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Maryland   Maryland Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: November 17, 2022

Overview

Maryland wraps around the Chesapeake Bay and extends west into the Appalachian region, where the state's only fossil fuel reserves—coal and natural gas—are found.1 Baltimore, the state's largest city and one of the 20 largest ports in the nation, handles both coal and petroleum products.2,3 Maryland's renewable energy resources—hydropower, solar, wind, and biomass—are distributed widely across the state.4 Maryland is the seventh most densely populated state in the nation with 636 people per square mile. The state's population is concentrated in the center of the state in an area that stretches from the northeastern Baltimore suburbs southwest to the suburbs of Washington, DC.5,6 Maryland's western mountains and low-lying southern and eastern plains are largely rural and lightly populated.7 East of the Chesapeake Bay, in an area known as the Eastern Shore, the land is flat with many wetlands, and the nearby Atlantic Ocean adds humidity and moderates the weather year-round. On the western side of the Bay, the land rises from the coastal plain through rolling foothills to the mountain ranges of the Appalachians.8 Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year and across the state, but, as the land rises to the west, temperatures vary widely and annual snowfall levels increase during the winter.9 The state's coastal areas average less than 4 inches of snow annually, while parts of the western mountains average more than 100 inches.10

Maryland consumes about five times more energy than it produces.

Maryland consumes about five times more energy than it produces.11 In 2020, the transportation sector accounted for 32% of the state's energy consumption, followed closely by the residential sector at 31% and the commercial sector at 30%. The industrial sector consumed 7% of the energy used in Maryland and the sector consumed the least amount of energy per capita among the states. Maryland ranks among the 10 states with both the lowest total per capita energy consumption and the lowest energy use to produce one dollar of GDP.12,13,14 Major contributors to the state's GDP include: government; finance, insurance, and real estate; professional and business services; education and healthcare; and manufacturing.15

Petroleum

Maryland has no economically recoverable crude oil reserves or production, and there are no petroleum refineries in the state.16,17,18 Some petroleum products arrive in Maryland by pipeline from other states and by ship from abroad. The Colonial Pipeline runs through Maryland on its way from the Gulf Coast to the New York City metropolitan area and delivers refined products, including gasoline, diesel fuel, home heating oil, and jet fuel.19 Baltimore's deep-water port receives tankers carrying petroleum products from other countries.20,21,22

Maryland's total per capita petroleum consumption is the fourth lowest among the states, after New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts.23 About 8 out of every 10 barrels of petroleum used in Maryland are consumed by the transportation sector.24 The state requires the use of reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol to reduce smog-forming pollutants across the densely populated Baltimore-Washington corridor in the center of the state. Counties in the mountain west and much of the rural Eastern Shore are not required to use reformulated motor gasoline, although two counties on Maryland's Eastern Shore have opted to require the fuel.25,26 The industrial sector accounts for about 6% of the state's petroleum consumption, and the commercial and residential sectors each use about 5%. A small amount of petroleum is used to generate electricity.27 About 1 in 9 Maryland households use heating oil, propane, or kerosene for heating.28

Natural gas

Maryland has few economically recoverable natural gas reserves, and the state produces very little natural gas.29,30 There are a few low-production wells in far western Maryland that collectively produce about 5 million cubic feet of natural gas annually.31,32 The state's two westernmost counties—Garrett and Allegany—overlie part of the natural gas-rich Marcellus Shale and have some recoverable natural gas reserves.33 However, in 2017, Maryland became the third state, after New York and Vermont, to enact a permanent ban on the use of hydraulic fracturing in natural gas and crude oil production.34

Maryland's natural gas needs are met by supplies that enter the state by way of several interstate pipelines and a liquefied natural gas (LNG) port. Major pipelines transport natural gas to the state from the nation's Gulf Coast and Southwest via Virginia. Increasing amounts of natural gas enter the state from the north as Pennsylvania's shale gas production continues to grow. Maryland's Eastern Shore receives natural gas from Pennsylvania by pipeline through Delaware.35,36 Almost one-fifth of the natural gas that enters Maryland is consumed in the state. The rest continues on to Virginia, the District of Columbia, or is liquefied for export to other countries.37

Maryland’s Cove Point became the second operating U.S. liquefied natural gas export terminal when it came online in early 2018.

