U.S. Energy Information Administration logo
Skip to sub-navigation
‹ U.S. States

Illinois   Illinois Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Visit EIA's U.S. Energy Atlas, our new interface for web map applications and geospatial data catalogue.

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: June 17, 2021

Overview

Located in the center of the United States, Illinois is the most populous Midwestern state, and ranks sixth in the nation in population and fifth in GDP.1,2 The state's population is concentrated in a few large urban areas, leaving much of the state rural.3 Chicago is home to one-fifth of the state's population and is the third-largest U.S. city.4,5

Illinois plays an important role in the nation's economy because of its central location and extensive transportation network. The state has the nation's third-busiest commercial airport and the nation's second-largest rail network with almost 7,000 route miles.6,7 The state has the largest number of interstate highways at almost 2,200 miles, and it also has more than 1,100 miles of navigable waterways. The state's inland waterway system connects the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River and the Ohio River, linking the central United States to the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.8

Illinois is a key hub for crude oil and natural gas moving throughout the United States.

Illinois is a key hub for crude oil and natural gas moving throughout the United States.9 The state is a major electricity generator and has the largest number of nuclear power plants in the nation, as well as the only chemical facility that converts uranium yellowcake into uranium hexafluoride, a step in making nuclear fuel.10,11,12,13 Illinois also has substantial coal reserves and some crude oil resources as well.14,15 The state ranks fifth in the United States in wind-powered electricity generating capacity.16 Illinois has about 27 million acres of farmland, and the state ranks among the top 10 states in the market value of agricultural products sold.17,18 Corn and soybeans, the state's most important crops, provide feed for livestock and are used as feedstock for many ethanol and biodiesel plants.19,20,21

Illinois is the nation's fifth-largest energy-consumer, and the state's largest energy-consuming end-use sector is industry, which includes agriculture.22,23 Chemical, machinery, and food and beverage manufacturing are the largest contributors to the state's manufacturing GDP. Other energy-intensive industries in Illinois include petroleum refining, coal mining, and primary metal manufacturing.24 Transportion is the state's second-largest energy-consuming sector. The residential sector consumes slightly less energy than the transportation sector. Despite Illinois's cold winters and its warm, humid, and occasionally hot summers, the state's total energy consumption per capita is near the national average.25,26

Electricity

Illinois generates more electricity from nuclear energy than any other state.

Illinois is the third-largest net electricity supplier to other states, typically sending about one-fifth of the power it generates to other states over interstate transmission lines.27,28 Two regional grid systems serve Illinois: the PJM Interconnection and Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO).29 The PJM Interconnection is a regional transmission organization that manages the movement of wholesale electricity between the northern portion of the state, including the major urban areas around Chicago, and the Mid-Atlantic region.30,31 MISO controls the flow of electricity for the rest of the state and also serves much of the middle of the nation from Louisiana to Canada.32,33

Illinois generates more electricity from nuclear energy than any other state, accounting for one-eighth of the nation's total nuclear power generation.34,35 In 2020, the state's 6 nuclear power plants, with 11 total reactors, produced 58% of the state's electricity net generation.36,37 The nuclear plants all rank among the 10 largest power plants in the state by electricity generation, and 5 of the 6 are among the 10 largest by capacity.38 Because of economic issues in the electricity market, two nuclear power stations, the Clinton and Quad Cities nuclear plants, were scheduled to close in 2017 and 2018, but the Illinois legislature in late 2016 approved financial incentives to keep the stations operating for another decade.39,40,41,42,43

Coal-fired power plants have been the second-largest electricity providers in Illinois for the past decade.44 However, coal's contribution to in-state generation declined significantly from 48% of electricity net generation in 2008 to 18% in 2020, as 44 coal-fired generating units shut down since 2007. Others are being considered for closure in response to stricter emissions regulations and economic pressures.45,46,47 Natural gas-fired generation provided almost 14% of the state's electricity net generation in 2020, a record high and about five times more than in 2010. Wind energy accounts for almost all the rest of the state's net generation.48,49

Most households in the Midwest use air conditioning, but only one in six Illinois households rely on electricity for home heating.50,51 Electricity retail sales in Illinois do not vary greatly among end-use sectors. The commercial and residential sectors each account for 35% of the state's electricity retail sales, and the industrial sector accounts for the remaining 30%.52,53

Coal

Illinois has about 15% of the nation's economically recoverable coal reserves, second only to Montana, and it is the nation's third-largest bituminous coal producer after West Virginia and Pennsylvania.54,55 In 1673, Europeans first discovered coal in North America along the Illinois River, and coal underlies about two-thirds of the state. However, coal was not mined in the state until the 1800s.56,57 In 2019, coal mines in Illinois accounted for about 7% of U.S. total coal production.58

Illinois’s estimated recoverable coal reserves are the second-largest in the nation.

