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Tennessee   Tennessee Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: August 18, 2022

Overview

Tennessee stretches almost 500 miles across from the state's eastern border with Virginia and North Carolina to its western border at the Mississippi River.1 Tennessee's westernmost city, Memphis, is one of the world's busiest hubs for barge, air, truck, and rail cargo traffic.2 Wide bends in the Tennessee River divide the state into three regions: the largely mountainous east, a central basin rimmed by highlands, and the low, rolling plains of western Tennessee.3 The eastern part of the state produces coal, natural gas, and crude oil, although those fossil energy reserves are modest.4 Both the Tennessee River and the Cumberland River, which flows in an arc from Kentucky across north-central Tennessee, have histories of destructive floods.5,6 In the 20th Century, a series of dams built by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to control those rivers brought hydroelectricity to the region.7 The federal TVA, the largest government-owned electricity provider by generating capacity in the nation, operates many hydroelectric, nuclear, natural gas-fired, coal-fired, and renewable-energy powered electricity generating facilities in the state. The TVA serves almost all of Tennessee's 95 counties and parts of six other states.8,9,10

Tennessee ranks among the top one-third of states in total energy consumption.

Tennessee consumes more than three times as much energy as it produces, and ranks among the top one-third of the states in total energy consumption and near the middle of the states in per capita energy use.11,12,13 The long travel distances across Tennessee, combined with the state's role as a logistics hub and popular tourism destination spot, contribute to the transportation sector accounting for three-tenths of the state's total energy consumption. Manufacturing is a leading component of the state's economy, and the industrial sector accounts for about one-fourth of the state's energy consumption.14 The industrial activities that make the largest contributions to Tennessee's gross domestic product (GDP) include the manufacture of food, beverages, and tobacco products; motor vehicles and automotive parts; chemicals; fabricated metal products; and electrical equipment.15 Tennessee ranks near the middle of the states and is above the U.S. average in its energy consumption per dollar of GDP.16

Tennessee's climate is relatively mild, but it is greatly influenced by the state's topography. Much of the state experiences hot summers and mild winters. However, the mountains of eastern Tennessee, which include the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, have much colder winters.17 The residential sector, where both heating and air conditioning are widely used, accounts for slightly less than one-fourth of the state's end-use energy consumption. The commercial sector is responsible for about one-fifth of the state's energy use.18,19

Electricity

The TVA owns more than 90% of Tennessee’s electricity generating capacity.

About three-fifths of Tennessee's utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) electricity generating facilities, including the 10 largest power plants in the state by capacity and actual yearly generation, are owned and operated by the TVA.20,21 TVA facilities in Tennessee include 19 hydroelectric dams, 7 natural gas-fired power plants, 4 coal-fired power plants, 2 nuclear power plants, and 1 pumped-storage hydroelectric plant. Those facilities have about 20,000 megawatts in combined generating capacity—more than 90% of the state's total. The TVA also has one wind farm that has 3 turbines, which are up to 260 feet tall, with a combined 2 megawatts of generating capacity. The TVA also has seven small solar power facilities in the state.22,23

The largest power plant by capacity in Tennessee is the 2,470-megawatt coal-fired Cumberland generating facility, but the plant ranks third in annual electricity generation. The TVA owns the power plant and wants to shut it down and replace it with natural gas-fired generation for economic and environmental reasons. The state's next two largest power plants by capacity are both nuclear powered and each generates more electricity than the Cumberland plant.24,25,26,27

In 2021, nuclear power provided 43% of the state's net generation. Natural gas-fired generation exceeded coal-fired electricity for the first time in 2020, but coal-fired generation returned to the second spot in 2021 and accounted for 22% of the state's generation. Coal contributed more than half of the state's electricity generation as recently as 2011, but its share declined with the retirement of nearly 3,000 megawatts of coal-fired generating capacity since then. Natural gas-fired generation accounted for 18% of in-state electricity generation in 2021, down from 39% five years earlier. Hydroelectric power contributed 16% of the state's generation in 2021, and other renewables provided almost all the rest of Tennessee's net generation.28,29

