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Maryland   Maryland Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: July 20, 2017

Overview

Maryland gets more than four-fifths of the energy it consumes from out of state.

Maryland wraps around the Chesapeake Bay and extends west into the Appalachian region where the state's only fossil fuel resources are found.1,2 Maryland's renewable energy resources, on the other hand, are distributed widely across the state.3 The state's population is concentrated in the central corridor from the northeastern Baltimore suburbs to the suburbs of Washington, DC; that corridor makes Maryland the fifth most densely populated state in the nation.4,5 Almost all of Maryland's currently used biomass resources, primarily landfill gas and municipal solid wastes, are found in the state's most densely populated areas.6 However, Maryland also has biomass resources from agriculture, fishing, aquaculture, and forestry.7 Maryland's western mountains and low-lying southern and eastern plains are largely rural and lightly populated.8 The state's greatest wind resources are in the western mountains and off Maryland's eastern Atlantic Ocean and southern Chesapeake Bay shorelines. The eastern two-thirds of Maryland has the state's greatest solar resource, and rivers flowing down from the north and the west provide the state with hydropower resources.9,10

East of the Chesapeake Bay, in an area known as Maryland's Eastern Shore, the land is flat with many wetlands, and the nearby ocean adds humidity and moderates the weather year-round. On the western side of the Bay, the coastal plain ends as the land begins its rise through rolling foothills to the mountain ranges of the Appalachians.11 Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year and across the state. But, as the land rises, temperatures vary widely.12 In winter, the coastal areas average less than 4 inches of snow, while parts of the western mountains average more than 100 inches.13

More than four-fifths of the energy consumed in Maryland comes from out of state.14 Baltimore, Maryland, one of the top 20 ports in the nation, is a bustling seaport, handling both coal and petroleum products.15,16 Maryland's economy is not energy-intensive.17 Service industries contribute more than two-thirds to the state's gross domestic product (GDP), and manufacturing, including the manufacture of chemicals and electronics, contributes less than 6% of the state's GDP.18 The industrial sector consumes less than one-twelfth of the energy used in Maryland, with the remaining end-use energy consumption divided fairly evenly between the residential, transportation, and commercial sectors.19 Maryland's per capita energy consumption ranks in the lowest one-fourth of states.20

Petroleum

Maryland has no petroleum reserves or production, and there are no petroleum refineries in the state.21 Petroleum products arrive in Maryland by pipeline from other states and by ship from abroad. A major pipeline runs through Maryland on its way from the Gulf Coast to the New York City area and delivers refined products, including motor gasoline, kerosene, home heating oil, and diesel fuel, to Maryland. Baltimore's deep-water port receives tankers carrying imported petroleum products, including motor gasoline, asphalt, gasoline blendstocks, wax, and residual fuel oil.22,23,24

Maryland's per capita petroleum consumption is among the lowest in the nation.25,26 More than four-fifths of the petroleum used in Maryland is consumed by the transportation sector.27 Reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol is required across the densely populated Baltimore-Washington corridor in the center of the state. Counties in the mountain west and much of the rural Eastern Shore are not required to use reformulated motor gasoline, although two Eastern Shore counties have opted to require it.28,29 Although it uses much less petroleum than the transportation sector, the industrial sector is the state's second-largest petroleum consumer. The residential sector consumes slightly less than the industrial sector.30 Only about 1 in 10 Maryland households use fuel oil or kerosene for heating.31

Natural gas

Maryland has very few proved natural gas reserves, and the state produces very little natural gas. Most of the natural gas wells in the state are storage wells, but the few low-production wells in far western Maryland produce less than 50 million cubic feet of natural gas annually.32,33 The state's three westernmost counties—Allegany, Garrett, and Washington—overlie part of the natural gas-rich Marcellus Shale, which is highly productive in nearby Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Garrett County and western Allegany County are believed to have producible Marcellus reserves. However, in 2015, Maryland's legislature placed a two-year moratorium on hydraulic fracturing, and, in 2017, a permanent ban was enacted.34,35

