an 8-megawatt installation at Volkswagen's Chattanooga assembly plant.61 The TVA operates nine small solar power facilities in Tennessee; the largest is a 1-megawatt solar array located at the Allen Natural Gas Plant in Memphis.62 In 2017, more than one-third of Tennessee's net electricity generation from solar PV came from distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) facilities.63

Tennessee is the largest ethanol-producing state in the Southeast and is the 14th-largest ethanol producer in the nation.64 The state has two ethanol plants that use corn as feedstock and have a combined annual production capacity of about 230 million gallons of ethanol per year.65 A third facility, a small cellulosic ethanol demonstration project, ceased operation at the end of 2015.66 Tennessee also has two biodiesel plants with a combined annual production capacity of about 42 million gallons annually. Those plants use multiple feedstocks including used cooking oils.67

Petroleum

Tennessee has no significant proved crude oil reserves and accounts for less than 0.01% of the nation's crude oil output.68,69 The first commercial crude oil production in Tennessee occurred in 1866, but only minor amounts of crude oil have been produced in the state since then. In the past 34 years, crude oil production in the state has not reached 1 million barrels per year.70,71 Although exploration for oil has not occurred in much of the state, several counties have some production, and recent drilling has found more oil.72,73

Tennessee has one petroleum refinery, located in Memphis, which can process about 190,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.74 The refinery receives its light, low-sulfur crude oil supply from pipelines that cross through western Tennessee on the way from the Gulf Coast to other refineries in the Midwest and from a recently completed pipeline that connects the Memphis area to the petroleum storage terminals and trading hub at Cushing, Oklahoma.75,76,77,78 The Tennessee refinery has access to the Mississippi River and can receive additional feedstocks shipped by river. The refinery's products include motor gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and petrochemicals. Refined petroleum products are shipped out by truck, barge, and a pipeline that delivers jet fuel directly to the Memphis airport.79 Tennessee also receives refined products from several pipeline systems that serve the state on their way from the Gulf region to the Northeast.80,81,82

Nearly three-fifths of petroleum used in Tennessee is consumed as motor gasoline.83 Conventional motor gasoline can be sold statewide in Tennessee.84 Little petroleum is used by the residential sector, where fewer than 5% of Tennessee households use fuel oil, kerosene, or propane for home heating.85

Natural gas

Tennessee has no significant proved natural gas reserves and produces less than 0.02% of the nation's natural gas.86,87 Most of the state's natural gas-producing wells are located in northeastern Tennessee on the Cumberland Plateau.88 Natural gas exploration permits issued in the past 10 years have focused on exploration of the Chattanooga Shale, which underlies the eastern part of the state. However, the industry focus has shifted toward oil production in recent years, and fewer natural gas well permits have been issued.89,90

In 2016, for the first time, more natural gas entered Tennessee from the north than from the south.

Tennessee's natural gas needs are met by several interstate pipelines that supply the state as they pass through on their way to markets in the East and the Midwest.91,92 Historically, most of the state's natural gas supply entered Tennessee from the south through Mississippi, but, in 2015, volumes from the south began to decline as more natural gas entered the state from the Marcellus and Utica shale productive regions to the north. In 2016, for the first time, more natural gas entered Tennessee from the north than from the south—nearly three times as much. Typically, more than four-fifths of the natural gas that enters the state continues on to other states.93

The industrial sector consumes the largest share of natural gas delivered to end users in Tennessee and typically accounts for more than one-third of state demand. Almost one-sixth of the natural gas delivered to consumers goes to the commercial sector and nearly one-fifth to the residential sector, where one in three Tennessee households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating.94 Prior to 2010, the electric power sector accounted for less than 4% of the natural gas consumed in Tennessee, but natural gas use for electricity generation has risen since then. The steady increase in natural gas consumption in the state is the result of increased use by the electric power sector. In 2016, the electric power sector consumed more than one-fourth of the natural gas delivered to customers in the state.95,96,97

