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Tennessee   Tennessee Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Last Updated: June 18, 2020

Overview

Tennessee ranks among the top one-third of states in total energy consumption.

Tennessee stretches almost 500 miles across from the state’s eastern border with Virginia and North Carolina to the Mississippi River at the western border.1 Tennessee’s westernmost city, Memphis, is one of the world's busiest hubs for barge, air, truck, and rail cargo traffic.2 Wide bends in the Tennessee River divide the state into three regions: the largely mountainous east, a central basin rimmed by highlands, and the low, rolling plains of western Tennessee.3 The eastern part of the state produces coal, natural gas, and oil, although reserves are modest.4 Both the Tennessee River and the Cumberland River, which flows in an arc from Kentucky across north-central Tennessee, have histories of destructive floods.5,6 In the 20th Century, a series of dams built by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to control those rivers brought hydroelectricity to the region.7 The federal TVA, the largest government-owned electricity provider in the nation, operates many hydroelectric, nuclear, natural gas-fired, and coal-fired electricity generating facilities in the state. The TVA serves almost all of Tennessee and parts of six other states.8

Tennessee ranks among the top one-third of the states in total energy consumption and near the median of the states in energy consumption per capita.9,10 The long travel distances across Tennessee, combined with the state’s role as a logistics hub, contribute to the transportation sector accounting for about three-tenths of the state’s total energy consumption. Manufacturing is a leading component of the state’s economy, and the industrial sector uses slightly less energy than the transportation sector.11 The industrial activities that make the largest contributions to Tennessee’s gross domestic product (GDP) include the manufacture of chemicals; computers and electronic products; food, beverages, and tobacco products; motor vehicles and automotive parts; and petroleum and coal products.12 Overall, the amount of energy used to produce one dollar of GDP in Tennessee is slightly greater than the median of the states.13

Tennessee's climate is relatively mild, but it is greatly influenced by the state’s topography. Much of the state experiences hot summers and mild winters. However, the mountains of eastern Tennessee, which includes the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, are much colder.14 The residential sector, where both heating and air conditioning are widely used, accounts for almost one-fourth of the state’s total energy consumption.15,16

Electricity

The TVA owns more than 90% of Tennessee’s electricity generating capacity.

About three-fifths of Tennessee’s utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) electricity generating facilities, including the 10 largest power plants in the state, are owned and operated by the TVA.17,18 TVA facilities in Tennessee include 19 hydroelectric dams, 7 natural-gas fired plants, 4 coal-fired power plants, 2 nuclear power plants, and 1 pumped-storage hydroelectric plant. Those facilities have about 20,000 megawatts in combined generating capacity—more than 90% of the state’s total generating capacity. The TVA also has one wind farm that has 18 turbines, most of which are 260 feet tall, with a combined 29 megawatts in generating capacity. TVA also has seven small solar power facilities in the state.19,20,21

The largest power plant by capacity in Tennessee is the 2,470-megawatt coal-fired Cumberland generating facility, but the plant ranks third in actual yearly electricity generation. The state’s next two largest power plants by capacity are both nuclear powered and each generates more electricity than the Cumberland plant.22,23 In 2019, nuclear power provided 44% of the state’s generation. Coal-fired power plants accounted for 23%—down from 52% a decade earlier. Coal contributed more than half of the state’s electricity generation as recently as 2011, but its share has declined with the retirement of nearly 3,000 megawatts of coal-fired generating capacity since then.24,25 Natural gas-fired generation began to rise sharply in 2010, and accounted for a record 20% of in-state electricity supply in 2019. Hydroelectric power contributed 12%, and other renewables provided almost all the rest of Tennessee’s net generation.26,27

Tennessee helped usher in the nuclear age with the nation’s first nuclear fuel enrichment plant, built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the World War II Manhattan Project to develop a nuclear bomb.28,29 Today, Tennessee has two nuclear power generating sites, the Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant and the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant, both located in southeastern Tennessee.30 The Watts Bar power plant has the nation’s newest nuclear power reactors. Watts Bar Unit 1 began operating in 1996, and Watts Bar Unit 2 entered service in 2016—becoming the nation’s first, and, so far, only new nuclear reactor to come online in the 21st century.31 The TVA is pursuing a federal permit for a possible new nuclear power plant using small modular reactors at a site near Oak Ridge.32

Tennessee is among the top 15 states in total electricity consumption for all sectors combined, and among the top 5 states in residential electricity consumption per capita.33 The average price for electricity across all sectors in Tennessee is below the national average, and the average price for the residential sector alone is among the lowest 10 states.34 About 6 out of 10 households in Tennessee use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.35

Renewable energy

About one-eighth of Tennessee’s electricity net generation is supplied by renewable resources, mostly hydropower. Tennessee is the third-largest hydroelectric power producer (after New York and Alabama) east of the Rocky Mountains.36,37 There are 28 hydroelectric power plants operating in Tennessee, including a pumped storage hydroelectric facility.38 In 2019, hydroelectric power accounted for 12% of the state’s total generation and almost 90% of the state’s renewable generation.39

The TVA’s Raccoon Mountain pumped storage plant is the largest hydroelectric facility in Tennessee.