Maryland's natural gas needs are met by supplies that enter the state by way of several interstate pipelines, a liquefied natural gas (LNG) port, and a natural gas utility whose distribution area crosses state lines. Major pipelines transport natural gas to the state from the nation's Gulf Coast and Southwest, as well as from other areas along the interstate pipeline systems' routes. Increasing amounts of natural gas have been entering the state from the north as Pennsylvania's shale gas production has escalated. Maryland's Eastern Shore also receives natural gas from Pennsylvania by way of Delaware.36,37,38 Some natural gas enters the state at the LNG import terminal at Cove Point, Maryland, on the Chesapeake Bay's western shore. Cove Point is 1 of 12 existing LNG import facilities in the United States.39 Maryland's LNG imports have decreased substantially in the past decade due to declining U.S. natural gas prices and growing domestic supply.40,41,42 Cove Point's owner obtained the necessary approvals to export LNG and is constructing a liquefaction plant and export terminal facilities. Export operations are expected to begin in late 2017.43 The terminal is connected by pipeline to several major interstate natural gas pipeline systems.44 About two-fifths of the natural gas entering Maryland is consumed in-state; the remainder continues on to Virginia and the District of Columbia.45

More than seven-tenths of the natural gas consumed in Maryland is used by the residential and commercial sectors. Most of the rest is used by the electric power sector.46 Almost half of Maryland households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating.47 Even so, Maryland's per capita natural gas use is less than in all states except Hawaii and Vermont.48,49

Coal

Baltimore's coal exports include shipments of metallurgical coal to Asian customers for steelmaking and steam coal to Europe for electricity generation.

Maryland holds less than 0.2% of the nation's estimated recoverable coal reserves and accounts for about 0.2% of U.S. coal production.50,51 The state has fewer than 20 surface and underground coal mines, all of them located in the Appalachian Basin in the state's western counties.52 About two-thirds of Maryland coal is shipped to electric power generators. The rest is used at industrial facilities. More than half of Maryland's coal production is used in the state, and most of the rest is sent by truck to its neighbor, West Virginia. About one-tenth of Maryland coal is exported to other countries.53,54 Coal mined in Maryland provides less than one-tenth of the coal that is shipped to the state's coal-fired power plants. About two-thirds of the U.S. coal used at those power plants arrives by rail from Pennsylvania. Most of the rest of the state's supply comes from nearby states, but some coal is shipped from as far as Wyoming and Colorado.55

Coal is the leading export commodity by tonnage at Baltimore, the nation's second-largest coal export port after Norfolk, Virginia. In 2016, nearly one-fourth of the nation's coal exports left through the Port of Baltimore.56,57 Coal is transported by rail from mines throughout the Appalachian region to the city's piers. Baltimore's coal exports include shipments of metallurgical coal to Asian customers for steelmaking and steam coal to Europe for electricity generation.58,59,60 The Port of Baltimore also receives some coal imports.61

Electricity

Nuclear and coal-fired power plants supply more than three-fourths of Maryland’s net electricity generation.

Nuclear and coal-fired power plants supply more than three-fourths of Maryland's net electricity generation. Natural gas use has increased in the past decade, and it contributed more than one-seventh of the state's utility-scale net generation in 2016. Hydroelectric power and other renewable energy sources supply most of the balance of the state's net generation. Maryland's only nuclear power plant, Calvert Cliffs, on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay, has consistently supplied about 14 million megawatthours of power annually, accounting for about two-fifths of the state's net electricity generation. Coal-fired generating plants historically supplied more than half the state's net electricity generation, but, since 2012, that share has fallen to less than two-fifths as natural gas-fired generation has increased.62,63,64,65 Construction of several new natural gas-fired facilities is planned over the next 10 years. Some of Maryland's coal-fired generating stations are dual-fueled and are able to burn natural gas or petroleum in addition to coal.66,67 Overall, fossil fuels provide about half of the state's net generation but make up almost four-fifths of Maryland's utility-scale generating capacity.68,69

Several coal-fired units in Maryland have been upgraded with new emission controls to meet federal requirements.70 However, generating facilities in the state have also requested deactivation of some units because of the low cost of natural gas and the high cost of new emission control equipment at coal-fired facilities.71 In 2012, one of Maryland's smaller coal-fired power plants opted to shut down rather than upgrade.72 All but two of Maryland's coal-fired power plants are more than 30 years old, and an additional one-fifth of the state's coal-fired generating capacity is scheduled for retirement in 2020.73

