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Maryland   Maryland Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: October 15, 2020

Overview

Maryland wraps around the Chesapeake Bay and extends west into the Appalachian region, where the state's only fossil fuel reserves—coal and natural gas—are found.1 Baltimore, the state's largest city and one of the 20 largest ports in the nation, moves both coal and petroleum products.2,3 Maryland's renewable energy resources—hydropower, solar, wind, and biomass—are distributed widely across the state.4 Maryland is the seventh most densely populated state in the nation with about 600 people per square mile, but the residents are not evenly distributed. The state's population is concentrated in the center of the state in an area that stretches from the northeastern Baltimore suburbs southwest to the suburbs of Washington, DC.5,6 Maryland's western mountains and low-lying southern and eastern plains are largely rural and lightly populated.7

East of the Chesapeake Bay, in an area known as Maryland's Eastern Shore, the land is flat with many wetlands, and the nearby Atlantic Ocean adds humidity and moderates the weather year-round. On the western side of the Bay, the land rises from the coastal plain through rolling foothills to the mountain ranges of the Appalachians.8 Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year and across the state, but, as the land rises heading west, temperatures and annual snowfall levels during the winter vary widely.9 The state's coastal areas average less than 4 inches of snow, while parts of the western mountains average more than 100 inches.10

Maryland consumes more than five times as much energy as it produces.

Maryland consumes more than five times as much energy as it produces.11 The transportation, residential, and commercial sectors each consume about three-tenths of the energy used in the state, and the industrial sector consumes nearly one-tenth.12 Maryland ranks among the 10 lowest states in per capita energy consumption.13 Maryland's economy is among the 10 least energy-intensive of the 50 states.14 Major contributors to the state's gross domestic product (GDP) include finance, insurance, and real estate; professional and business services; government; manufacturing; and education and healthcare.15

Petroleum

Maryland has no economically recoverable crude oil reserves or production, and there are no petroleum refineries in the state.16,17,18 Petroleum products arrive in Maryland by pipeline from other states and by ship from abroad. The Colonial Pipeline runs through Maryland on its way from the Gulf Coast to the New York City metropolitan area and delivers refined products, including motor gasoline, kerosene, home heating oil, and diesel fuel.19 Baltimore's deep-water port receives tankers carrying petroleum products.20,21,22,23

Maryland's per capita petroleum consumption is the second lowest among the states.24 Almost 9 out of every 10 barrels of petroleum used in Maryland are consumed by the transportation sector.25 Reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol to reduce smog-forming pollutants is required across the densely populated Baltimore-Washington corridor in the center of the state. Counties in the mountain west and much of the rural Eastern Shore are not required by the state to use reformulated motor gasoline, although two counties on Maryland's Eastern Shore have opted to require the fuel.26,27 The industrial and residential sectors each account for about 5% of the state's petroleum consumption, and the commercial sector uses about 4%.28 About 1 in 9 Maryland households use fuel oil, propane, and kerosene for heating.29

Natural gas

Maryland has few economically recoverable natural gas reserves, and the state produces very little natural gas.30,31 Most of the natural gas wells in the state are storage wells, and the few low-production wells in far western Maryland collectively produce less than 30 million cubic feet of natural gas annually.32,33 The state's two westernmost counties—Garrett and Allegany—overlie part of the natural gas-rich Marcellus Shale and have some recoverable natural gas reserves.34 However, in 2017, Maryland became the third state, after New York and Vermont, to enact a permanent ban on the use of hydraulic fracturing in natural gas and crude oil production.35

Maryland's natural gas needs are met by supplies that enter the state by way of several interstate pipelines and a liquefied natural gas (LNG) port. Major pipelines transport natural gas to the state from the nation's Gulf Coast and Southwest. Increasing amounts of natural gas enter the state from the north as Pennsylvania's shale gas production continues to grow. Maryland's Eastern Shore receives natural gas from Pennsylvania by pipeline through Delaware.36,37 Almost three-tenths of the natural gas that enters Maryland is consumed in the state. The rest continues on to Virginia, the District of Columbia, or is liquefied for export to other countries.38

Maryland’s Cove Point became the second operating U.S. liquefied natural gas export terminal when it came online in early 2018.

