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Massachusetts   Massachusetts Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: June 21, 2018

Overview

State efficiency programs help make Massachusetts among the least energy-intensive states in the nation.

Massachusetts, one of the nation's most densely populated states, has a variety of renewable resources and a nuclear power plant, but no fossil energy reserves.1,2,3,4,5 The state is home to almost half of New England's residents.6 The population is concentrated in the eastern part of the state, centered around Boston.7 Elevations rise from the coastal marshes of Cape Cod in the east to the Berkshire Hills and the fringes of the Taconic Mountains to the west.8 The region's longest river, the Connecticut, with its fertile river valley, cuts across the state and has many dams, 12 of which provide hydropower. South Hadley Falls, the highest falls on the river, is in central Massachusetts near the city of Holyoke. In the 19th century, many dams were built on the Connecticut River and other rivers to power industrial mills. Textile and paper mills were built in Holyoke in the mid-1800s to harness the available hydropower. Today, the state's oldest operating hydroelectric power plant, built in 1893, is located there.9,10,11

Massachusetts experiences wide ranges in temperature, but precipitation is equally distributed throughout the four seasons, and even coastal areas can get heavy snows.12 The ocean-moderated climate to the east helps make Massachusetts the nation's second-largest grower of cranberries. Agriculture in the rest of the state includes nurseries, fruit orchards, vegetable production, dairy, aquaculture, and tobacco farming.13 Only one-tenth of the state is farmland, and half of the farmland in the state is woodland or pasture. Overall, almost two-thirds of the state's land area remains forested.14,15

Energy consumption in Massachusetts is about 12 times greater than production.16 However, per capita energy consumption ranks among the 10 lowest states, in part because of Massachusetts' leadership in energy efficiency policies and programs.17,18,19 Additionally, the state's economy relies on less energy-intensive industries. Almost half of the state's gross domestic product comes from finance, insurance, real estate, rental, and leasing; professional and business services; and information industries.20,21 The transportation sector leads Massachusetts end-use energy consumption, followed by the residential and commercial sectors.22

Electricity

Natural gas fuels more than two-thirds of the electricity generation in Massachusetts. Another one-sixth comes from nuclear power, and one-eighth comes from renewables.23 Virtually all new nonrenewable electricity generation being planned in Massachusetts will be fueled by natural gas. Infrastructure has been added to transport natural gas to the Northeast from the productive Marcellus and Utica shales of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio.24 Among the New England states, Massachusetts has the most natural gas-fired generating capacity.25 As coal-fired and petroleum-fired power plants are retired, their capacity is being replaced by natural gas-fired power plants. A new natural gas-fired power plant is being constructed at the site of the retired Salem Harbor coal-fired power plant north of Boston.26,27

Natural gas has become the primary fuel for electricity generation in Massachusetts, displacing coal and petroleum.

A decade ago, coal fueled about one-fourth of Massachusetts' power generation, but, by 2016, coal's share had fallen to less than 6% of net generation.28 In 2017, coal's contribution ended with the retirement of the state's last large coal-fired power plant. No coal-fired generation occurred after May 2017.29,30 Petroleum-fired generation has continued but has decreased from more than one-fifth of state generation in 2000 to less than 1% in 2017.31 The regional grid operator, ISO-New England (ISO-NE), has expressed reliability concerns, as petroleum-fired capacity is being shut down.32 Although use of petroleum for generation dropped to less than 0.5% between 2010 and 2012, it has increased slightly in recent years. ISO-NE has paid generators with dual-fired power plants to stockpile petroleum fuel to meet demand in severe winters, when the natural gas delivery system is constrained.33,34 However, the oil delivery system has shrunk as oil-fired power plants have retired. Extended periods of cold weather can drain on-site reserves, and oil-fired plants can have difficulty getting resupplied.35 Massachusetts receives about one-sixth of its electricity from the Pilgrim nuclear power plant, located in Plymouth on Cape Cod Bay, but, because of economic factors, the nuclear facility currently plans to cease generating electricity on May 31, 2019.36,37