Tennessee helped usher in the nuclear age with the nation's first nuclear fuel enrichment plant, built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory near Knoxville as part of the World War II Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb.30 Today, Tennessee has two nuclear power generating sites, the Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant and the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant, both located in southeastern Tennessee.31 The Watts Bar power plant has the nation's newest nuclear power reactors. Watts Bar Unit 1 began operating in 1996, and Watts Bar Unit 2 entered service in 2016—becoming the nation's first, and, so far only new nuclear reactor to come online in the 21st century.32 The TVA is pursuing a federal permit for a possible new nuclear power plant using small modular reactors at a site near Oak Ridge.33

Despite its many TVA generating facilities, Tennessee is a net importer of electricity.34 Tennessee is among the top 15 states in both residential sector and total electricity sales.35 The average electricity price in Tennessee is below the national average, and the average price for the residential sector is among the lowest 10 states.36 About 6 out of 10 households in Tennessee use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.37

Renewable energy

Tennessee is the fifth-largest hydroelectric power producer in the nation.

Renewable resources, mostly hydropower, supplied about 17% of Tennessee's total in-state electricity net generation in 2021. The state is the fifth-largest hydroelectric power producer in the nation, after Washington, Oregon, New York, and California.38,39 There are 26 hydroelectric power plants operating in Tennessee, plus a large pumped storage hydroelectric facility.40 Hydroelectric power accounted for 16% of the state's total generation and about 90% of the state's renewable generation.41

The TVA's 1,616-megawatt Raccoon Mountain pumped storage plant, which began operating in 1978, is the fourth-largest power plant and the largest hydroelectric facility by generating capacity in Tennessee.42,43 During periods of low power demand, which are usually at night, less costly electricity is used to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. Then, during periods when power demand and electricity prices are higher, the water is released from the upper reservoir and flows down through generating turbines on its way back to the lower reservoir, producing electricity. Although the plant uses more power than it generates, it supplies power in periods of peak demand when electricity prices are highest.44

Biomass in the form of wood, wood waste, and landfill gas contributes the second-largest share of renewable generation in Tennessee. Seven utility-scale biomass facilities provided about 5% of the state's renewable net generation and nearly 1% of total generation in 2021.45,46 Tennessee's wood waste is also used as feedstock for the state's three wood pellet manufacturing plants that can produce about 175,000 tons of pellets annually. Wood pellets are burned for electricity generation and for heating.47,48

Solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities provided about 3% of Tennessee's renewable generation in 2021. About four-fifths of that solar generation was at utility-scale facilities that have a capacity of 1 megawatt or larger. The rest came from smaller, customer-sited generating systems, mostly solar panels installed on residential and business rooftops.49 By early 2022, Tennessee had nearly 400 megawatts of total solar power generating capacity. Most of the state's utility-scale solar PV generating facilities are located in southwestern Tennessee. The state's largest solar farm, with 150 megawatts of capacity from 500,000 solar panels, came online in March 2022. A larger 254-megawatt solar farm is scheduled to begin operating in mid-2023.50,51,52,53

Although Tennessee does not have a renewable portfolio standard requiring that a certain amount of its electricity come from renewable energy sources, the state was among the first in the Southeast to develop renewable generation beyond hydroelectric power.54 The region's first major wind farm, located on Buffalo Mountain near Oliver Springs in eastern Tennessee, began operating as a 2-megawatt generating facility in 2000 and has expanded to 15 wind turbines with 27 megawatts of capacity.55,56 However, in 2021, wind power was not a large contributor to Tennessee's energy mix, providing less than 0.1% of the state's net generation.57 The state's best wind resources are along the Appalachian Mountains in eastern Tennessee.58