A small amount of natural gas enters the state at the LNG import terminal at Cove Point, Maryland, on the Chesapeake Bay's western shore. Cove Point is one of a dozen existing LNG import facilities in the United States.39,40 The terminal is connected by pipeline to several major interstate natural gas pipeline systems.41 Maryland's LNG imports from other countries have decreased substantially in the past decade in response to increased U.S. natural gas production and lower domestic natural gas prices compared to international prices.42,43,44 With U.S. natural gas production rising, in early 2018 the second U.S. natural gas liquefaction plant and LNG export terminal began operating at Cove Point. As of mid-2020, it was one of six operating LNG liquefaction and export terminals in the country.45,46 However, U.S. LNG exports fell through mid-2020 as a result of the global economic slowdown amid the spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and related containment efforts.47,48

Maryland ranks among the 10 states with the lowest per capita natural gas use.49 The electric power sector became Maryland's top natural gas-consuming sector for the first time in 2018, accounting for more than one-third of the state's natural gas use. The electric power sector continued to consume the most natural gas in 2019, as the state's natural gas-fired net generation has more than tripled since 2015.50,51 The residential sector made up about three-tenths of Maryland's natural gas consumption in 2019, followed by the commercial sector at more than one-fourth, and the industrial sector and transportation sector accounted for the remaining amount.52 More than 4 out of 10 Maryland households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating.53

Coal

Maryland holds about 0.1% of the nation's estimated recoverable coal reserves and accounts for about 0.2% of U.S. coal production.54,55 The state has 11 surface and 1 underground coal mines, all of them located in the Appalachian Basin in the state's western counties.56,57 Four-fifths of Maryland's domestically consumed coal is used at electric power plants, both in the state and in West Virginia, and the rest of Maryland's coal is sent to industrial plants and coke plants.58 About 13% of Maryland's mined coal is exported to other countries.59

Overall, coal mined in Maryland provides about one-fifth of the domestic coal that is consumed by the state's coal-fired power plants. Nearly three-fourths of the U.S. coal used at Maryland power plants arrives by rail and river from Pennsylvania. Most of the rest of the coal consumed comes by rail from West Virginia, and a small amount arrives by rail from as far away as Colorado.60

Baltimore is the second-largest U.S. coal exporting port.

Coal is the leading export commodity by tonnage at the Port of Baltimore, the nation's second-largest coal exporting port after Norfolk, Virginia. In 2019, slightly more than one-fifth of the nation's coal exports left through Baltimore.61,62 Metallurgical coal, which is used in steelmaking, accounted for slightly more than half of Baltimore's coal exports, and steam coal that is burned for generating electricity made up the remainder.63 The Port of Baltimore also receives a small amount of imported coal.64

Electricity

Maryland consumes almost 50% more electricity than it generates. Almost one-third of the power used in the state is delivered from the PJM Interconnection, which operates the Mid-Atlantic regional electricity transmission grid.65,66

Nuclear and natural gas-fired power plants supplied about 75% of Maryland’s electricity net generation in 2019.

Nuclear and natural gas-fired power plants supplied about 75% of Maryland's electricity net generation, with each providing almost equal amounts of electricity in 2019. Maryland's only nuclear power plant—the two-reactor Calvert Cliffs power plant located on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay—accounted for 38% of the state's net generation.67,68 Natural gas-fired generation has more than doubled since 2017 and accounted for 37% of the state's net generation in 2019.69

Coal-fired generating plants historically supplied more than half the state's net generation, but coal's share has been below 50% since 2012 and fell to 14% in 2019 as natural gas-fired generation increased.70 As of mid-2020, all but two of the 11 generating units at Maryland's six remaining coal-fired power plants were more than 35 years old. Five of those older units are scheduled to shut down in late 2020 and in mid-2021.71 Hydropower and other renewable energy sources accounted for most of the state's remaining net generation.72 Since 2015, almost all the state's new generating capacity has been natural gas-fired or solar-powered.73

Maryland uses less electricity per capita than about three-fourths of the states.74 The commercial sector accounted for about 48% of Maryland's electricity consumption in 2018, followed closely by the residential sector at 45%. The industrial sector accounted for most of the state's remaining electricity use.75 About 4 in 10 Maryland households use electricity as their primary heating source.76

Renewable energy

Renewable energy, including small-scale generating installations (less than 1 megawatt) and larger utility-scale generating facilities, provided about 11% of Maryland's in-state net generation in 2019. Hydropower accounted for almost half of the state's renewable electricity generation.77 The Conowingo hydroelectric generating station, located in northern Maryland on the Susquehanna River, was the largest power plant ever built when it began operating in 1928. The 11 turbines at the station have a combined generating capacity of 572 megawatts.78 Conowingo provides almost all of Maryland's hydroelectricity and it is one of the five largest power plants in Maryland based on actual annual generation.79