Massachusetts is part of the ISO-NE regional electricity market. ISO-NE has promoted demand response programs to maintain the reliability of the electricity grid. Industrial and commercial consumers in Massachusetts have committed to making substantial power reductions during demand peaks and emergencies.38 In 2016, Massachusetts had the highest electricity demand reduction target among all the New England states with energy efficiency resource standards.39 Massachusetts is also part of the northeastern Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a market-based cooperative effort to limit carbon emissions.40 With its declining use of coal and petroleum for electricity generation, the state is within its RGGI goals.41

Overall, more electricity is consumed in Massachusetts than is generated in the state, even though, on a per capita basis, electricity consumption in Massachusetts is among the lowest one-fourth of the states.42,43,44 Almost one in six Massachusetts households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating. Although many Massachusetts homes have air conditioning, most homes do not use air conditioning during the state's mild summers.45,46

Renewable energy

Renewable resources fuel increasing amounts of net electricity generation in Massachusetts.47 Until a decade ago, all utility-scale renewable power generation in the state came from hydroelectric and biomass facilities.48 Wind and solar resources came online beginning in 2008, and, by 2017, almost one-sixth of the state's net generation was produced with renewable energy, including distributed (small-scale, customer-sited) generation. Almost three-fifths of that total was provided by solar photovoltaic (PV) power.49 In 2017, Massachusetts ranked sixth in the nation in combined utility-scale and distributed solar PV generating capacity with almost 2,000 megawatts installed.50 Massachusetts is seventh among the states in both the amount of solar PV net electricity generation and the share of its total generation provided by solar PV.51 Biomass supplied the second-largest amount of renewably sourced net generation in Massachusetts in 2017. The biomass power plants that have the highest nameplate capacities are fueled with municipal solid waste. About 30 hydroelectric power plants, including one pumped storage facility, also contribute to the state's net generation.52 In 2017, almost 4% of the state's net generation was provided by biomass, and conventional hydropower supplied less than 3%.53

Massachusetts aims to have 2,000 megawatts of wind capacity by 2020.

Massachusetts had more than 100 megawatts of wind-powered generating capacity in place by early 2018, but wind provides less the 1% of the state's net electricity generation.54,55 Massachusetts has set a goal of 2,000 megawatts of wind-powered capacity by 2020.56 Even though most of the onshore commercial wind development in Massachusetts has taken place along the coast, the largest projects are in the mountains near the state's northwestern border.57 The mountain crests of western Massachusetts have good wind potential; however, coastal regions and offshore areas have the state's highest wind resource potential. The state's best offshore wind resources are around Cape Cod and the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket.58 In 2009, Massachusetts issued its first comprehensive Ocean Management Plan for state waters, identifying areas appropriate for offshore wind development.59 In 2010, the first commercial offshore renewable energy lease in the United States was granted to a project in the federal waters off Massachusetts' Cape Cod.60 However, in 2017, the developer cancelled the project and filed to terminate its offshore wind development lease because of financial and legal setbacks as well as local opposition to building the project within sight of land.61,62 The U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and the state have continued to work together to open more offshore areas to wind development.63 In 2016, Massachusetts enacted legislation requiring the state's utilities to enter cost-effective long-term contracts to procure a combined 1,600 megawatts of offshore wind capacity by 2027.64 Massachusetts' first offshore wind farm, expected to have 800 megawatts of capacity, is in development off Martha's Vineyard.65

Massachusetts first adopted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2002. Currently, the RPS requires companies that sell retail electricity in Massachusetts to acquire increasing amounts of power from renewable resources, reaching a goal of at least 15% of total electricity sold by 2020. There are additional requirements for percentage of sales from facilities in operation before January 1, 1998, and for power generated from municipal solid waste combustion. The state's RPS also specifies that at least 1,600 megawatts must come from in-state solar facilities by 2020.66 Massachusetts exceeded that solar goal in 2017.67 Massachusetts also has an Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard, requiring that 5% of electric load be met with high-efficiency customer-sited systems, such as industrial cogeneration, by 2020.68

Petroleum

Massachusetts has no petroleum reserves, production, or refineries.69,70 The Port of Boston, the oldest continuously active port in the nation, has petroleum product terminals that supply most of the demand in Massachusetts.71 Refined products are transported to Boston Harbor by ship or barge, mainly from refineries in Canada and Europe, as well as from U.S. refineries, for redistribution inland.72,73 Two small-capacity petroleum product pipelines run from ports in Connecticut and Rhode Island into central Massachusetts. Petroleum products also arrive by truck.74,75

One of the U.S. Department of Energy’s three Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve sites is in Revere, Massachusetts.