Tennessee is also a biofuels producer. It is the largest fuel ethanol-producing state in the Southeast and the 14th-largest in the nation.59 The state has three fuel ethanol plants—two use corn as feedstock and a third, smaller plant uses recycled waste beverages, cosmetics, and health care products—that have a combined production capacity of about 236 million gallons of ethanol per year, which is about one-fourth less than the state's annual ethanol consumption of 311 million gallons.60,61,62,63 In addition, Tennessee has two biodiesel plants with a combined production capacity of about 38 million gallons annually, about one-tenth more than the nearly 34 million gallons of biodiesel used yearly in the state. The state is the 15th-biggest biodiesel-producing state.64,65,66

Petroleum

Tennessee has minor proved crude oil reserves and accounts for about 0.02% of the nation's crude oil output.67,68 The first commercial crude oil production in Tennessee occurred in 1866, but only small amounts of crude oil have been produced in the state. Tennessee's oil output peaked at slightly over 1 million barrels in 1982 and 1983, but declined since then. In 2020, the state's annual oil output fell below 200,000 barrels to the lowest level since 1969 after the COVID-19 pandemic curbed petroleum demand and oil prices fell. The state's oil output rebounded in 2021 to 206,000 barrels as the global economy improved, petroleum demand increased, and oil prices rose.69,70,71,72,73 Most of the oil wells in Tennessee are in the Appalachian Basin in the northeastern part of the state.74

Tennessee has one petroleum refinery, located in Memphis, which can process about 180,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day and accounts for about 1% of U.S. refining capacity.75 The refinery receives most of its light, low-sulfur crude oil supply via a pipeline from the oil storage hub in Cushing, Oklahoma. The Memphis refinery also receives additional crude oil transported by barge on the Mississippi River.76,77 The refinery's products include motor gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and petrochemicals. Refined petroleum products are shipped out by truck and barge, and a pipeline delivers jet fuel directly to the Memphis airport.78,79 Tennessee also receives motor gasoline and diesel fuel from the Colonial Pipeline and the PPL Pipeline that serve the state as they transport petroleum products from the Gulf Coast region to Mid-Atlantic and Northeast states.80,81

Nearly 90% of Tennessee's petroleum consumption is in its transportation sector, and about three out of five petroleum barrels consumed in the state are motor gasoline.82,83 Conventional gasoline without ethanol can be sold statewide, although almost all motor gasoline sold in the state contains 10% ethanol.84,85 The residential sector, where about 4 in 100 Tennessee households use fuel oil, kerosene, or propane for home heating, consumes a small amount of petroleum.86

Natural gas

Tennessee has no significant proved natural gas reserves and its natural gas production is small.87,88 Most of the state's natural gas-producing wells are located in northeastern Tennessee on the Cumberland Plateau.89 Natural gas exploration permits issued in the past decade have focused on exploration in the Chattanooga Shale play, which underlies the northeastern part of the state.90,91

Tennessee's natural gas needs are met by several interstate pipelines that supply the state as they transport natural gas to markets in the East and the Midwest.92,93 Historically, most of the state's natural gas supply entered Tennessee from the south through Mississippi, but, in 2015, volumes from the south began to decline as more natural gas entered the state from the Marcellus and Utica shale regions in Mid-Atlantic states. Nearly fourth-fifths of the natural gas that enters Tennessee now comes by pipeline through Kentucky, and almost all of the rest arrives by way of Mississippi. More than four-fifths of the natural gas that enters Tennessee continues on to other states, mainly Mississippi and Alabama. The state has two underground natural gas storage fields with a combined capacity of 2.4 billion cubic feet, which is less than 0.1% of U.S. total storage capacity.94,95

Tennessee’s electric power sector share of total state natural gas consumption in 2021 was nearly triple the level from a decade earlier.