Coal

Tennessee's estimated recoverable coal reserves are less than 0.2% of the U.S. total, and state production accounts for less than 0.1% of the nation's total.98 Although only bituminous coal has been mined in the state, all of it in East Tennessee, there are sizable untapped lignite coal resources in West Tennessee.99 Coal mining began in the state in the mid-1800s and expanded as railroads were built across the state. Coal production in Tennessee peaked in 1972 at around 11 million short tons and has fallen since then, decreasing to less than 650,000 short tons from the state's six operating coal mines in 2016.100,101,102 Tennessee's producing mines are all located in the northeast near the Kentucky border.103

Tennessee uses almost 28 times as much coal as it produces. Most of the coal consumed in the state is used for electric power generation. Tennessee's coal-fired power plants rely on subbituminous and bituminous coal delivered by railroad and river barge from other states, primarily from Wyoming, Illinois, and Kentucky. In 2016, about one-fifth of the coal received in Tennessee was sent to industrial facilities.104,105 Four-fifths of the small amount of coal mined in Tennessee is shipped out of state.106

Endnotes

1 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA in Tennessee, Fiscal Year 2017 (October 2016 - September 2017), accessed April 23, 2018.
2 World Atlas, Tennessee, Tennessee Geography Statistics, accessed April 23, 2018.
3 Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development, Location and Infrastructure, Make It Here, Take It Anywhere, accessed April 24, 2018.
4 Logan, Joanne, "Tennessee, A Tale of Three Climates," Tennessee's Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climate' Series, accessed April 24, 2018.
5 NETSTATE, Tennessee, The Geography of Tennessee, updated February 25, 2016.
6 Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee's Mineral Industry, updated January 2017.
7 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Tennessee Profile Data, Reserves, accessed April 26, 2018.
8 Tennessee Valley Authority, Flood Damage Reduction, accessed April 24, 2018.
9 Hodges, James A., Robert J. Norrell, Sarah McCanless Howell, Tennessee, Encyclopaedia Britannica, accessed April 24, 2018.
10 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA in Tennessee, Fiscal Year 2017 (October 2016 - September 2017), accessed April 23, 2018.
11 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA at a Glance, accessed April 26, 2018.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
13 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, All Industries, Tennessee, 2015-16.
14 Logan, Joanne, "Tennessee, A Tale of Three Climates," Tennessee's Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climate' Series, accessed April 24, 2018.
15 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2009 RECs Survey Data, Table HC6.10, Space Heating in U.S. Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009, and Table HC7.10, Air Conditioning in Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009.
16 U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2015.
18 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 5.6.B.
19 U.S. EIA, U.S. States, Rankings: Total Energy Consumed per Capita, 2015.
20 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 Detailed Data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 2, 'Plant Data'.
21 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2016, Tables 2A, 2B.
22 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA in Tennessee, Fiscal Year 2017 (October 2016 - September 2017), accessed April 23, 2018.
23 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 Detailed Data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data,' Operable Units, Proposed Units, and Retired and Cancelled Units.
24 Tennessee Valley Authority, Cumberland Fossil Plant, accessed April 24, 2018.
25 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2016, Tables 2A, 2B.
26 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Tennessee Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2017.
27 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B, 1.9.B, 1.10.B.
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 Detailed Data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Retired & Canceled Units Only).
29 Tennessee Valley Authority, Coal, accessed April 25, 2018.
30 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5.
31 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.11.B.
32 World Nuclear Association, Uranium Enrichment, updated May 2017.
33 National Park Service, Oak Ridge Site-Manhattan Project National Historical Park, accessed April 24, 2018.
34 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Nuclear Power Plant map layer, accessed April 24, 2018.
35 Tennessee Valley Authority, Nuclear, accessed April 24, 2018.
36 Tennessee Valley Authority, Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, accessed April 24, 2018.
37 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Early Site Permit Application, Clinch River Nuclear Site, updated February 08, 2018.
38 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-01).
39 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 5.4.B, 5.6.B.
40 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Tennessee, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
41 Durkay, Jocelyn, "State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals," National Conference of State Legislatures (August 1, 2017).
42 Tennessee Valley Authority, Renewables, Wind, accessed April 26, 2018.
43 Tennessee Valley Authority, Power Out of Thin Air, accessed April 26, 2018.
44 Tennessee Valley Authority, Integrated Resource Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (March 2015), p. 130-139, 147-153.
45 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Dynamic Maps, GIS Data, & Analysis Tools, Solar Maps, Tennessee (April 4, 2017).
46 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Tennessee, accessed April 26, 2018.