Illinois exported about one-fifth of the coal it produced to other countries in 2019, a decline from one-fourth in 2018.59 Domestically, 13 states received Illinois coal primarily to generate electricity.60 Illinois coal typically has a high sulfur content, and many electric utilities burn that coal in combination with lower sulfur coal from other regions, to be able to meet Clean Air Act emissions regulations.61,62,63 Coal from Illinois is transported to other states mainly by rail and barge.64 Illinois consumes about one-fifth of the coal mined in the state, primarily in the electric power sector, and trucks or conveyors move much of that coal.65,66 Nearly all of the coal that Illinois receives from other states comes from Wyoming by rail and is used for electric power generation.67 Industrial and coking plants account for one-tenth of the state's coal consumption.68

Petroleum

Illinois has the fourth-largest crude oil-refining capacity of any state.

Illinois is a major crude oil-refining state, with the capacity to process 1 million barrels of crude oil into petroleum products per calendar day, the largest capacity in the Midwest and the fourth-largest in the nation after Texas, Louisiana, and California.69 However, the state's crude oil reserves and production are modest.70,71 Almost all of the producing wells in Illinois are located in the southern half of the state, in the Illinois Basin.72 Oil exploration in Illinois began in the 1860s, but commercial production did not occur until 1905. Since the 1860s, tens of thousands of wells have been drilled in the state. Crude oil production in Illinois peaked in 1940, reaching almost 150 million barrels that year. In 2020, the state's oil production decreased to just over 7.1 million barrels, the lowest output level since the 1930s.73,74 Most of the producing oil wells in the state are stripper wells that each produce less than 2 barrels of crude oil per day.75

Several crude oil and petroleum product pipelines cross Illinois and the state is home to the Patoka Terminal crude oil storage hub, which has a storage capacity of more than 19 million barrels.76,77 Illinois has crude oil ports at Chicago on Lake Michigan and at Peoria on the Illinois Waterway, which connects Lake Michigan to the Mississippi River. Chicago's port also handles petroleum product imports.78 The largest refinery in the state is the Wood River refinery, in the southwest near St. Louis, Missouri.79 There is another refinery in southern Illinois and two more in northeastern Illinois. The state's refineries process domestic crude oil, as well as Canadian and other imported crude oils, into motor gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and other petroleum products.80,81

Illinois consumes the sixth-most petroleum of any state. The transportation sector consumes three times as much petroleum as all the state's other end-use sectors combined.82 Almost half the petroleum used in the state is motor gasoline.83 The areas around Chicago in northeastern Illinois and around St. Louis, Missouri, in southwestern Illinois require reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol, which reduces emissions.84 There are 280 refueling stations throughout the state that sell E85, a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. Only Minnesota and Iowa have more E85 refueling stations.85 Illinois is a busy aviation hub and more than one-tenth of petroleum used in the state is jet fuel, making it the fifth-largest consumer of jet fuel among the states.86 In 2019, Illinois, together with California, Texas, Florida, New York, and Georgia accounted for slightly more than half of all U.S. jet fuel consumption.87 One-fifth of the petroleum consumed in Illinois is used in the industrial sector, the state's second-largest petroleum-consuming sector.88 The industrial sector also uses about two-thirds of the hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGLs), including propane, ethane, and ethylene, consumed in Illinois.89 Farmers use propane to dry the state's corn crop after harvest, and Illinois is one of only five states that consume ethane and ethylene as feedstock for making plastics.90,91,92,93 Overall, Illinois is the third-largest HGL-consuming state and HGLs account for about one-tenth of the state's petroleum consumption.94,95 Only a small amount of petroleum is used in the commercial sector and in the residential sector, where fewer than 1 in 20 households use petroleum products, mostly propane, for home heating.96,97

Natural gas

Illinois has more than one-tenth of total U.S. natural gas underground storage capacity.