About four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in Massachusetts is used by the transportation sector, primarily as motor gasoline and diesel fuel.76,77 Massachusetts is one of the few states that require the statewide use of reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol to limit ozone formation.78 About one-fourth of the households in the state are heated with fuel oil, making Massachusetts, like much of New England, vulnerable to distillate fuel oil shortages and price spikes during the winter months.79 The U.S. Department of Energy created the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to avert shortages. The reserve holds a combined total of 1 million barrels of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) in terminals at three locations in the Northeast, one of which is in Revere, Massachusetts.80,81 All the northeastern states, including Massachusetts, require ULSD for heating by July 2018.82 Massachusetts is also home to one of three storage sites that make up the 1-million-barrel federal Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve, which was created to counter motor fuel supply disruptions caused by hurricanes, winter storms, and other natural events.83

Natural gas

Massachusetts has no natural gas reserves or production.84,85 However, the state consumes nearly half of the natural gas used in New England, which is roughly in proportion to Massachusetts' share of the region's population.86,87 Electric power generators account for the largest share of natural gas consumption in the state, followed by the residential sector.88 Massachusetts receives its natural gas supplies by pipeline from other states and by ship as liquefied natural gas (LNG), mainly from the Caribbean and the Middle East.89 Pipelines entering the state from New York and Rhode Island bring natural gas from the Gulf Coast, Midcontinent, and Appalachia.90,91 Deliveries of natural gas from the Marcellus Shale of Pennsylvania through New Jersey, Connecticut, and Rhode Island and on to Massachusetts have increased significantly in recent years.92 A pipeline that traverses Maine and New Hampshire brings in offshore, onshore, and LNG-sourced natural gas from Canada.93

Massachusetts has New England’s only operating LNG import terminals.

Massachusetts has the only LNG import terminals in New England, one at Everett on Boston Harbor and two offshore from Gloucester.94,95 The Everett terminal is connected to regional pipelines, a natural gas utility, and a power plant. LNG is also transported by truck to storage tanks for several local natural gas distribution companies.96 The Northeast Gateway, one of the two offshore terminals, received LNG deliveries in 2015 and 2016 after several years of inactivity, but none in 2017. The other offshore terminal, Neptune, has been inactive since the facility's completion in 2010.97,98,99 The Canaport LNG terminal in St. John, New Brunswick, Canada, sends natural gas south by pipeline. LNG, used primarily during the winter when additional natural gas is needed for heating, provides almost one-tenth of New England's natural gas supply.100 Massachusetts typically sends natural gas by pipeline to other New England states, but it is a net supplier only to New Hampshire and Connecticut.101

More than half of the households in Massachusetts rely on natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating fuel.102 Residential sector use has increased over the past decade. More than one-fourth of the state's total natural gas consumption occurs in the residential sector, but the largest consumer in Massachusetts is the electric power sector, which uses almost two-fifths of the total.103 Like other New England states, Massachusetts has no underground natural gas storage and depends on storage capacity in other states to meet peak winter demand.104 As increasing amounts of natural gas are used for electricity generation in Massachusetts and throughout New England, assurance of natural gas supply remains a critical energy issue for the region.105

Coal

Massachusetts does not have any coal reserves or production.106,107 With no active coal mining, the state obtained all the coal it needed either by ocean vessel from foreign suppliers or by rail from domestic mines, mostly in West Virginia.108,109 However, Massachusetts' last operational coal-fired generating plant, the 1,488-megawatt Brayton Point plant located on the coast at Somerset, was shut down permanently in May 2017.110,111 Two other coal-fired power plants were closed in 2014: the Mount Tom plant, near Holyoke, Massachusetts, and the Salem Harbor plant, north of Boston.112 Some coal from Pennsylvania is still delivered to industrial users in Massachusetts.113,114