Maryland's electricity consumption exceeds its net generation. Almost half of the power consumed in the state comes from the PJM Interconnection, the Mid-Atlantic regional electricity transmission grid.74,75 Maryland has encouraged construction of new power plants to meet growing electricity demand and several have been proposed, most of which are natural gas-fired.76,77 The state has also pursued efficiency goals to reduce electricity usage. After the expiration of Maryland's energy efficiency program, Empower Maryland, in 2015, the state's public utility commission set an energy efficiency goal for electric utilities. The goal is a reduction in retail electricity sales by 2020 that is equal to 2% of the utility's 2013 weather-normalized gross retail sales.78,79In 2017, a Maryland electric utility was rated as one of the top five most efficient utilities in the nation.80 The state's per capita retail electricity sales are below the U.S. average.81,82 More than nine-tenths of the electricity consumed in Maryland is used by the commercial and the residential sectors.83 Two in five Maryland households use electricity as their primary heating source.84

Renewable energy

Renewable energy, including distributed (small-scale, customer-sited) generation, provides almost one-tenth of Maryland's in-state net electricity generation. The largest share comes from hydroelectric facilities.85 The Conowingo hydroelectric power plant, one of the larger nonfederal hydroelectric projects in the United States, is a run-of-the-river facility that was built on the Susquehanna River in the late 1920s.86 The 572-megawatt Conowingo generating station, which provides almost all of Maryland's hydroelectricity, is one of the 10 largest power plants in Maryland.87 A much smaller 20-megawatt facility is located in western Maryland, and a new 13.4-megawatt hydroelectric project is planned on the Maryland-West Virginia border. Several small-scale (less than 2-megawatt) hydroelectric facilities are scattered across the state.88

In 2016, solar PV generation became the second-largest source of renewable power in Maryland, exceeding biomass and wind for the first time.

Solar energy is providing a rapidly increasing amount of generation in Maryland. In 2016, solar photovoltaics (PV), including distributed generation, exceeded biomass and wind to become the second-largest source of renewable power in Maryland for the first time.89 The state's installed solar capacity is split between electric utility-scale projects and distributed systems, such as rooftop solar PV panels. As of the end of 2016, Maryland had about 717 megawatts of solar capacity installed, most of it at residential and commercial customer sites. One of the largest solar installations in the state is a 20-megawatt solar PV project near Hagerstown. Several utility-scale projects have been installed at commercial facilities across the state.90 Maryland's largest solar project, a series of arrays with a total of 150-megawatts of capacity, is under construction across a patchwork of properties in Somerset County on the state's Eastern Shore.91,92

Biomass is used to generate electricity in Maryland at facilities that use landfill gas, municipal solid waste, and wood and wood waste. There are many small landfill gas-to-energy facilities in cities around the state, but Maryland's largest biomass electricity-generating capacity is found at two facilities that use municipal solid waste, one in Montgomery County near Washington, DC, and the other in Baltimore.93 The Baltimore facility also generates steam for a downtown piping system that supplies heat to more than 200 businesses.94

Wind energy in Maryland provides slightly more electricity than biomass does.95 Maryland's greatest onshore utility-scale wind potential is in its western mountains and along the Eastern Shore's shorelines. The state's only operating wind farms, and most of its proposed wind energy projects, are along the western mountain crests, particularly Backbone Mountain, the highest point in the state.96,97,98 Almost 200 megawatts of wind capacity has been installed in the state's westernmost county. But Maryland's greatest wind energy potential is offshore.99 In August 2014, a federal sale awarded a lease for the development of a major offshore wind project off the Maryland coast.100

Maryland's legislature first enacted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2004 and has amended it several times since then. In February 2017, Maryland enacted further amendments to the RPS, increasing the requirements for renewably sourced generation for all electricity sold in Maryland from 20% to 25% and moving up the compliance date to 2020 from 2022. The 25% of sales from renewable resources must include 2.5% from solar energy sources. The original RPS required that a maximum of 2.5% of the standard be met by offshore wind resources by 2017 and beyond, and that remains unchanged. The exact percentage is to be set by state regulators based on the availability and cost of offshore wind energy.101