Illinois has no significant natural gas reserves and few producing natural gas wells.98,99,100 However, the state is a major natural gas crossroads, with many interstate natural gas pipelines and two natural gas market centers.101 Illinois has 28 underground natural gas storage fields with a total storage capacity just over 1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, which is more than one-tenth of U.S. total natural gas underground storage capacity.102

Natural gas supplies enter Illinois primarily from Iowa, Missouri, and Indiana. About three-fifths of the natural gas that enters Illinois continues on to the east and north through Indiana and Wisconsin.103 Illinois is the eighth-largest natural gas-consuming state in the nation.104 The residential sector uses about two-fifths of all natural gas delivered to consumers in the state, the largest share of any sector.105 Almost 8 in 10 Illinois households use natural gas for heating.106 The industrial sector is the second-largest natural gas-consuming sector in Illinois, using almost one-fourth of the natural gas delivered in the state, and the commercial sector accounts for more than one-fifth of gas consumption.107 The electric power sector accounts for about 14% of natural gas consumption. In 2020, the electric power sector generated a record amount of electricity from natural gas, offsetting decreased coal-fired power generation.108

Renewable energy

In 2020, Illinois ranked fifth in the nation in wind capacity with about 6,300 megawatts installed.

Illinois's primary renewable energy product is biofuels. The state is a leading producer of both ethanol and biodiesel, with an annual production capacity of 1.8 billion gallons of ethanol and 168 million gallons of biodiesel.109,110,111 A fertile prairie state, Illinois is a major corn and soybean producer.112 The state's 14 ethanol plants use corn as feedstock, and the state's 5 biodiesel plants use multiple feedstocks, including soy and corn oils.113,114 The state is the third-largest ethanol producer, after Iowa and Nebraska, and is the eighth-largest consumer of ethanol in the nation.115,116 The state is the fourth-largest biodiesel producer in the nation and the third-largest consumer of biodiesel, after Texas and California.117,118,119

In 2020, renewable energy, including generation from small-scale, customer-sited solar generation, generated 11% of the electricity generated in Illinois, almost triple the amount generated in 2010.120 Wind is the primary renewable resource used for electric power generation in the state. In 2020, wind provided 94% of the state's renewable energy generation, and Illinois was fifth in the nation in utility-scale (1 megawatt or greater) wind capacity, with about 6,300 megawatts online.121 The state has more wind power potential, primarily in northwest and central Illinois. About 1,100 megawatts of wind power capacity are either under construction or in advanced development.122,123

Solar energy, biomass, and hydropower generate less than 1% of the state's renewable energy.124 In 2020, small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) use was almost eight times larger than it was in 2017. More than four-fifths of the state's solar generation in 2020 came from customer-sited, small-scale generation, mostly from rooftop solar panels.125,126,127 In 2016, the governor signed the Future Energy Jobs Act into law, which increased the growth of community solar through renewable energy credits (RECs) and other incentives.128,129 Community solar refers to solar facilities that are usually less than five megawatts in size and are shared by a community, which receives a credit for their share of the electricity produced.130 Waste and methane gas from municipal landfills fuel all of the state's biomass electricity generation.131,132 The state has many rivers, such as the Illinois River and Rock River, but its relatively level terrain limits hydroelectric potential.133

Illinois has a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) that requires all investor-owned electric utilities and alternative retail electricity suppliers to obtain increasing proportions of their retail sales from renewably-sourced generation. The RPS does not apply to municipal utilities or electric cooperatives. The RPS requires that 25% of electricity retail sales come from renewable sources by 2025, with specified percentages for wind, solar PV, and customer-sited generation.134 In 2007, Illinois also created an energy efficiency portfolio standard, requiring investor-owned electric and natural gas utilities and retail energy suppliers to achieve long-term reductions in electricity use through efficiency measures.135,136

