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Illinois   Illinois Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: July 21, 2022

Overview

Located in the center of the United States, Illinois is the most populous Midwestern state, and ranks sixth in the nation in population and fifth in GDP.1,2 The state's population is concentrated in a few large urban areas, leaving much of the state rural.3 Chicago, located in northeastern Illinois on the shores of Lake Michigan, is home to one-fifth of the state's population and is the third-largest U.S. city.4,5

Illinois plays an important role in the nation's economy because of its central location and extensive transportation network. The state has the nation's fourth-busiest commercial airport and the second-largest rail network with almost 7,000 route miles.6,7 Illinois has the third-largest number of interstate highways, after California and Texas, at almost 2,200 miles, and it also has about 1,100 miles of navigable waterways. The state's inland waterway system connects the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River and the Ohio River, linking the central United States to the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.8

Illinois is a key hub for crude oil and natural gas moving throughout the United States.

Illinois is a key hub for crude oil and natural gas moving throughout the United States.9 The state is a major electricity generator and has the largest number of nuclear power plants in the nation, as well as the only chemical facility that converts uranium yellowcake into uranium hexafluoride, a step in making nuclear fuel.10,11,12,13 Illinois also has substantial coal reserves and some crude oil resources as well.14,15 The state ranks fifth in the United States in wind-powered electricity generating capacity.16 Illinois has about 27 million acres of farmland and ranks among the top 10 states in the market value of agricultural products sold.17,18 Corn and soybeans, the state's most important crops, provide feed for livestock and are used as feedstock for many ethanol and biodiesel plants.19,20,21,22

Illinois is the nation's fifth-largest energy-producing and energy-consuming state. The state's largest end-use energy-consuming sector is industry, which includes agriculture, and accounts for 30% of the state total.23,24 Chemicals, food and beverage, and machinery manufacturing are the largest contributors to the state's manufacturing GDP. Other energy-intensive industries in Illinois include petroleum refining, coal mining, and primary metal manufacturing.25 The transportation sector accounts for one-fourth of the state's energy consumption, the residential sector accounts for slightly less than one-fourth, and the commercial sector uses one-fifth. Despite the state's cold winters and its warm, humid, and occasionally hot summers, Illinois' total energy consumption per capita ranks at the midpoint of the states.26,27

Electricity

Illinois is the nation's fifth-largest electricity producer, and typically sends about one-fifth of the power it generates to other states over interstate transmission lines.28,29 Two regional grid systems serve Illinois: the PJM Interconnection and Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO).30 The PJM Interconnection is a regional transmission organization that manages the movement of wholesale electricity between the northern portion of the state, including the major urban areas around Chicago, and the Mid-Atlantic region.31,32 MISO controls the flow of electricity for the rest of the state and also serves much of the middle of the nation from Louisiana to Canada.33,34

Illinois generates more electricity from nuclear energy than any other state, accounting for one-eighth of the nation’s total nuclear power generation.

Illinois generates more electricity from nuclear energy than any other state, accounting for one-eighth of the nation's total nuclear power generation.35 In 2021, the state's 6 nuclear power plants, with 11 total reactors, produced 53% of the state's electricity net generation.36,37 All the nuclear plants rank among the 10 largest power plants in the state by annual electricity generation, and 5 of the 6 are among the 10 largest by capacity.38 Because of economic issues in the electricity market, several of the state's nuclear power stations were scheduled to close, but the Illinois legislature in late 2016 approved financial incentives to keep the stations operating. The utility that owns two nuclear power plants in northern Illinois, the Byron and Dresden generating facilities, reversed its plans to retire the nuclear power plants in the fall of 2021 after a new state law passed that requires Illinois to transition to 50% clean energy by 2040 and 100% clean energy by 2050.39,40,41,42,43

Coal-fired power plants have been the second-largest electricity providers in Illinois since 2009 However, coal's contribution to in-state generation declined significantly from 45% of electricity net generation in 2011 to 24% in 2021, as nearly 5,400 megawatts of coal-fired generating capacity shut down during that period. Additional coal-fired power plants with almost 3,000 megawatts of capacity are scheduled to close in 2022 and 2023 in response to stricter emissions regulations and economic pressures.44,45,46 The state's natural gas-fired generation reached a record high in 2020, but declined in 2021 after natural gas prices rose and more competitively priced coal-fired generation increased. Natural gas-fired generation provided almost 12% of Illinois' electricity net generation in 2021, nearly four times more than in 2011. Renewables, led by wind energy, accounted for almost all the rest of the state's net generation.47,48

About 95% of Illinois households use electric air conditioning, but only one in six Illinois households rely on electricity for home heating.49,50 Electricity retail sales in Illinois do not vary greatly among end-use sectors. The residential and commercial sectors each account for 35% of the state's electricity retail sales, and the industrial sector accounts for most of the remaining 30%. A small amount of electricity sales go the transportation sector. 51

Coal

Illinois’s estimated recoverable coal reserves are the second-largest in the nation.