Endnotes

1 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Community Facts, United States, 2010 Census, Compare States for Population, Housing, Area, and Density, Table GCT-PH1, Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010, United States, States, and Puerto Rico.
2 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Solar Maps, Biomass Maps, Wind Maps, accessed May 18, 2018.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.10.B, 1.12.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
4 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, accessed May 18, 2018.
5 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Data, Reserves, accessed May 18, 2018.
6 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-01).
7 US Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Massachusetts Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
8 NETSTATE, The Geography of Massachusetts, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
9 Connecticut River Watershed Council, Watershed Facts, accessed May 18, 2018.
10 Lotspeich, Charlie, "Water Power to the People of Holyoke," Valley Advocate (June 4, 2009).
11 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
12 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, Massachusetts' Climate, The CoCoRaHS State Climate Series, accessed May 22, 2018.
13 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2017 State Agriculture Overview, Massachusetts.
14 Massachusetts Bureau of Forest Fire Control and Forestry, accessed May 18, 2018.
15 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, State Data, Massachusetts, updated April 19, 2018.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 through 2016, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2016.
17 Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, Energy Efficiency Division, accessed May 18, 2018.
18 U.S. EIA State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016) (June 2018), Table C13, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
19 American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, State and Local Policy Database, Massachusetts, State Government, updated July 2017.
20 U.S. EIA State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016) (June 2018), Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2016.
21 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Regional Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, All Industries, Massachusetts, 2016, 2017.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016) (June 2018), Table C10, Total Consumption by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
23 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.7.B, 1.9.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
24 U.S. EIA, "Many natural gas-fired power plants under construction are near major shale plays," Today in Energy (May 19, 2016).
25 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (April 2018), Table 6.2.C.
26 Footprint Power, Salem Harbor Station, accessed May 22, 2018.
27 Luca, Dustin, "Footprint cuts ties with Iberdrola," The Salem News (April 16, 2018).
28 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
29 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
30 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (June and July 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
31 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.5.B.
32 ISO New England, Retirements of Non-Gas-Fired Power Plants, accessed May 22, 2018.
33 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
34 ISO- New England, Retirements of Non-Gas-Fired Power Plants, accessed May 22, 2018.
35 ISO-New England, Operational Fuel-Security Analysis (January 17, 2018), p. 16.
36 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B
37 Entergy, "Entergy Intends to Refuel Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station in Massachusetts Next Year; Cease Operations in 2019," Press Release (April 14, 2016).
38 ISO New England, New England Power Grid State Profiles 2017-2018 (January 2018).
39 U.S. EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2016 With Projections to 2040 (August 2016), p. LR-18.
40 Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Welcome, accessed May 23, 2018.
41 Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, "Massachusetts on Track to Meet 25% Greenhouse Gas Reduction Target for 2020," Press Release (January 19, 2016).
42 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Electricity Profile, 2016, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2016.
43 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-01).
44 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 5.4.B.
45 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Massachusetts, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
46 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2009 RECS Survey Data, Housing Characteristics, Table HC7.8 Air Conditioning in Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009.
47 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
48 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
49 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
50 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (May 2018), Table 6.2.B.
51 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.17.B.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
53 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.15.B.
54 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Massachusetts, accessed May 23, 2018.
55 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
56 Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, Department of Energy Resources, Renewable Energy Snapshot, accessed May 23, 2018.
57 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Overview, Map Layer Wind Power Plant, accessed May 23, 2018.
58 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Massachusetts, accessed May 23, 2018.
59 Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, 2015 Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan, Volume 1, Management and Administration (2015), p. 1-5.
60 U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Cape Wind, accessed May 23, 2018.