Endnotes

1 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2019, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019 (NST-EST2019-alldata).
2 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars (SAGDP2), All Areas, All Industry Total, 2020.
3 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Illinois Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
4 U.S. Census Bureau, QuickFacts, Chicago City, Illinois, accessed April 14, 2021.
5 City of Chicago, Facts & Statistics, accessed April 14, 2021.
6 Federal Aviation Administration, Commercial Service Airports (Rank Order) based on Calendar Year 2019 (Final), September 25, 2020.
7 Association of American Railroads, State Rankings 2019, accessed April 14, 2021.
8 Illinois Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Report Card for Illinois Infrastructure 2018, p.28-9, 47.
9 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Illinois Profile Overview, Pipelines and Transmission Map Layer, accessed April 14, 2021.
10 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (January 2021), Table 1.3.B. State by Sector, Year-to-Date.
11 U.S. EIA, Nuclear and Uranium, Nuclear Reactor, State, and Net Capacity (December 2019).
12 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Materials, Fuel Cycle Facilities, Uranium Conversion, updated December 2, 2020.
13 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, "NRC Approves License for Honeywell Uranium Conversion Facility," No: 20-018 (March 25, 2020).
14 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 5, 2020), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines by State, 2019 and 2018.
15 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2019.
16 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (January 2021), Table 6.2.B. Net Summer Capacity Using Primarily Renewable Energy Sources by State.
17 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Quick Stats, 2020 State Agriculture Overview Illinois, April 16, 2021.
18 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Data Products, Farm Income and Wealth Statistics, Cash receipts by commodity State ranking, 2019, Nominal (current dollar), all commodities.
19 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Quick Stats, 2020 State Agriculture Overview Illinois, April 16, 2021.
20 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated December 15, 2020.
21 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, With data for December 2020 (February 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
23 U.S. EIA, "Illinois is a top energy consumer and producer in the Midwest," Today in Energy, (August 3, 2020).
24 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars (SAGDP2), Illinois, All Statistics in Table, 2020.
25 Angel, Jim, "Climate of Illinois Narrative," Illinois State Water Survey, State Climatologist Office for Illinois, accessed April 23, 2021.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates Per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
27 U.S. EIA, "California imports the most electricity from other states; Pennsylvania exports the most," Today in Energy (April 4, 2019).
28 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
29 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Electric Power Markets: National Overview, updated October 23, 2020.
30 PJM Interconnection, About PJM, Who We Are, PJM History, accessed April 26, 2021.
31 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Industries Data, Electric, Electric Power Markets, RTO/ISO, PJM, updated April 15, 2021.
32 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Industries Data, Electric, Electric Power Market, RTO/ISO, MISO, updated April 16, 2021.
33 Midcontinent Independent System Operator, About MISO, accessed April 26, 2021.
34 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (March 2021), Table 1.9.B.
35 U.S. EIA, "Twelve U.S. states generate more than 30% of their electricity from nuclear power," Today in Energy (March 26, 2020).
36 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Illinois, Operating Nuclear Power Reactors, updated July 15, 2020.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Illinois, Annual, 2001-20.
38 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2019, Illinois, and Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2019, Illinois.
39 Shea, Daniel and Kristy Hartman, State Options to Keep Nuclear in the Energy Mix, National Conference of State Legislatures (January 2017), p.2, 3, 15-17.
40 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Facility Locator, Decommissioning Sites by Location or Name, Locations of Power Reactors Sites Undergoing Decommissioning, updated March 24, 2021.
41 Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Exelon Illinois Nuclear Fleet Audit - Findings and Recommendations, April 14, 2021, p. iv. A-1—A-3.
42 Illinois Power Agency, Zero Emissions Standard Procurement Plan, (October 31, 2017).
43 U.S. EIA, "Five states have implemented programs to assist nuclear power plants," Today in Energy (October 7, 2019).
44 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2019, Table 5. Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2019.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Retired & Canceled Units Only).
46 Daniels, Steve, "Another downstate coal plant to close", Chicago Business (September 16, 2019).
47 Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Flue Gas Desulfurization Task Force Report, Analysis of the Illinois Coal Industry and Electrical Generation in Illinois (December 2018).
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Illinois, Annual, 2001-20.
49 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
50 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2015 RECS Survey Data, Table HC7.7., revised May 2018.
51 U.S. Census Bureau, Explore Census Data, Illinois, B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2013-2019 American Community Survey.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), Illinois, Annual, 2001-20.
53 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.4.B.
54 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 5, 2020), Table 15. Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
55 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 5, 2020), Table 6. Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
56 Illinois Mine Subsidence Insurance Fund, History of Mining in Illinois, accessed May 14, 2021.
57 University of Illinois, "Coal Geology of Illinois," 2010 Keystone Coal Industry Manual, p. 456.
58 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 5, 2020), Table 6. Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
59 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 5, 2020), Domestic and foreign U.S. coal distribution by origin State.
60 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 5, 2020), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Illinois, Table OS-5. Domestic Coal Distribution by Origin State, 2019.
61 The Engineering ToolBox, Classification of Coal, Typical Sulfur Content in Coal, accessed May 14, 2021.
62 University of Illinois, Illinois State Geological Survey, Coal: Illinois' Black Treasure, accessed May 14, 2021.
63 U.S. EIA, Coal Explained, Coal and the environment, updated December 1, 2020.
64 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 5, 2020), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Illinois, 2019.