The TVA’s 1,616-megawatt Raccoon Mountain pumped storage plant, which began operating in 1978, is the fourth-largest power plant and the largest hydroelectric facility by generating capacity in Tennessee.40,41 During periods of low power demand, which is usually at night, less costly electricity is used to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. Then, during periods when power demand and electricity prices are higher, the water is released from the upper reservoir and flows down through generating turbines on its way back to the lower reservoir, producing electricity. Although the plant uses more power than it generates, it supplies power in periods of peak demand when electricity prices are highest.42

Biomass from wood, wood waste, and landfill gas contributes the second-largest share of renewable generation in Tennessee. Seven utility-scale biomass facilities provided about 8% of the state’s renewable net generation and slightly more than 1% of total generation in 2019.43,44 Tennessee’s wood waste is also used as feedstock for the state’s three wood pellet manufacturing plants that can produce about 171,000 tons of pellets annually. Wood pellets are burned for electricity generation and heating.45,46

Solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities provided about 4% of Tennessee’s renewable generation in 2019. About two-thirds of that generation was at utility-scale facilities that have a capacity of 1 megawatt or larger.47 By early 2020, utility-scale solar power sites with a combined generating capacity of 181 megawatts were operating in the state.48 Most of the state’s utility-scale solar PV generating facilities are located in southwestern Tennessee. The state’s largest, a 53-megawatt solar farm, came online in December 2018.49,50 In 2019, about one-third of Tennessee’s solar power generation came from customer-sited, small-scale solar PV installations, mostly on residential and business rooftops.51

Although Tennessee does not have a renewable portfolio standard requiring that a certain amount of its electricity come from renewable energy sources, the state was an early leader among southeastern states in developing renewable generation beyond hydroelectric power.52 The region’s first major wind farm, located on Buffalo Mountain near Oliver Springs in eastern Tennessee, began operating as a 2-megawatt generating facility in 2001, and has expanded to 29 megawatts.53 However, in 2019, wind power was not a large contributor to Tennessee’s energy mix, providing less than 0.1% of the state’s net generation.54 The state’s best wind resources are along the mountains in eastern Tennessee.55

Tennessee is also a biofuels producer. It is the largest ethanol-producing state in the Southeast and the 14th-largest in the nation.56 The state has three ethanol plants—two use corn as feedstock and a third, smaller plant recycles waste—which have a combined production capacity of about 237 million gallons of ethanol per year.57,58,59 In addition, Tennessee has two biodiesel plants with a combined manufacturing capacity of about 38 million gallons annually.60

Petroleum

Tennessee has minor proved crude oil reserves and accounts for less than 0.01% of the nation’s crude oil output.61,62 The first commercial crude oil production in Tennessee occurred in 1866, but only small amounts of crude oil have been produced in the state. Tennessee’s oil output reached 1 million barrels in 1983 and 1984, but has fallen, and in 2019, the state had the second-lowest annual oil output in the past four decades.63,64 Most of the oil wells in Tennessee are in the Appalachian Basin in the northeastern part of the state.65

Tennessee has one petroleum refinery, located in Memphis, which can process about 180,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.66 The refinery receives its light, low-sulfur crude oil supply from pipelines that cross through western Tennessee on the way from the Gulf Coast to other refineries in the Midwest and from a pipeline and storage hub in Cushing, Oklahoma.67,68,69,70 The Memphis refinery also has access to the Mississippi River and can receive additional crude oil transported by barge.71 The refinery’s products include motor gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and petrochemicals. Refined petroleum products are shipped out by truck and barge, and a pipeline delivers jet fuel directly to the Memphis airport.72 Tennessee also receives motor gasoline and diesel fuel from the Colonial and Plantation pipeline systems that serve the state as they transport petroleum products from the Gulf Coast region to the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast states.73,74