Solar energy provided almost one-third of the state's renewable electricity generation and has increased significantly in recent years, doubling from 2016 to 2019. Two-thirds of the state's solar generation came from small-scale solar photovoltaics (PV), such as rooftop solar panels, and the rest of the generation was at larger utility-scale solar farms.80 By mid-2020, Maryland had 1,122 megawatts of total solar generating capacity installed.81 The state's largest solar project—located on the Eastern Shore—came online in 2018 with a generating capacity of 75 megawatts.82 Several large solar panel arrays also have been installed at commercial buildings in the state.83

Wind energy provided about 12% of Maryland's renewable electricity generation in 2019.84 The state's best onshore wind potential is in its western mountains and along its southern Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean shorelines.85 The state's only operating utility-scale wind farms are along Maryland's western Appalachian Mountain crests, where almost 200 megawatts of generating capacity is installed.86,87 Maryland's greatest wind energy potential is offshore.88 Two major wind projects are planned off Maryland's Atlantic coastline. One wind project, located about 17 miles offshore, will consist of 32 turbines that can generate up to 270 megawatts of electricity and is scheduled to come online in early 2023.89 A second wind project, expected to come online in late 2023, will be located about 20 miles offshore and have 12 turbines with a generating capacity of 144 megawatts.90,91,92

Biomass was used to generate almost one-tenth of Maryland's renewable electricity in 2019 at facilities that use landfill gas, municipal solid waste, and wood and wood waste.93 There are many small landfill gas-to-energy facilities in cities around the state. Maryland's largest biomass electricity-generating plants—accounting for 80% of the state's total biomass generating capacity—are found at two facilities that use municipal solid waste: a 57-megawatt facility in Baltimore and a 54-megawatt facility in Montgomery County in the suburbs of Washington, DC.94 The Baltimore facility also generates steam for a downtown piping system that supplies steam heat to more than 250 businesses.95

In 2019, Maryland increased its renewable portfolio standard to require that 50% of the state’s electricity retail sales come from renewables by 2030.

Maryland's legislature enacted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2004 and has amended it several times since then.96 The latest update came in May 2019, when the Maryland legislature required that 50% of the state's electricity retail sales come from renewable sources by 2030. Electricity suppliers already had to obtain 20% of the power they sold from renewable sources as of 2020.97,98 As part of the updated RPS, 14.5% of a supplier's electricity retail sales must come from solar power by 2030. The RPS also requires that the state's offshore wind generating capacity reach 400 megawatts in 2026 and increase to at least 1,200 megawatts in 2030.99,100