Illinois has about 15% of the nation's economically recoverable coal reserves, second only to Montana, and it is the nation's fourth-largest coal producer after Wyoming, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania.52,53 In 1673, Europeans first discovered coal in North America along the Illinois River, and coal underlies about two-thirds of the state. However, coal was not mined in the state until the 1800s.54,55 Currently, coal mines in Illinois provide about 6% of U.S. total coal production.56

Illinois exported about one-fifth of the coal it produced to other countries in 2020.57 Typically, 15 states received Illinois coal primarily to generate electricity, with Kentucky, and Florida receiving the most coal.58 Illinois produces only bituminous coal, which has a high sulfur content and burns for a long time. Many electric utilities burn that coal in combination with lower sulfur coal from other regions to be able to meet federal Clean Air Act emissions regulations.59,60,61 Coal from Illinois is transported to other states mainly by rail and barge.62 Illinois consumes about one-fourth of the coal mined in the state, primarily in the electric power sector, and trucks or conveyors move much of that coal.63,64 Nearly all of the coal that Illinois receives from other states comes from Wyoming by rail and is used for electric power generation.65 Industrial and coking plants account for one-sixth of the state's coal consumption.66

Petroleum

Illinois has the fourth-largest crude oil-refining capacity of any state.

Illinois is a major crude oil-refining state. Its four refineries can collectively process up to 1 million barrels of crude oil per calendar day into petroleum products, the largest refining capacity in the Midwest and the fourth-largest in the nation after Texas, Louisiana, and California.67 However, the state's crude oil reserves and production are modest.68,69 Almost all of the producing wells in Illinois are located in the southern half of the state, in the Illinois Basin.70 Oil exploration in Illinois began in the 1860s, but commercial production did not occur until 1905. Since the 1860s, tens of thousands of wells have been drilled in the state. Crude oil production in Illinois peaked in 1940, reaching almost 150 million barrels that year. In 2021, the state's oil production decreased to just over 7 million barrels, the lowest output level since the mid-1930s.71,72 Most of the oil wells in the state are stripper wells that each produce less than 2 barrels of crude oil per day.73

Several crude oil and petroleum product pipelines cross Illinois and the state is home to the Patoka Terminal crude oil storage hub, which is the second-largest pipeline terminal in the Midwest and has a storage capacity of more than 19 million barrels.74,75,76 Illinois has crude oil ports at Chicago on Lake Michigan and at Peoria on the Illinois Waterway, which connects Lake Michigan to the Mississippi River. Chicago's port also handles petroleum product imports.77 The largest refinery in the state is the Wood River refinery, in the southwest near St. Louis, Missouri.78 There is another refinery in southern Illinois and two more in northeastern Illinois. The state's refineries process domestic crude oil, as well as Canadian and other imported crude oils, into motor gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and other petroleum products.79,80

Illinois consumes the sixth-most petroleum of any state. The transportation sector accounts for 70% of Illinois' petroleum consumption, and almost half the petroleum used in the state is motor gasoline.81,82 Reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol, which reduces smog-forming emissions, is required to be sold in the areas around Chicago in northeastern Illinois and around St. Louis, Missouri, in southwestern Illinois.83 There are 312 public fueling stations throughout the state that sell E85, a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. Only Minnesota and Iowa have more E85 refueling stations.84 Illinois is a busy aviation hub and nearly one-tenth of petroleum used in the state is jet fuel, making it the fifth-largest consumer of jet fuel among the states.85,86 One-fourth of the petroleum consumed in Illinois is used in the industrial sector, the state's second-largest petroleum-consuming sector.87 The industrial sector also uses about two-thirds of the hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGLs), including propane, ethane, and ethylene, consumed in Illinois.88 Farmers use propane to dry the state's corn crop after harvest, and industry uses ethane and ethylene as feedstock for making plastics.89,90,91,92 Overall, Illinois is the third-largest HGL-consuming state and HGLs account for about one-eighth of the state's petroleum consumption.93,94 Only a small amount of petroleum is used in the commercial sector and in the residential sector, where about 4 in 100 households use petroleum products, mostly propane, for home heating.95,96

Natural gas

Illinois has more than one-tenth of total U.S. natural gas underground storage capacity.