A small amount of natural gas enters the state at the LNG import terminal at Cove Point, Maryland, on the Chesapeake Bay's western shore. Cove Point is one of a dozen operating LNG import facilities in the United States.38,39 The terminal is connected by pipeline to several major interstate natural gas pipeline systems.40 Maryland's LNG imports from other countries decreased substantially during the past decade in response to increased U.S. natural gas production.41,42,43 With U.S. natural gas production rising, in early 2018 Cove Point became the second LNG export terminal operating in the United States. As of mid-2022, it was one of seven in the country.44,45 U.S. LNG exports fell through mid-2020 as a result of the global economic slowdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. LNG exports rebounded in 2021 to record levels and that trend continued through the first half of 2022.46,47,48

Maryland ranks among the 10 states with the lowest per capita natural gas use.49 The electric power sector became Maryland's top natural gas-consuming sector for the first time in 2018, and in 2021 the sector consumed a record amount of natural gas and accounted for about 38% of the state's natural gas use. Natural gas-fired electricity generation in the state has almost tripled since 2016.50,51 The residential sector made up 29% of Maryland's natural gas consumption in 2021, followed by the commercial sector at 26% and the industrial sector at about 7%. A minor amount of natural gas is used in the state's transportation sector.52 About 4 out of 10 Maryland households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating.53

Coal

Maryland holds about 0.1% of the nation's estimated recoverable coal reserves and accounts for about 0.2% of U.S. coal production.54,55 The state has 9 surface and 1 underground coal mines, all of them located in the Appalachian Basin in the state's western counties.56,57 Slightly less three-fifths of Maryland's coal stays within the state and most of it is consumed at power plants. Almost all the rest is sent to West Virginia, with most of that coal also used at electric power plants. A minor amount of Maryland coal is sent to Pennsylvania, where it is used in steelmaking, and a small amount of coal is exported to other countries.58,59

Overall, coal-fired power plants use about four-fifths of the coal consumed in Maryland, and industrial plants use the rest. Pennsylvania provides about 70% of the coal consumed in Maryland, and almost all the rest comes from Maryland's coal mines. Most of Pennsylvania's coal arrives in Maryland by rail and barge, and Maryland coal is delivered within the state by truck. There are also minor coal shipments from West Virginia, Virginia, and Ohio that arrive by truck.60

Baltimore is the second-largest U.S. coal exporting port.

Coal is the leading export commodity by tonnage at the Port of Baltimore, the nation's second-largest coal export center after Norfolk, Virginia. In 2021, almost one-fourth of the nation's coal exports left through Baltimore. Coal exports from Baltimore increased 22% compared with 2020 as total U.S. coal exports increased, partially because of relatively high seaborne coal prices.61,62,63 Steam coal, which is burned to generate electricity, accounted for two-thirds of Baltimore's coal exports, and metallurgical coal, which is used in steelmaking, made up the rest.64 The Port of Baltimore typically receives a small amount of imported coal each year, but it handled no coal imports in 2021.65

Electricity

Nuclear energy and natural gas supplied 73% of Maryland’s total electricity net generation in 2021.

In 2021, nuclear energy and natural gas generated 73% of Maryland's total in-state electricity, with each supplying almost equal amounts of the power supply. Maryland's only nuclear power plant—the two-reactor Calvert Cliffs power plant located on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay—accounted for almost 37% of the state's total net generation.66,67 Natural gas-fired generation more than tripled since 2015 with about 2,600 megawatts of new natural gas-fired generating capacity coming online. Natural gas accounted for about 36% of in-state electricity generation in 2021.68,69

Coal-fired generating plants historically supplied more than half the state's net generation, but coal's share has been below 50% since 2012 and was at 14% in 2021.70 As of mid-2022, there were four generating units at Maryland's two remaining coal-fired power plants with a combined generating capacity of nearly 1,800 megawatts. A 1,205-megawatt coal-fired power plant and 670-megawatt coal-fired plant, both located in southern Maryland, were retired in June 2022 and June 2021, respectively.71 Hydropower, solar energy, wind, and biomass accounted for most of the state's remaining net generation in 2021.72 Since 2015, almost all of the state's new generating capacity has been natural gas-fired or solar-powered.73