47 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
48 Tennessee Valley Authority, Integrated Resource Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (March 2015), p. 46-47.
49 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
50 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
51 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 Detailed Data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
52 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2016, Tables 2A.
53 Energy Storage Association, Pumped Hydroelectric Storage, accessed April 26, 2018.
54 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Biomass Power Plant Map Layer, accessed April 26, 2018.
55 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.15.B.
56 Tennessee Valley Authority, Renewables, Wind, accessed April 26, 2018.
57 "Turning Memphis Wastewater into Energy," Tennessee Valley Authority, Press Release (February 19, 2017).
58 Charlier, Tom, "Memphis' largest polluter, the TVA Allen plant, retires," Commercial Appeal, USA Today Network (April 26, 2018).
59 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 Detailed Data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
60 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 6.3, 6.5.
61 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 Detailed Data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
62 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA in Tennessee, Fiscal Year 2017 (October 2016-September 2017), accessed April 26, 2018.
63 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.17.B.
64 Nebraska Energy Office, Ethanol Facilities' Capacity by State, Ethanol Facilities Nameplate Capacity and Operating Production Ranked by State, updated April 26, 2018.
65 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Platforms, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated January 24, 2018.
66 Jessen, Holly, and Susanne Retka Schill, "Bringing up the throttle on cellulosic ethanol," Ethanol Producer Magazine (March 16, 2016).
67 "U.S. Biodiesel Plants, operational," Biodiesel Magazine, updated December 13, 2017.
68 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2012-17.
69 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, 2011-16.
70 Berwind, Marvin B., "The History and Development of the Oil and Gas Industry in Tennessee," Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, Vol. 62, No. 3 (July 1987).
71 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981-2017.
72 Hatcher, Bob, "Geology and Petroleum Resources of Tennessee and the Use of Fracking as a Drilling Tool," AICHE Monthly Meeting (April 18, 2013), Conclusions, p. 79.
73 "Hornet Corp. Hits Two Big Wells In Two Different Counties in Tennessee," Press Release (September 21, 2017).
74 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2017 (June 2017), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2017.
75 Valero, Memphis Refinery, Overview, accessed April 24, 2018.
76 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layer, accessed April 24, 2018.
77 Diamond Pipeline LLC, Frequently Asked Questions, accessed April 24, 2018.
78 Diamond Pipeline LLC, Planned Diamond Pipeline Route, accessed April 24, 2018.
79 Valero, Memphis Refinery, Overview, accessed April 24, 2018.
80 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Refined Product Pipeline Map Layer, accessed April 24, 2018.
81 Colonial Pipeline Company, About Colonial, System Map, accessed April 24, 2018.
82 Kinder Morgan, Products Pipelines, Southeast Operations, accessed April 24, 2018.
83 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2015.
84 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil, updated January 2018.
85 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Tennessee, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
86 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, 2016.
87 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2012-17.
88 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Gas Wells: High-Level View Map Layer, accessed April 25, 2018.
89 Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee Division of Water Resources, Oil & Gas Wells, Oil and Gas Data, Oil and Gas Well Permits, accessed April 25, 2018.
90 OilShaleGas.com, Chattanooga Shale Natural Gas Field, Tennessee Shale Formation, accessed April 25, 2018.
91 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Interstate Natural Gas Inter/Intrastate Pipeline Map Layer, accessed April 25, 2018.
92 U.S. EIA, About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines, Natural Gas Pipelines in the Southeast Region, accessed April 25, 2018.
93 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Tennessee, Annual, 2012-2016.
94 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Tennessee, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
95 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Tennessee, Annual, 2012-2016.
96 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2017.
97 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in Tennessee (Including Vehicle Fuel), 1997-2016.
98 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2016, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2016.
99 Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee's Mineral Industry, updated January 2017.
100 SourceWatch, Tennessee and Coal, History, accessed April 26, 2018.
101 Mining Artifacts, Tennessee Mines, accessed April 26, 2018.
102 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2016 and 2015.
103 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Coal Mine Map Layer, accessed April 26, 2018.
104 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2015, and Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2016 and 2015.
105 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, and destination and method of transportation, Tennessee, 2016.
106 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, and destination and method of transportation, Tennessee, 2016.