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Maryland Profile Overview, Oil and Gas Wells and All Coal Mines Map Layers, accessed June 13, 2017.
2 U.S. EIA, Maryland Profile Data, Reserves and Supply, accessed June 13, 2017.
3 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Clean Energy in My State, Maryland Renewable Energy Resource Maps, accessed June 13, 2017.
4 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Maryland Profile, Population Density by Census Tract, accessed June 13, 2017.
5 U.S. Census Bureau, Resident Population Data (Text Version), Population Density, accessed June 13, 2017.
6 U.S. EIA, Maryland Profile Overview, Biomass Power Plant Map Layer, accessed June 13, 2017.
7 Maryland Clean Energy Center, All About Energy, Biomass, accessed June 26, 2017.
8 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Maryland, Three rural definitions based on Census Places, accessed June 13, 2017.
9 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Clean Energy in My State, Maryland Renewable Energy Resource Maps, accessed June 13, 2017.
10 Conner, Alison M. and James E. Francfort, U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment for Maryland, DOE/ID-10430(MD), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (November 1997), p. 2, 5.
11 World Atlas, Maryland, Maryland Geography, accessed June 13, 2017.
12 University of Washington, Maryland Observed Climate Normals (1981–2010), accessed June 13, 2017.
13 Current Results, Average Annual Snowfall in Maryland, accessed on June 13, 2017.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2015, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2015.
15 U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-57, Tonnage of Top 50 U.S. Water Ports, Ranked by Total Tons, accessed June 13, 2017.
16 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterborne Commerce of the United States, Calendar Year 2015, Part 1 Waterways and Harbors, Atlantic Coast, IWR-WCUS-15-1, p. 74–76.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2015.
18 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, GDP and Personal Income, Regional Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, All industries, Maryland, 2015.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C13, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
21 U.S. EIA, Maryland Profile Data, Reserves and Supply, accessed June 13, 2017.
22 Colonial Pipeline, About Colonial, System Map and Frequently Asked Questions, What kind of petroleum products are transported by Colonial?, accessed June 14, 2017.
23 Maryland State Archives, Maryland at a Glance, Waterways, Port of Baltimore, Chief Imports, Maryland Manual On-Line (May 23, 2017).
24 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, April 2016 to March 2017, accessed June 14, 2017.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
26 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01).
27 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
28 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed June 14, 2017.
29 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements, U.S. Gasoline Requirements Map, updated June 22, 2015.
30 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
31 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Maryland, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate.
32 Maryland Department of the Environment, Natural Gas Wells in Maryland, accessed June 14, 2017.
33 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2011–16.
34 Maryland General Assembly, Department of Legislative Services, 2015 Session, Fiscal and Policy Note, Revised, House Bill 449, Environment Hydraulic Fracturing Regulations (April 15, 2015), p. 3.
35 Henry, Devin, "Maryland governor signs fracking ban into law," The Hill (April 4, 2017).
36 U.S. EIA, Maryland Profile Data, Distribution and Marketing, Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines, accessed June 14, 2017.
37 U.S. EIA, About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines, Natural Gas Pipelines in the Northeast Region, accessed June 14, 2017.
38 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Maryland, Annual, 2010–15.
39 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Import/Export Terminals, Existing (May 1, 2017).
40 U.S. EIA, Maryland Natural Gas Net International Receipts, 2005–15.
41 U.S. EIA, Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price, Annual, 2005–15.
42 U.S. EIA, "Natural Gas net imports in 2015 at lowest levels since 1986," Today in Energy (April 29, 2016).
43 Dominion Energy, Dominion Energy Cove Point, accessed June 14, 2017.
44 Dominion Energy, Cove Point Terminal, accessed June 14, 2017.
45 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Maryland, Annual, 2010–15.
46 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F19, Natural Gas Consumption Estimates, 2015.
47 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Maryland, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate.
48 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F19, Natural Gas Consumption Estimates, 2015.
49 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01).
50 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2015 and 2014.
51 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2015.
52 U.S. EIA, Maryland Profile Overview, All Coal Mines Map Layer, accessed June 26, 2017.
53 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 2016), Maryland Table OS-13, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2015.
54 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 2016), Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2014.
55 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 2016), Maryland Table DS-19, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2015.