Maryland uses less electricity per capita than four-fifths of the states, but the state does not generate enough power to meet in-state demand.74 Maryland uses about 60% more electricity than it generates. About two-fifths of the power used in the state is delivered from the PJM Interconnection, which operates the Mid-Atlantic regional electricity transmission grid in all or parts of 13 states and the District of Columbia.75,76 The residential sector accounted for about 47% of Maryland's electricity use in 2021, followed closely by the commercial sector at 46%. About 4 in 10 Maryland households use electricity as their primary heating source.77,78 The industrial sector accounted for 6% of the state's electricity consumption, and the transportation sector made up 1%.79 Maryland had about 57,400 registered electric vehicles and about 1,200 electric charging stations by November 2022.80 The state provides financial incentives for consumers to purchase electric vehicles and for the installation of charging stations.81

Renewable energy

Renewable energy, including both small-scale generating installations (less than 1 megawatt) and utility-scale generating facilities (1 megawatt or larger), provided about 12% of Maryland's total in-state electricity in 2021. Hydropower accounted for the largest share, slightly more than two-fifths, of the state's renewable electricity generation.82 The Conowingo hydroelectric generating station, located in northern Maryland on the Susquehanna River, was the second-largest hydroelectric power plant ever built, after the Niagara Falls generating station, when it began operating nearly a century ago. The 11 turbines at the station have a combined generating capacity of 572 megawatts.83,84 Conowingo provides almost all of Maryland's generation from hydroelectricity and it is one of the state's top 10 power plants based on both generating capacity and actual annual generation.85

Solar energy provided almost two-fifths of the state's renewable electricity generation in 2021, and solar's share has increased significantly in recent years, almost quadrupling from 2015 to 2021. About 60% of the state's solar generation came from small-scale, customer-sited solar photovoltaics (PV), such as rooftop solar panels, and the rest of the generation was at larger utility-scale solar farms.86 By mid-2022, Maryland had 1,348 megawatts of total solar generating capacity installed.87 The state's largest solar facility—located on the Eastern Shore—came online in 2018 with a generating capacity of 75 megawatts. An 80-megawatt solar project, also located on the Eastern Shore, is scheduled to be operating in late 2022.88

Wind energy provided slightly more than one-tenth of Maryland's renewable electricity generation in 2021.89 The state's best onshore wind resources are in its western mountains and along its southern Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean shorelines.90 The state's only operating utility-scale wind farms are along Maryland's western Appalachian Mountain crests, where 190 megawatts of generating capacity is installed.91,92 Maryland's greatest wind energy potential is offshore.93 Two major wind projects are in development off Maryland's Atlantic coastline. The Marwin wind project, located about 17 miles offshore in federal waters, will consist of 22 turbines that are each taller than the Washington Monument and collectively can generate up to 270 megawatts of electricity. That project is scheduled to come online in 2024.94,95,96 The Skipjack wind project, expected to come online in 2026, will be built in two areas about 19 miles offshore from the Maryland-Delaware state line and have a combined generating capacity of nearly 1,000 megawatts. All of Skipjack's generated electricity will be sent to Maryland.97,98,99,100

Biomass generated slightly less than one-tenth of Maryland's renewable electricity in 2021, including at facilities that use landfill gas, municipal solid waste, and wood and wood waste.101 There are many small landfill gas-to-energy facilities in cities around the state. Maryland's largest biomass-fueled electricity-generating plants—accounting for about 80% of the state's total biomass generating capacity—are found at two facilities that use municipal solid waste: a 61-megawatt facility in Baltimore and a 54-megawatt facility in Montgomery County in the suburbs of Washington, DC.102 The Baltimore facility also produces steam for a downtown piping system that supplies heat to more than 250 businesses.103

Maryland plans to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 60% from 2006 levels by 2031 and reach net-zero emissions by 2045.

Maryland updated its renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in May 2019, when the Maryland legislature required that 50% of the state's electricity retail sales come from renewable sources by 2030.104,105,106 As part of the updated RPS, 14.5% of a supplier's electricity retail sales must come from solar power by 2030. The RPS also requires that the state's offshore wind generating capacity reach 400 megawatts in 2026 and increase to at least 1,200 megawatts in 2030.107,108 Maryland's legislature enacted a separate law in 2022 to further reduce the state's greenhouse gas emissions 60% from 2006 levels by 2031 and reach a net-zero emissions level by 2045. Maryland met an already existing target to cut greenhouse gas emissions 25% below the 2006 baseline by 2020, exceeding it with a 30% reduction. The new law also boosts energy conservation measures for buildings and requires the state government to buy zero-emission vehicles.109,110