65 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 5, 2020), Domestic and foreign U.S. coal distribution by origin State, Illinois, 2019.
66 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 5, 2020), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Illinois, 2019.
67 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 5, 2020), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Illinois, 2019.
68 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 5, 2020), Table 26. U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2019 and 2018.
69 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, Annual as of January 1, 2020.
70 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2015-20.
71 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2014-19.
72 Illinois State Geological Survey, Oil Fields in Illinois, accessed May 17, 2021.
73 Illinois State Geological Survey, History of Oil and Gas Production in Illinois, accessed May 17, 2021.
74 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, Illinois, 2020.
75 Illinois Department of Natural Resources, About Oil and Gas in Illinois, accessed May 17, 2021.
76 Pipeline 101, Where Are Liquids Pipelines Located?, accessed May 17, 2021.
77 Dakota Access Pipeline, Illinois Energy, accessed May 17, 2021.
78 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, February 2021.
79 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (January 1, 2020), Table 3. Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State and Individual Refinery as of January 1, 2020, p. 10.
80 Phillips 66, Wood River Refinery, accessed May 17, 2021.
81 ExxonMobil, United States, Joliet operations, About Us, accessed May 17, 2021.
82 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15. Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
83 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2018, DOE/EIA-0214(2018) (June 2020), Table C2. Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2018.
84 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
85 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State, updated May 17, 2021.
86 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F1. Jet fuel consumption, price, and expenditure estimates, 2019.
87 U.S. EIA, "Six states accounted for more than half of U.S. jet fuel consumption in 2019," Today in Energy, (January 27, 2021).
88 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15. Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
89 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F11. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Consumption Estimates, 2019.
90 U.S. EIA, "Propane Use for Crop Drying Depends on Weather and Corn Markets as well as Crop Size," Today in Energy (October 2, 2014).
91 U.S. EIA, Hydrocarbon gas liquids explained, Uses of hydrocarbon gas liquids, (September 25, 2020).
92 U.S. EIA, "U.S. hydrocarbon gas liquids consumption increases as prices, expenditures decrease," Today in Energy (June 25, 2018).
93 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Storage and Distribution Hub in the United States, Report to Congress (November 2018).
94 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2018, DOE/EIA-0214(2018) (June 2020), Table C2. Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2018.
95 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F11: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Consumption Estimates, 2019.
96 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16. Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
97 U.S. Census Bureau, Home Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Illinois.
98 U.S. EIA, Number of Producing Gas Wells, 2012-19.
99 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2014-20.
100 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2019, Illinois.
101 U.S. EIA, Illinois Profile Overview, Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Natural Gas Market Hub and Natural Gas Interstate/Intrastate Pipeline, accessed April 30, 2021.
102 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields and Total Storage Capacity, Annual 2014-19.
103 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Illinois, Annual, 2015-19.
104 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2015-19.
105 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Illinois, Annual, 2015-19.
106 U.S. Census Bureau, Home Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Illinois.
107 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Illinois, Annual, 2015-20.
108 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Illinois, Annual, 2001-20.
109 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated December 15, 2020.
110 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 25, 2020), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD District) are available in XLS.
111 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, With data for December 2020 (February 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
112 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2020 State Agricultural Overview, Illinois, accessed April 29, 2021.
113 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated December 15, 2020.
114 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, With data for December 2020 (February 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, January 2020.
115 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2018.
116 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
117 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, With data for December 2020 (February 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
118 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
119 U.S. EIA, "EIA now estimates biodiesel production and consumption by state," Today in Energy, (July 24, 2020).
120 U.S. EIA, Electricity Energy Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Illinois, Annual, 2001-20.
121 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B, 6.2.B.
122 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), updated 28 April, 2021.
123 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Illinois, accessed April 28, 2021.
124 U.S. EIA, Electricity Energy Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Illinois, Annual, 2001-20.
125 U.S. EIA, Illinois Electricity Profile 2019, Table 5. Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2019.
126 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.17.B.
127 U.S. EIA, Electricity Energy Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Illinois, Annual, 2001-20.
128 Illinois General Assembly, Bill Status for SB2814, accessed April 29, 2021.
129 Citizens Utility Board, What is the Future Energy Jobs Act? An in-depth look into Illinois' new energy legislation, accessed April 29, 2021.
130 Solar Energy Industries Association, Community Solar, accessed June 8, 2021.
131 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
132 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
133 National Hydropower Association, Illinois, accessed June 8, 2021.
134 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Renewable Portfolio Standard, Illinois, updated June 28, 2018.
135 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Energy Efficiency Resource Standards, Illinois, updated February 11, 2016.
136 Illinois Commerce Commission, Renewable Portfolio Standards Requirement, accessed April 29, 2021.