Illinois has no significant natural gas reserves and few producing natural gas wells.97,98,99 However, the state is a major natural gas crossroads, with many interstate natural gas pipelines and two natural gas market centers.100 Natural gas supplies enter Illinois primarily from Iowa, Missouri, and Indiana. Almost three-fifths of the natural gas that enters Illinois continues on to the east and north through Indiana and Wisconsin.101 Illinois has 28 underground natural gas storage fields with a total storage capacity of just over 1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, which is slightly more than one-tenth of U.S. total natural gas underground storage capacity.102

Illinois is the eighth-largest natural gas-consuming state in the nation.103 In 2021, the residential sector used 35% of all natural gas delivered to consumers in the state, the largest share of any sector.104 Almost 8 in 10 Illinois households use natural gas for heating.105 The industrial sector was the second-largest natural gas-consuming sector in Illinois, using 24% of the natural gas delivered in the state. The state's electric power sector accounted for 20% of natural gas use, consuming a record amount of natural gas. The commercial sector also made up 20% of the state's natural gas use.106

Renewable energy

Illinois's primary renewable energy product is biofuels. The state is a leading producer of both ethanol and biodiesel, with an annual production capacity of 1.7 billion gallons of ethanol and 174 million gallons of biodiesel. A fertile prairie state, Illinois is a major corn and soybean producer. The state's 12 ethanol plants use corn as feedstock, and the state's 5 biodiesel plants use multiple feedstocks, including soy and corn oils.107,108,109,110 The state is the third-largest ethanol producer, after Iowa and Nebraska, and is the ninth-largest consumer of ethanol in the nation.111,112 The state is the fourth-largest biodiesel producer and the third-largest consumer of biodiesel, after Texas and California.113,114

In 2021, Illinois ranked fifth in the nation in wind power capacity with about 6,900 megawatts installed.

In 2021, renewable energy, including small-scale, customer-sited solar panel systems (less than 1 megawatt in capacity each) accounted for 11% of Illinois' in-state electricity generation, almost triple the amount generated a decade earlier. Wind is the primary renewable resource used for electric power generation in the state. In 2021, wind provided 90% of the state's renewable energy generation, and Illinois was fifth in the nation in utility-scale (1 megawatt or greater) wind capacity, with about 6,900 megawatts online.115,116 Illinois' best wind energy resources are found in the northern one-third of the state. About 1,200 megawatts of additional wind power capacity are either under construction or in advanced development.117,118

Solar energy, biomass, and hydropower generated 10% of Illinois' renewable-sourced electricity. In 2021, the state's total solar power generation was almost triple the level from the year before. The state's largest solar power facility, the 200-megawatt Prairie Solar Farm, came online in late 2021. An additional 1,700 megawatts of solar power capacity are scheduled to come online through 2024. Nearly two-thirds of the state's solar generation in 2021 came from customer-sited, small-scale generation, mostly from rooftop solar panels.119,120 Waste and methane gas from municipal landfills fuel nearly all of the state's biomass electricity generation at 13 facilities with 73 megawatts of combined generating capacity121,122 Illinois has many rivers, but the state's relatively level terrain limits hydroelectric potential. The state's 8 hydroelectric facilities have a total of 33 megawatts of generating capacity.123,124

Illinois has a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) that requires all investor-owned electric utilities and alternative retail electricity suppliers to obtain increasing proportions of their retail power sales from renewably-sourced generation. In 2021, the RPS target was increased to require that 50% of electricity retail sales come from renewable sources by 2040, replacing the earlier target of 25% by 2026.125,126 In 2007, Illinois also created an energy efficiency portfolio standard, requiring investor-owned electric and natural gas utilities and retail energy suppliers to achieve long-term reductions in their customers' electricity and natural gas use through efficiency measures.127