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Maryland Profile Overview, Map, Layer List/Legend: Oil Wells, Natural Gas Wells, Tight Oil and Shale Gas Plays, Coal Fields, accessed October 3, 2022.
2 U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-57, Tonnage of Top 50 U.S. Water Ports, Ranked by Total Tons, accessed October 3, 2022.
3 Maryland.gov, Maryland at a Glance, Waterways, Port of Baltimore, Terminals, Cargo, accessed October 3, 2022.
4 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science Data and Tools, Maps, Biomass, Geothermal, Marine & Hydrokinetic, Solar, Wind, accessed October 3, 2022.
5 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Maryland Profile, Population Density by Census Tract, accessed October 3, 2022.
6 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, Historical Population Density Data (1910-2020), updated April 26, 2021.
7 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Maryland, Three rural definitions based on Census Places, accessed October 3, 2022.
8 World Atlas, Maryland, Maryland Geography, accessed October 3, 2022.
9 University of Washington, Maryland Observed Climate Normals (1981-2010), accessed October 3, 2022.
10 Current Results, Average Annual Snowfall in Maryland, accessed October 3, 2022.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2020.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Total Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2020.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Maryland, All statistics in table, 2021.
16 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2015-20.
17 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per day, 2016-21.
18 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, 2016-21.
19 Colonial Pipeline, System Map and Frequently Asked Questions, Who is Colonial Pipeline?, accessed October 4, 2022.
20 Maryland Department of Transportation, Maryland Port Administration, Port of Baltimore, 2019 Foreign Commerce Statistical Report, Top Commodities - Tons, p. 8, 2019 Bulk Cargo Summary - Tons, p. 10.
21 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, July 2021 to July 2022.
22 BWC Terminals, Baltimore, MD, accessed October 4, 2022.
23 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
24 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
25 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed October 4, 2022.
26 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, updated January 2018.
27 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
28 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Maryland.
29 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet NG, 2015-20.
30 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2016-21.
31 U.S. EIA, Maryland Profile Overview, Map, Layer List/Legend: Natural Gas Wells, accessed October 5, 2022.
32 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2016-21.
33 U.S. EIA, Structure map of the Marcellus Formation, accessed October 5, 2022.
34 Hurdle, Joh, "With governor's signature, Maryland becomes third state to ban fracking," StateImpact Pennsylvania (April 4, 2017).
35 U.S. EIA, Maryland Profile Overview, Map, Layer List/Legend: Natural Gas Pipelines, accessed October 5, 2022.
36 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Maryland, Annual, 2016-21.
37 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Maryland, Annual, 2016-21.
38 BHE GT&S, Cove Point LNG, accessed October 5, 2022.
39 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Import Terminals Existing (April 13, 2022).
40 BHE GT&S, Cove Point LNG, accessed October 5, 2022.
41 U.S. EIA, Maryland Natural Gas International Receipts, 1967-2021.
42 U.S. EIA, "U.S. marketed natural gas production forecast to rise in 2022 and 2023," Today in Energy (February 17, 2022).
43 U.S. EIA, "U.S. LNG imports reached 15-year lows first-half 2022, displaced by natural gas production," Today in Energy (September 27, 2022).
44 Dominion Energy, "First LNG Commissioning Cargo Departs From Dominion Energy Cove Point Terminal," Press Release (March 2, 2018).
45 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Export Terminals Existing (April 13, 2022).
46 U.S. EIA, "U.S. liquefied natural gas exports have declined by more than half so far in 2020," Today in Energy (June 23, 2020).
47 U.S. EIA, "U.S. exported record amounts of liquefied natural gas in 2021," Today in Energy (March 28, 2022).
48 U.S. EIA, "The United States became the world's largest LNG exporter in the first half of 2022," Today in Energy (July 25, 2022).
49 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
50 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use (million cubic feet), 2016-21.
51 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-21.
52 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use (million cubic feet), 2016-21.
53 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Maryland.
54 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 18, 2022), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2021 and 2020.
55 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 18 2022), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2021.
56 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 18, 2022), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
57 U.S. EIA, Maryland Profile Overview, Map, Layer List/Legend: Coal Mines, Coal Fields, accessed October 18, 2022.
58 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2021 (October 18, 2021), Domestic Distribution of U.S. coal by origin state, Maryland, Table OS-11, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2021.
59 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2021 (October18, 2022), Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, 2021.
60 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2021 (October 18, 2022), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination state, Maryland, Table DS-17, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2021.