56 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report October–December 2016 (April 2017), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District.
57 Maryland Port Commission, 2014 Foreign Commerce Statistical Report (March 2015), p. 8.
58 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report October–December 2016 (April 2017), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District, Table 14, Steam Coal Exports by Customs District, Table 15, Metallurgical Coal Exports by Customs District.
59 U.S. EIA, "Europe and Asia are the leading destinations for U.S. coal exports in 2012," Today in Energy (November 15, 2012).
60 U.S. EIA, "U.S. coal exports and imports both decline in 2016 as U.S. remains net coal exporter," Today in Energy (March 14, 2017).
61 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report October–December 2016 (April 2017), Table 20, Coal imports by Customs District.
62 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B, 1.9.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
63 U.S. EIA, Maryland Electricity Profile 2015, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2015
64 U.S. EIA, Maryland Nuclear Profile 2010, accessed June 15, 2017.
65 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Maryland, accessed June 13, 2017.
66 Public Service Commission of Maryland, Ten Year Plan (2014–2023) of Electric Companies in Maryland (August 2014), p. 42.
67 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2015 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
68 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.5.B, 1.7.B.
69 U.S. EIA, Maryland Electricity Profile 2015, Table 4, Electric power industry capability by primary energy source, 1990 through 2015.
70 Maryland Department of the Environment, Technical Support Document for COMAR 26.11.38 - Control of NOx Emissions from Coal-Fired Electric Generating Units (May 26, 2015), p. 38–46.
71 Public Service Commission of Maryland, Ten Year Plan (2014–2023) of Electric Companies in Maryland (August 2014), p. 40.
72 Public Service Commission of Maryland, Ten Year Plan (2014–2023) of Electric Companies in Maryland (August 2014), p. 38.
73 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2015 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
74 U.S. EIA, Maryland Electricity Profile 2015, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2015.
75 PJM, About PJM, Territory Served, accessed June 26, 2017.
76 Public Service Commission of Maryland, Ten Year Plan (2014–2023) of Electric Companies in Maryland (August 2014), p. 41– 42.
77 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2015 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Proposed Units Only).
78 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Post-2015 Maryland Energy Efficiency Goals, updated August 3, 2015.
79 U.S. EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2016 With Projections to 2040, DOE/EIA-0383(2016) (August 2016), p. LR-18.
80 Relf, Grace, "The results are in: here are the most energy-efficient utilities in the US," American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (June 13, 2017).
81 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016.
82 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.4.B.
83 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data Systems, Table F21, Electricity Consumption Estimates, 2015.
84 U.S. EIA, Maryland Profile Data, Consumption and Expenditures, Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households), accessed June 14, 2017.
85 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
86 Exelon, Locations, Conowingo Hydroelectric Generating Station, accessed June 14, 2017.
87 U.S. EIA, Maryland Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2015, and Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2015.
88 Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Power Plant Research Program, Maryland Power Plants and the Environment, PPRP-CEIR-17, DNR Publication No. 12-1222015-745 (December 2014), Chapter 2.1.5 Renewable Resources, Table 2-5, Hydroelectric Projects in Maryland.
89 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
90 Solar Energy Industries Association, Maryland Solar, accessed June 16, 2017.
91 Cox, Jeremy, "Biggest solar farm in Maryland may rise in Somerset," Delmarvanow (February 29, 2016).
92 Meils, J., "Eastern Shore With Solar, Aquaculture Supplant, Big Chicken," U.S. News & World Report (June 2, 2017).
93 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 3_1_GeneratorY2015, 2015 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
94 Wheelabrator Technologies, Locations, Wheelabrator Baltimore, accessed June 16, 2017.
95 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.14.B, 1.15.B.
96 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 3_1_GeneratorY2015, 2015 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data,' Operable Units and Proposed Units.
97 Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Power Plant Research Program, Maryland Power Plants and the Environment, PPRP-CEIR-17, DNR Publication No. 12-1222015-745 (December 2014), Chapter 2.1.5 Renewable Resources, Figure 2-8, Approximate Locations of Wind Energy Projects in Maryland.
98 Maryland Geological Survey, Maryland Geology, Maryland's Highest Waterfalls and Mountains, accessed June 15, 2017.
99 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, WINDExchange, Maryland 50-Meter Wind Map, accessed June 16, 2017.
100 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Maryland Activities, accessed June 16, 2017.
101 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Maryland, Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard, updated March 2, 2017.