Endnotes

1 U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2021 (NST-EST2021-POP).
2 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars (SAGDP2), All Areas, All Industry Total, 2021.
3 U.S. Census Bureau, Illinois: 2020 Census, Population Density in Illinois Counties: 2020.
4 U.S. Census Bureau, QuickFacts, Chicago City, Illinois, accessed June 22, 2022.
5 City of Chicago, Facts & Statistics, accessed June 22, 2022.
6 Federal Aviation Administration, Final Calendar Year 2020 Enplanements at Commercial Service Airports, Rank Order, November 8, 2021.
7 Association of American Railroads, Total Rail Miles by State: 2020, accessed June 22, 2022.
8 Illinois Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Report Card for Illinois Infrastructure 2022, p. 41, 73.
9 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Illinois Profile Overview, Pipelines and Transmission Map Layer, accessed June 22, 2022.
10 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 1.3.B, State by Sector, Year-to-Date.
11 U.S. EIA, Nuclear and Uranium, Nuclear Reactor, State, and Net Capacity (September 2021).
12 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Materials, Fuel Cycle Facilities, Uranium Conversion, updated December 2, 2020.
13 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, "NRC Approves License for Honeywell Uranium Conversion Facility," No: 20-018 (March 25, 2020).
14 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines by State, 2020 and 2019.
15 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2015-20.
16 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 6.2.B, Net Summer Capacity Using Primarily Renewable Energy Sources by State.
17 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Quick Stats, 2021 State Agriculture Overview Illinois, accessed June 22, 2022.
18 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Data Products, Farm Income and Wealth Statistics, Cash receipts by commodity State ranking, 2020, Nominal (current dollar), all commodities.
19 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Quick Stats, 2021 State Agriculture Overview Illinois, accessed June 22, 2022.
20 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated June 6, 2022.
21 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 3, 2021), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District) are available in XLS.
22 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
23 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2020.
24 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
25 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars (SAGDP2), Illinois, All Statistics in Table, 2020.
26 Angel, Jim, "Climate of Illinois Narrative," Illinois State Water Survey, State Climatologist Office for Illinois, accessed June 22, 2022.
27 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates Per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
28 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 1.3.B.
29 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020.
30 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Electric Power Markets: National Overview, updated July 20, 2021.
31 PJM Interconnection, About PJM, Who We Are, PJM History, accessed June 22, 2022.
32 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Electric Power Markets, PJM, updated July 20, 2021.
33 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Electric, Electric Power Market, Midcontinent (MISO), updated July 20, 2021.
34 Midcontinent Independent System Operator, About MISO, accessed June 22, 2022.
35 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Tables 1.9.B., 1.3.B.
36 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Illinois, Operating Nuclear Power Reactors, updated March 9, 2021.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Illinois, Annual, 2001-21.
38 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2020, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2020, Illinois, and Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2020, Illinois.
39 Shea, Daniel and Kristy Hartman, State Options to Keep Nuclear in the Energy Mix, National Conference of State Legislatures (January 2017), p.2, 3, 15-17.
40 Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Exelon Illinois Nuclear Fleet Audit - Findings and Recommendations, April 14, 2021, p. iv. A-1—A-3.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Illinois, Technology: Nuclear.
42 U.S. EIA, "Five states have implemented programs to assist nuclear power plants," Today in Energy (October 7, 2019).
43 U.S. EIA, "Two nuclear power plants in northern Illinois reversed plans to retire early," Today in Energy (October 28, 2021).
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022, and Inventory of Retired Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Illinois, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Illinois, Annual, 2001-21.
46 Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Flue Gas Desulfurization Task Force Report, Analysis of the Illinois Coal Industry and Electrical Generation in Illinois (December 2018).
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Illinois, Annual, 2001-21.
48 U.S. EIA, "Annual U.S. coal-fired electricity generation will increase for the first time since 2014," Today in Energy (December 21, 2021).
49 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2020 RECS Survey Data, State Data, Highlights for air conditioning in U.S. homes by state, 2020 June 2022.
50 U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, B25040, House Heating Fuel, Illinois, 2019.
51 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), Illinois, Annual, 2018-21.
52 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020.
53 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
54 Illinois Mine Subsidence Insurance Fund, History of Mining in Illinois, accessed June 23, 2022.
55 University of Illinois, "Coal Geology of Illinois," 2010 Keystone Coal Industry Manual, p. 456.
56 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020.
57 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic and foreign U.S. coal distribution by origin State.
58 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Illinois, Table OS-4, Domestic Coal Distribution by Origin State, 2020.
59 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2020.
60 The Engineering ToolBox, Classification of Coal, Typical Sulfur Content in Coal, accessed June 23, 2022.
61 U.S. EIA, Coal Explained, Coal and the environment, updated December 2, 2021.
62 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Illinois, Table DS-10, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