More than four-fifths of Tennessee’s petroleum consumption is in its transportation sector, and nearly three out of five petroleum barrels consumed in the state is motor gasoline.75,76 Conventional gasoline without ethanol can be sold statewide in Tennessee, although almost all motor gasoline in the state contains 10% ethanol.77,78 Little petroleum is used by the residential sector, where about 4 in 100 Tennessee households use fuel oil, kerosene, or propane for home heating.79

Natural gas

Tennessee has no significant proved natural gas reserves and its natural gas production is small.80,81 Most of the state’s natural gas-producing wells are located in northeastern Tennessee on the Cumberland Plateau.82 Natural gas exploration permits issued in the past 10 years have focused on exploration of the Chattanooga Shale play, which underlies the northeastern part of the state. However, with lower natural gas prices energy exploration companies have shifted toward oil production in recent years, and fewer natural gas well permits have been issued.83,84

Tennessee’s natural gas needs are met by several interstate pipelines that supply the state as they transport natural gas to markets in the East and the Midwest.85,86 Historically, most of the state’s natural gas supply entered Tennessee from the south through Mississippi, but, in 2015, volumes from the south began to decline as more natural gas entered the state from the Marcellus and Utica shale regions to the north. Nearly fourth-fifths of the natural gas entering Tennessee now comes by way of Kentucky, and almost all of the rest arrives by way of Mississippi. Typically, about four-fifths of the natural gas that enters Tennessee continues on to other states.87

Natural gas consumption by Tennessee’s electric power sector in 2019 was about 32 times greater than a decade earlier.

The industrial sector typically consumes the largest share of natural gas delivered to end users in Tennessee and accounts for about two-fifths of state demand. The steady increase in natural gas consumption in the state is mainly the result of rising natural gas use by the electric power sector, which was about 32 times greater in 2019 than 2009. Prior to 2010, the electric power sector accounted for less than 4% of the natural gas consumed in Tennessee, but the sector now consumes more than one-fourth of the natural gas delivered to customers in the state.88 About one-fifth of the natural gas delivered to consumers goes to the residential sector—where one in three Tennessee households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating. Nearly one-seventh of the state’s natural gas deliveries go to the commercial sector.89,90

Coal

Tennessee’s estimated recoverable coal reserves are small, accounting for about 0.2% of the U.S. total, and the state’s coal production—the lowest of all coal-producing states—contributes less than 0.1% of the nation’s total.91 Commercial coal mining began in the state in the mid-1800s and expanded as railroads were built across the state. Coal production in Tennessee peaked in 1972 at around 11 million tons, but has fallen since then to 232,000 tons at the state’s 4 operating coal mines in 2018.92,93,94 Only bituminous coal is mined in the state, and all the producing mines are located in the northeastern corner of the state near the Kentucky border. There are untapped lignite coal reserves in western Tennessee.95,96,97

Tennessee uses about 50 times more coal than it produces. Nearly 90% of the coal consumed in the state is used for electric power generation, and the rest is used at other industrial facilities. Tennessee’s coal-fired power plants rely on coal delivered by rail and river barge from other states, primarily Illinois, Wyoming, Indiana, and Kentucky.98,99 Slightly more than one-third of the coal transported from Tennessee is exported to other countries.100