The industrial sector typically consumes the largest share of natural gas delivered to end users in Tennessee and accounted for 41% of state natural gas demand in 2021. With the growth of natural-gas fired generation in the state during the past decade, the electric power sector's share of natural gas use nearly tripled from 10% of the state total in 2011 to 26% in 2021. About 18% of the natural gas delivered to consumers went to the residential sector, where one in three Tennessee households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating. The commercial sector accounted for 15% of the state's natural gas consumption, and a very small amount of natural gas was used as vehicle fuel in the transportation sector.96,97

Coal

Tennessee's estimated recoverable coal reserves are small, accounting for about 0.2% of the U.S. total, but the state no longer produces coal. The state's few mines last produced coal in early 2020.98,99,100 Commercial coal mining began in Tennessee in the mid-1800s and expanded as railroads were built across the state. Coal production in Tennessee peaked in 1972 at around 11 million tons, but steadily fell since then.101,102,103,104 The state's coal production at its last two operating mines fell to 92,000 tons in 2020, and there was no coal production in the state during the last three quarters of that year and none in 2021.105 The Tennessee legislature passed legislation in 2021 to return regulation of the mining industry from the federal government to the state, after the state lost regulatory oversight in the 1980s.106,107 Only bituminous coal was mined in the state, and all the producing mines were located in the northeastern corner of Tennessee near the Kentucky border. There are untapped lignite coal reserves in western Tennessee.108,109,110 About two-thirds of the coal consumed in the state is used for electric power generation, and the rest is used at other industrial facilities. Tennessee's coal-fired power plants rely on coal delivered by rail and river barge from other states, primarily Kentucky and Illinois.111,112