63 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic and foreign U.S. coal distribution by origin State, Illinois, Table OS-4, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2020.
64 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Illinois, Table DS-11, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
65 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Illinois, Table DS-10, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
66 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2020 and 2019.
67 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, 2017-22.
68 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2016-21.
69 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2015-20.
70 Illinois State Geological Survey, Oil Fields in Illinois, accessed June 24, 2022.
71 Illinois Petroleum Resources Board, Illinois History, Annual Illinois Oil Production: 1905-2021.
72 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, Illinois, 2016-21
73 Illinois Department of Natural Resources, About Oil and Gas in Illinois, accessed June 24, 2022.
74 Pipeline 101, Where Are Liquids Pipelines Located?, accessed June 24, 2022.
75 Dakota Access Pipeline, Illinois Energy, accessed June 24, 2022.
76 O'Connell, Patrick, "Dakota Access pipeline a mix of angst, potential for those near central Illinois tank farm," The Chicago Tribune (January 4, 2018).
77 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, March 2022 to March 2021.
78 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 21, 2022), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State and Individual Refinery as of January 1, 2022, p. 8.
79 Phillips 66, Wood River Refinery, accessed June 24, 2022.
80 ExxonMobil, United States, Joliet operations, About Us, accessed June 24, 2022.
81 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
82 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2020, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2020.
83 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
84 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State, accessed June 25, 2022.
85 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2020, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2020.
86 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F1, Jet fuel consumption, price, and expenditure estimates, 2020.
87 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
88 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F11, Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Consumption Estimates, 2020.
89 U.S. EIA, "Propane Use for Crop Drying Depends on Weather and Corn Markets as well as Crop Size," Today in Energy (October 2, 2014).
90 U.S. EIA, Hydrocarbon gas liquids explained, Uses of hydrocarbon gas liquids, updated October 26, 2021.
91 U.S. EIA, "U.S. hydrocarbon gas liquids consumption increases as prices, expenditures decrease," Today in Energy (June 25, 2018).
92 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Storage and Distribution Hub in the United States, Report to Congress (November 2018).
93 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2020, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2020.
94 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F11, Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Consumption Estimates, 2020.
95 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
96 U.S. Census Bureau, Home Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Illinois.
97 U.S. EIA, Number of Producing Gas Wells, 2015-20.
98 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2016-21.
99 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2020, Table 10, Total natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2020.
100 U.S. EIA, Illinois Profile Overview, Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Natural Gas Market Hub and Natural Gas Interstate/Intrastate Pipeline, accessed June 25, 2022.
101 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Illinois, Annual, 2015-20.
102 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields and Total Storage Capacity, Annual 2015-20.
103 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2016-21.
104 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Illinois, Annual, 2016-21.
105 U.S. Census Bureau, Home Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Illinois.
106 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Illinois, Annual, 2016-21.
107 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 3, 2021), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD District) are available in XLS.
108 U.S. EIA, U.S. Biodiesel Plant Production Capacity (September 3, 2021), Detailed annual production capacity by plant is available in XLS format.
109 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2021 State Agricultural Overview, Illinois.
110 U.S. Biodiesel Plants, Operational," Biodiesel Magazine, updated January 24, 2022.
111 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State 2020.
112 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2020.
113 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State 2020.
114 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2020.
115 U.S. EIA, Electricity Energy Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Illinois, Annual, 2001-21.
116 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 6.2.B.
117 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Illinois, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
118 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Illinois, Maps & Data, accessed June 26, 2022.
119 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022 and Inventory of Planned Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Illinois, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
120 U.S. EIA, Electricity Energy Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Illinois, Annual, 2001-21.
121 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Illinois, Technology: Landfill Gas, Other Waste Biomass.
122 U.S. EIA, Electricity Energy Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Illinois, Annual, 2001-21.
123 National Hydropower Association, Illinois, accessed June 26, 2022.
124 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022, Plant State: Illinois, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric.
125 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Renewable Portfolio Standard, Illinois, updated June 28, 2018.
126 U.S. EIA, "Five states updated or adopted new clean energy standards in 2021," Today in Energy (February 1, 2022).
127 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Energy Efficiency Resource Standards, Illinois, updated February 11, 2016.