61 Dvorak, Paul, "Goodbye Cape Wind. The controversial project is now history," Windpower Engineering and Development (December 6, 2017).
62 Chesto, Jon, "Now it's official: Cape Wind project dead," Boston Globe (December 1, 2017).
63 U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Commercial Wind Leasing Offshore Massachusetts, accessed May 23, 2018.
64 The 190th General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Bill H. 4568, An Act to Promote Energy Diversity, accessed May 23, 2018.
65 LeBlanc, Steve, "New wind projects would deliver enough power for 600K homes," AP News (May 23, 2018).
66 NC Clean Technology Center, DSIRE, Massachusetts Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated May 23, 2017.
67 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (May 2018), Table 6.2.B.
68 NC Clean Technology Center, DSIRE, Massachusetts Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard, updated May 22, 2017.
69 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Data, Reserves, accessed May 19, 2018.
70 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Data, Supply and Distribution, accessed May 19, 2018.
71 Boston Harbor Now, Boston's Working Port: A Foundation for Innovation (January 2018), p. 11, 29.
72 U.S. EIA, Movements by Tanker and Barge between PAD Districts, Petroleum Products, 2012-17, accessed May 19, 2018.
73 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports (December 2017-February 2018).
74 Hansen, Lee, "Buckeye Pipeline," Connecticut General Assembly, Office of Legislative Research (October 1, 2013), Summary.
75 Rhode Island Department of Administration, Division of Planning, Energy 2035, Rhode Island State Energy Plan (October 8, 2015), p. 14-15.
76 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2016.
77 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2016, DOE/EIA-0215(2016) (June 2018), Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2016.
78 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, "Opt-In" Areas, accessed May 21, 2018.
79 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Massachusetts, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
80 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Heating Oil Reserve History, Purchase of Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate to Restock the Reserve, accessed May 21, 2018.
81 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR), accessed May 21, 2018.
82 Oil & Energy Online, Sulfur & Bioheat Requirements for No. 2 Heating Oil in the Northeast & Mid-Atlantic States, updated June 29, 2017.
83 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve, accessed June 13, 2018.
84 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Data, Reserves, accessed May 21, 2018.
85 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Data, Supply and Distribution, accessed May 21, 2018.
86 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-01).
87 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Annual Supply and Disposition by State, Consumption, Annual, 2012-17.
88 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Massachusetts, Annual, 2012-17.
89 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Massachusetts, 2011-16.
90 Kinder Morgan, Natural Gas Pipelines, Tennessee Gas Pipeline, accessed May 21, 2018.
91 U.S. EIA, "New England natural gas pipeline capacity increases for the first time since 2010," Today in Energy (December 6, 2016).
92 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Pipelines, U.S. state-to-state capacity, Inflow by State, Outflow by State, 1990-2017.
93 Enbridge, Infrastructure Map, Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines, Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline, accessed May 21, 2018.
94 Engie, Natural Gas and LNG, accessed May 21, 2018.
95 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Import/Export Terminals, Existing, updated April 23, 2018.
96 Northeast Gas Association, NGA "Regional Market Outlook" February 2018, p. 4-5.
97 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Imports by Port of Entry, LNG Imports into Everett, MA, Annual 2011-16.
98 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Imports by Port of Entry, LNG Imports into Northeast Gateway, Annual, 2011-16.
99 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Imports by Port of Entry, LNG Imports into Neptune Deepwater Port, Annual, 2011-16.
100 Northeast Gas Association, About LNG, The Role of LNG in the Northeast Natural Gas (and Energy) Market, accessed May 21, 2018.
101 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Massachusetts, Annual, 2011-16.
102 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Massachusetts, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
103 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Massachusetts, Annual, 2012-17.
104 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2011-16.
105 ISO-New England, Natural Gas Infrastructure Constraints, accessed May 21, 2018.
106 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Data, Reserves, accessed May 21, 2018.
107 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Data, Supply and Distribution, accessed May 21, 2018.
108 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Massachusetts Table DS-20, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2016.
109 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report (Abbreviated), October-December 2017 (April 2018), Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.
110 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Massachusetts Table DS-20, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2016.
111 Dynegy, "Dynegy reaches agreement to sell Brayton Point site," Press Release (November 20, 2017).
112 U.S. EIA, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Retired & Canceled Units Only).
113 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Massachusetts Table DS-20, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2016.
114 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October - December 2017 (April 2018), Table 34, Coal Consumption at Other Industrial Plants by Census Division and State.