Endnotes

1 World Atlas, Tennessee, accessed May 22, 2020.
2 Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development, Location and Infrastructure, Make It Here, Take It Anywhere, accessed May 22, 2020.
3 Freeworldmaps.Net, Physical Map of Tennessee, accessed May 22, 2020.
4 Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee's Mineral Industry, updated January 2020.
5 Tennessee Valley Authority, Flood Damage Reduction, accessed May 22, 2020.
6 Howell, Sarah McCanless, James A. Hodges, Robert J. Norrell, Tennessee, Drainage and soils, Encyclopedia Britannica, accessed May 22, 2020.
7 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA in Tennessee, Fiscal Year 2019 (October 2018–September 2019), River Management.
8 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA at a Glance, accessed May 22, 2020.
9 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2017.
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
12 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Tennessee, All statistics in table, 2017.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2017.
14 Logan, Joanne, “Tennessee, A Tale of Three Climates,” Tennessee’s Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climate’ Series, accessed May 22, 2020.
15 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2009 RECs Survey Data, Space Heating, Table HC6.10, and Air Conditioning, Table HC7.10.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
17 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of March 2020, Tennessee.
18 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2018, Tables 2A, 2B.
19 Tennessee Valley Authority, Power Out of Thin Air, accessed May 22, 2020.
20 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA in Tennessee, Fiscal Year 2019 (October 2018–September 2019), River Management.
21 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of March 2020, Tennessee.
22 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2018, Tables 2A, 2B.
23 Tennessee Valley Authority, Cumberland Fossil Plant, accessed May 23, 2020.
24 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001–19.
25 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of March 2020, Tennessee.
26 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Tennessee Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997–2019.
27 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001–19.
28 World Nuclear Association, Uranium Enrichment, Gaseous diffusion process, updated January 2020.
29 U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Manhattan Project National Historical Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Where Science Made History (2016).
30 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, List of Power Reactor Units, accessed May 23, 2020.
31 Tennessee Valley Authority, Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, accessed May 22, 2020.
32 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Early Site Permit Application, Clinch River Nuclear Site, updated May 14, 2020.
33 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2017.
34 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.6.B.
35 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Tennessee.
36 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001–19.
37 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.10.B.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of March 2020, Tennessee, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001–19.
40 Tennessee Valley Authority, Raccoon Mountain, accessed May 23, 2020.
41 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2018, Table 2A.
42 Energy Storage Association, Pumped Hydroelectric Storage, accessed May 23, 2020.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001–19.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of March 2020, Tennessee, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
45 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, February 2020.
46 U.S. EIA, “New EIA survey collects data on production and sales of wood pellets,” Today in Energy (December 14, 2016).
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001–19.
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of March 2020, Tennessee, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
49 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Solar Power Plant, accessed May 23, 2020.
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of March 2020, Tennessee, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
51 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 6.2.B.
52 National Conference of State Legislatures, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals, updated April 17, 2020.
53 Tennessee Valley Authority, Power Out of Thin Air, accessed May 23, 2020.
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001–19.
55 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Tennessee, Maps & Data, accessed May 27, 2020.
56 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2017.
57 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (August 26, 2019), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) are available in XLS file.
58 “U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Platforms, Operational,” Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated February 24, 2020.
59 Dynamic Recycling, Environmental/Ethanol Processing, accessed May 23, 2020.
60 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (April 30, 2020), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, February 2019.
61 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2014–19.
62 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2018, Table 6, Crude oil and lease condensate proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2018.
63 Berwind, Marvin B., "The History and Development of the Oil and Gas Industry in Tennessee," Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, Vol. 62, No. 3 (July 1987).
64 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981–2019.
65 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Oil Wells: High-Level View, Tight Oil/Shale Gas Play, accessed May 23, 2020.
66 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2019 (June 21, 2019), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2019.
67 Valero, Memphis, Overview, accessed May 23, 2020.
68 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layer, accessed May 23, 2020.
69 Plains All American Pipeline, Diamond Pipeline LLC, accessed May 23, 2020.
70 Plains All American Pipeline, Diamond Pipeline LLC, Planned Diamond Pipeline Route, accessed May 23, 2020.
71 International Port of Memphis, Valero Memphis Refinery, accessed May 23, 2020.
72 Valero, Memphis, Overview, accessed May 23, 2020.
73 Colonial Pipeline Company, About Colonial, System Map, accessed May 24, 2020.
74 Kinder Morgan, Products Pipelines, Southeast Operations, accessed May 24, 2020.
75 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
76 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2017.
77 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements (January 2018).
78 U.S. EIA, “Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol,” Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
79 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Tennessee.
80 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, 2013–18.
81 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2014–19.
82 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Gas Wells: High-Level View, accessed May 24, 2020.
83 U.S. EIA, Lower 48 states shale plays, updated April 13, 2015.
84 Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee Division of Water Resources, Oil and Gas Data, Oil and Gas Well Permits, accessed May 24, 2020.
85 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Interstate Natural Gas Inter/Intrastate Pipeline, accessed May 24, 2020.
86 U.S. EIA, About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines, Natural Gas Pipelines in the Southeast Region, accessed May 24, 2020.
87 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Tennessee, Annual, 2013–18.
88 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Tennessee, Annual, 2014–19.
89 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Tennessee, Annual, 2014–19.
90 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Tennessee.
91 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2018, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
92 Tennessee Encyclopedia, Mining, accessed May 24, 2020.
93 Mining Artifacts, Tennessee Mines, accessed May 24, 2020.
94 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2018 and 2017.
95 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, All Coal Mines, accessed May 24, 2020.
96 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2018.
97 Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee’s Mineral Industry, updated January 2020.
98 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2018, and Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2018 and 2017.
99 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, and destination and method of transportation, Tennessee, Table DS-37, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2018.
100 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by origin state, Tennessee, 2018.