61 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report October-December 2021 (April 2022), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District.
62 Maryland.gov, Maryland at a Glance, Waterways, Port of Baltimore, Terminals, Cargo, accessed October 18, 2022.
63 U.S. EIA, "U.S. coal exports increased 23% between 2020 and 2021," Today in Energy (March 15, 2022).
64 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report October-December 2021 (April 2022), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District; Table 14, Steam Coal Exports by Customs District; Table 15, Metallurgical Coal Exports by Customs District.
65 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report October-December 2021 (April 2022), Table 20, Coal imports by Customs District.
66 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-21.
67 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Maryland, updated March 9, 2021.
68 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-21.
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2022, Plant State: Maryland, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal; Inventory of Retired Generators as of September 2022, Plant State: Maryland, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
70 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-21.
71 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2022, Plant State: Maryland, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal; Inventory of Retired Generators as of September 2022, Plant State: Maryland, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
72 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-21.
73 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2022, Plant State: Maryland, Technology: All.
74 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
75 U.S. EIA, Maryland Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020.
76 PJM, About PJM, Territory Served, accessed October 19, 2022.
77 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), annual 2001-21.
78 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2021 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Maryland.
79 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), annual 2001-21.
80 Zero Emission Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Council, EV Station Data & Infrastructure, Maryland, accessed November 6, 2022.
81 Maryland EV, Incentives, accessed October 25, 2022.
82 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-21.
83 Exelon, Locations, Conowingo Hydroelectric Generating Station, accessed October 19, 2022.
84 "A Hydro Plant That Rivals Niagara Falls," Popular Science Monthly (May 1930), p. 49.
85 U.S. EIA, Maryland Electricity Profile 2020, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2020 and Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2020.
86 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-21.
87 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (July 2022), Table 6.2.B.
88 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860 M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of September 2022, Plant State: Maryland, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
89 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-21.
90 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Maryland, Maps & Data, accessed October 19, 2022.
91 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860 M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2022, Plant State: Maryland, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
92 U.S. EIA, Maryland Profile Overview, Map, Layer List/Legend: Wind Power Plants, accessed October 19, 2022.
93 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Maryland, Maps & Data, Maryland Offshore 90-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential, accessed October 19, 2022.
94 US Wind, Maryland Offshore Wind Project, accessed October 19, 2022.
95 Winter, Allison, "Biden Banks on Md. Offshore Wind Projects to Help Curb Climate Change," Maryland Matters (April 22, 2021).
96 Soper, Shawn, "BOEM Approves Offshore Wind Plan," The Dispatch (June 9, 2022).
97 Orsted, Skipjack Wind 1, accessed October 19, 2022.
98 Prensky, Matthew, "Larger offshore wind turbines approved off Ocean City. Here's what you need to know." Delmarva.now (August 21, 2020).
99 Fine, Ariana, "Skipjack Wind 2 Chosen as Second Offshore Wind Project in MD," North American Windpower (February 21, 2022).
100 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860 M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2022, Plant State: Maryland, Technology: Offshore Wind Turbine.
101 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Maryland, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), annual, 2001-21.
102 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860 M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of September 2022, Plant State: Maryland, Technology: Landfill Gas, Municipal Solid Waste, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass, Other Waste Biomass.
103 Wheelabrator Technologies, Locations, Wheelabrator Baltimore, accessed October 19, 2022.
104 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Maryland, Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard, updated August 10, 2022.
105 Dance, Scott, "Maryland bill mandating 50% renewable energy by 2030 to become law, but without Gov. Larry Hogan's signature," The Baltimore Sun (May 22, 2019).
106 Maryland Public Service Commission, Maryland Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), accessed October 19, 2022.
107 Maryland General Assembly, Clean Energy Jobs Act of 2019, accessed October 19, 2022.
108 Maryland Public Service Commission, Offshore Wind Fact Sheet, accessed October 19, 2022.
109 Maryland Nonprofits, Action to Care: Climate Solutions Now Act (August 2, 2022).
110 Maryland Department of the Environment, "Maryland Surpasses 2020 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Goal," Press Release (October 25, 2022).