Endnotes

1 World Atlas, Tennessee, accessed July 20, 2022.
2 Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development, Location and Infrastructure, Make It Here, Take It Anywhere, accessed July 20, 2022.
3 Freeworldmaps.Net, Physical Map of Tennessee, accessed July 20, 2022.
4 Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee's Mineral Industry, updated January 2020.
5 Tennessee Valley Authority, Flood Damage Reduction, accessed July 20, 2022.
6 Hodges, James A., Tennessee, Drainage and soils, Encyclopedia Britannica, accessed July 20, 2022.
7 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA in Tennessee, River Management, Fiscal Year 2021.
8 Tennessee Valley Authority, About TVA, accessed July 20, 2022.
9 Tennessee Valley Authority, Energy, accessed July 20, 2022.
10 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA at a Glance, accessed July 20, 2022.
11 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2020.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2020.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, NAICS, Tennessee, All statistics in table, 2020.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2020.
17 Logan, Joanne, "Tennessee, A Tale of Three Climates," Tennessee's Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climate' Series, accessed July 20, 2022.
18 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2020 RECs Survey Data, State Data, Highlights for space heating in U.S. homes by state, 2020 and Highlights for air conditioning in U.S. homes by state, 2020.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
20 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2021, 2021 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Select All, Utility Name: Tennessee Valley Authority.
21 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2020, Tables 2A, 2B.
22 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA in Tennessee, Fiscal Year 2021.
23 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2022, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
24 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2020, Tables 2A, 2B.
25 Tennessee Valley Authority, Cumberland Fossil Plant, accessed July 21, 2022.
26 Mattise, Jonathan and Adrian Sainz, "Federal utility seeks proposals for big carbon-free push," AP (July 12, 2022).
27 TVA, Cumberland Fossil Plant Retirement, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, accessed July 23, 2022.
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-21.
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of June 2022, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
30 U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Manhattan Project National Historical Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Where Science Made History (2016).
31 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Tennessee, accessed July 21, 2022.
32 Tennessee Valley Authority, Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, accessed July 21, 2022.
33 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Early Site Permit Application, Clinch River Nuclear Site, updated January 11, 2021.
34 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2020, Tables 10.
35 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
36 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 5.6.B.
37 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Tennessee.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-21.
39 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 1.10.B.
40 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2022, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-21.
42 Tennessee Valley Authority, Raccoon Mountain, accessed July 21, 2022.
43 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Electricity Profile 2020, Table 2A.
44 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Hydropower explained, Hydroelectric power is produced with moving water, Pumped-storage hydropower facilities, updated March 16, 2022.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-21.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2022, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Landfill Gas, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass, Other Waste Biomass.
47 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, April 2022.
48 U.S. EIA, "New EIA survey collects data on production and sales of wood pellets," Today in Energy (December 14, 2016).
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-21.
50 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly, Table 6.2.B.
51 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Solar Power Plant, accessed July 21, 2022.
52 McCarthy, Darby, "TVA, Meta commission Tennessee's newest large-scale solar energy project," News Channel 5 (May 22, 2022).
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2022, Inventory of Planned Generators as of June 2022, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
54 National Conference of State Legislatures, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals, updated August 13, 2021.
55 Tennessee Valley Authority, Wind Q+A, accessed July 21, 2022.
56 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2022, Plant State: Tennessee, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
57 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Tennessee, 2001-21.
58 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Tennessee, Maps & Data, accessed July 21, 2022.
59 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2020.
60 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 3, 2021), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District) are available in XLS file.
61 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated June 6, 2022.
62 Dynamic Recycling, Ethanol Processing, accessed July 21, 2022.
63 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2020.
64 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 26, 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
65 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2020.
66 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2020.
67 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2016-21.
68 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2020, Table 6, Proved reserves, reserves changes, and production of crude oil and lease condensate, 2020.
69 Historical Tennessee fracking information, 1866-2015, History, Ballotpedia, accessed July 23, 2022.
70 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981-2021.
71 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table PT1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Tennessee, 1960-2020.
72 U.S. EIA, "U.S. crude oil production fell by 8% in 2020, the largest annual decrease on record," Today in Energy (December 22, 2021).
73 U.S. EIA, "Crude oil prices increased in 2021 as global crude oil demand outpaced supply," Today in Energy (January 4, 2022).
74 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Oil Wells: High-Level View, Tight Oil/Shale Gas Play, accessed July 22, 2022.
75 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2022 (June 21, 2022), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2022, Tennessee.
76 Valero, Memphis Refinery, Overview, accessed July 22, 2022.
77 Plains All American Pipeline, Diamond Pipeline LLC, Planned Diamond Pipeline Route, accessed July 22, 2022.
78 International Port of Memphis, Valero Memphis Refinery, accessed July 22, 2022.
79 Valero, Memphis Refinery, Overview, accessed July 22, 2022.
80 Colonial Pipeline Company, About Us, System Map, accessed July 22, 2022.
81 Kinder Morgan, Products Pipelines, Southeast Operations, accessed July 22, 2022.
82 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
83 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2020.
84 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements (January 2018).
85 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
86 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Tennessee.
87 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, 2015-20.
88 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2016-21.
89 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Gas Wells: High-Level View, accessed July 22, 2022.
90 Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee Division of Water Resources, Oil and Gas Data, Oil and Gas Well Permit, Oil & Gas Well Data Viewer, Oil & Gas Well Map Viewer, accessed July 23, 2022.
91 U.S. EIA, Lower 48 states shale plays, updated April 13, 2015.
92 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Interstate Natural Gas Inter/Intrastate Pipeline, accessed July 22, 2022.
93 Pipeline 101, Where are Gas Pipelines Located?, accessed July 23, 2022.
94 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Tennessee, Annual, 2015-20.
95 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Total Storage Capacity, 2015-20.
96 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Tennessee, Annual, 1997-2021.
97 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Tennessee.
98 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
99 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2021, (April 2022), Table 2, Coal production by state.
100 U.S. EIA, Weekly Coal Production, Historical data files, 2020-22.
101 Tennessee Encyclopedia, Mining, accessed July 23, 2022.
102 Mining Artifacts, Tennessee Mines, accessed July 23, 2022.
103 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
104 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table PT1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Tennessee, 1960-2020.
105 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2020, (April 2021), Table 2, Coal production by state.
106 Whetstone, Tyler, "Mines haven't produced coal for months, but Tennessee legislature OKs $1M for regulation," Knoxville News Sentinel (May 11, 2021).
107 Stockard, Sam, "State of Tennessee to Retake Coal Mining Regulation," Tennessee Lookout (May 26, 2021).
108 U.S. EIA, Tennessee Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, All Coal Mines, accessed July 23, 2022.
109 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020.
110 Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee's Mineral Industry, updated January 2020.
111 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020, and Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2020 and 2019.
112 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, and destination and method of transportation, Tennessee, Table DS-39, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.