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Maryland Profile Overview, Layers/Legend, Oil and Gas Wells and All Coal Mines Map Layers, accessed September 14, 2020.
2 U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-57, Tonnage of Top 50 U.S. Water Ports, Ranked by Total Tons, accessed September 14, 2020.
3 Maryland.gov, Maryland at a Glance, Waterways, Port of Baltimore, Terminals, Cargo, accessed September 14, 2020.
4 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science Data and Tools, Maps, Biomass, Geothermal, Marine & Hydrokinetic, Solar, Wind, accessed September 14, 2020.
5 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Maryland Profile, Population Density by Census Tract, accessed September 14, 2020.
6 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Population Density Data (Text Version), Population Density, accessed September 14, 2020.
7 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Maryland, Three rural definitions based on Census Places, accessed September 14, 2020.
8 World Atlas, Maryland, Maryland Geography, accessed September 14, 2020.
9 University of Washington, Maryland Observed Climate Normals (1981-2010), accessed September 14, 2020. wrong font color
10 Current Results, Average Annual Snowfall in Maryland, accessed September 14, 2020.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Maryland, All statistics in table, 2019.
16 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2013-18.
17 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per day, 2014-19.
18 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, 2015-20.
19 Colonial Pipeline, System Map and Frequently Asked Questions, Who is Colonial Pipeline?, accessed September 14, 2020.
20 Maryland Department of Transportation Port Administration, Port of Baltimore, 2019 Foreign Commerce Statistical Report, Top Commodities - Tons, p. 8, 2019 Bulk Cargo Summary - Tons, p. 10.
21 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, June 2019 to June 2020, accessed September 14, 2020.
22 BWC Terminals, Baltimore, MD, accessed September 17, 2020.
23 WorldCity, Inc., U.S. Trade Numbers, Port of Baltimore, MD, accessed September 17, 2020.
24 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
26 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed September 14, 2020.
27 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, updated January 2018.
28 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
29 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Maryland.
30 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet NG, 2013-18.
31 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2014-19.
32 Maryland Department of the Environment, Natural Gas Wells in Maryland, accessed September 14, 2020.
33 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2014-19.
34 U.S. EIA, Structure map of the Marcellus Formation, accessed September 14, 2020.
35 Hurdle, Jon, "With governor's signature, Maryland becomes third state to ban fracking," StateImpact Pennsylvania (April 4, 2017).
36 U.S. EIA, Maryland Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, Natural Gas Inter/Intrastate Pipeline, accessed September 14, 2020.
37 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Maryland, Annual, 2013-18.
38 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Maryland, Annual, 2013-18.
39 Dominion Energy, Cove Point Terminal, Receiving and Storing Gas, accessed September 17, 2020.
40 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Import Terminals Existing (March 19, 2020).
41 Dominion Energy, Cove Point Terminal, Terminal Operation, accessed September 17, 2020.
42 U.S. EIA, Maryland Natural Gas International Receipts, 1967-2018.
43 U.S. EIA, "U.S. natural gas production grew again in 2019, increasing by 10%," Today in Energy (March 10, 2020).
44 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Prices, U.S., Annual, 2015-19.
45 Dominion Energy, "First LNG Commissioning Cargo Departs From Dominion Energy Cove Point Terminal," Press Release (March 2, 2018).
46 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Export Terminals Existing (May 29, 2020).
47 U.S. EIA, "U.S. liquefied natural gas exports have declined by more than half so far in 2020," Today in Energy (June 23, 2020).
48 U.S. EIA, "U.S. natural gas exports have been declining since April," Today in Energy (September 15, 2020).
49 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
50 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use (million cubic feet), 2014-19.
51 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-19.
52 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use (million cubic feet), 2014-19.
53 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Maryland.
54 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018.
55 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
56 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018.
57 U.S. EIA, Maryland Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend, All Coal Mines, accessed September 15, 2020.
58 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Domestic Distribution of U.S. coal by origin state, Maryland Table OS-11, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2019.
59 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, 2019.
60 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 5, 2020), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination states, Maryland Table DS-18, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
61 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report October-December 2019 (April 2020), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District.
62 Maryland.gov, Maryland at a Glance, Waterways, Port of Baltimore, Terminals, Cargo, accessed September 15, 2020.
63 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report October-December 2019 (April 2020), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District; Table 14, Steam Coal Exports by Customs District; Table 15, Metallurgical Coal Exports by Customs District. semicolons
64 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report October-December 2019 (April 2020), Table 20, Coal imports by Customs District.
65 U.S. EIA, Maryland Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018.
66 PJM, About PJM, Territory Served, accessed September 15, 2020.
67 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-19.
68 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Maryland, accessed September 15, 2020.
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-19.
70 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-19.
71 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2020, Maryland, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
72 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-19.
73 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2020, Maryland.
74 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
75 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F20, Electricity Consumption Estimates, 2018.
76 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Maryland.
77 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-19.
78 Exelon, Locations, Conowingo Hydroelectric Generating Station, accessed September 16, 2020.
79 U.S. EIA, Maryland Electricity Profile 2018, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2018 and Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2018.
80 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-19.
81 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (June 2020), Table 6.2.B.
82 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860 M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2020, Maryland, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
83 Solar Energy Industries Association, Maryland Solar, accessed September 16, 2020.
84 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-19.
85 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Maryland, Maps & Data, accessed September 16, 2020.
86 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860 M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2020, Maryland, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
87 U.S. EIA, Maryland Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Wind Power, accessed September 16, 2020.
88 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Maryland, Maps & Data, Maryland Offshore 90-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential, accessed September 16, 2020.
89 US Wind, Maryland Offshore Wind Project, accessed September 16, 2020.
90 Orsted, Skipjack Wind Farm, accessed September 17, 2020.
91 Prensky, Matthew, "Larger offshore wind turbines approved off Ocean City. Here's what you need to know." Delmarva.now (August 21, 2020).
92 Prensky, Matthew, "Delmarva wind farms delayed to 2023-24, developers blame U.S. government for setback," Delmarva.now (April 30, 2020).
93 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-19.
94 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860 M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2020, Maryland, Technology: Landfill Gas, Municipal Solid Waste, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
95 Wheelabrator Technologies, Locations, Wheelabrator Baltimore, accessed September 16, 2020.
96 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Maryland, Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard, updated July 9, 2018.
97 Dance, Scott, "Maryland bill mandating 50% renewable energy by 2030 to become law, but without Gov. Larry Hogan's signature," The Baltimore Sun (May 22, 2019).
98 Maryland Public Service Commission, Maryland Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), accessed September 17, 2020.
99 Maryland General Assembly, Clean Energy Jobs Act of 2019, accessed September 17, 2020.
100 Maryland Public Service Commission, Offshore Wind Fact Sheet, accessed September 17, 2020.