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Massachusetts   Massachusetts Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: June 15, 2017

Overview

Massachusetts, one of the nation's most densely populated states in the nation, has a variety of renewable resources but no fossil energy reserves.1,2,3,4,5 The state is home to almost half of New England's residents.6 The population is concentrated in the eastern part of the state, centered around Boston.7 Elevations rise from the coastal marshes of Cape Cod in the east to the fringes of the Taconic Mountains, the Green Mountains, and the White Mountains to the north and west.8 The region's longest river, the Connecticut, with its fertile river valley, cuts across the state and has many dams, 12 of which provide hydropower. South Hadley Falls, the highest falls on the river, is located in the central part of Massachusetts near Holyoke; textile and paper mills were located there in the mid-1800s to harness the river's power.9,10

Massachusetts experiences wide ranges in temperature, but precipitation is equally distributed throughout the four seasons, and even coastal areas can get heavy snows.11 The ocean-moderated climate to the east helps make Massachusetts the nation's second-largest grower of cranberries. Agriculture in the rest of the state includes nurseries, fruit orchards, vegetable production, and berry, tobacco, and commercial truck farming. Overall, however, only one-tenth of the state is farmland. Half the state remains forested, and half of the farmland in the state is woodland or pasture.12,13,14,15

State efficiency programs help make Massachusetts among the least energy-intensive states in the nation.

Energy consumption in Massachusetts is more than 10 times greater than production.16 However, per capita energy consumption is low compared to other states, in part because of the state's energy efficiency programs.17,18 Massachusetts is a leader in energy efficiency policies and programs.19 Additionally, the state's economy relies on less energy-intensive industries. About half of the state's gross domestic product comes from finance, insurance, real estate, rental, and leasing; professional and business services; and information industries.20,21 The residential sector leads state end-use energy consumption, followed closely by the transportation sector.22

Petroleum

Massachusetts has no petroleum reserves, production, or refineries.23 The Port of Boston, the oldest continuously active port in the nation, has petroleum product terminals that supply most of the oil demand in Massachusetts.24 Refined products are transported to Boston Harbor by ship or barge, mainly from refineries in Canada and Europe, as well as from U.S. refineries, for redistribution inland.25,26 Two small-capacity petroleum product pipelines run from ports in Connecticut and Rhode Island into central Massachusetts.27,28

Three-fourths of the petroleum consumed in Massachusetts is used by the transportation sector, primarily as motor gasoline.29,30 Massachusetts is one of the few states that require the statewide use of reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol to limit ozone formation.31 About 3 in 10 households in the state are heated with fuel oil, making Massachusetts, like much of New England, vulnerable to distillate fuel oil shortages and price spikes during the winter months.32 The U.S. Department of Energy created the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to avert shortages. The reserve holds a total of 1 million barrels of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) in terminals at three locations in the Northeast, one of which is in Revere, Massachusetts.33 Most northeastern states are requiring ULSD for heating.34,35 Massachusetts is phasing in ULSD by 2018.36

Natural gas

Massachusetts has no natural gas reserves or production, but, in proportion to its population, the state consumes nearly half of the natural gas used in New England.37,38 Electric power generators account for the largest share of total natural gas consumption in the state, followed by the residential sector.39 Massachusetts receives its natural gas supplies by pipeline from other states and by ship as liquefied natural gas (LNG), mainly from the Caribbean and the Middle East.40 Pipelines entering the state from New York and Rhode Island bring natural gas from the Gulf Coast, Midcontinent, and Appalachia.41,42 Deliveries of natural gas from the Marcellus Shale of Pennsylvania through New Jersey, Connecticut, and Rhode Island and on to Massachusetts have increased significantly in recent years.43 A pipeline that traverses Maine and New Hampshire brings in offshore, onshore, and LNG-sourced natural gas from Canada.44

Massachusetts has New Englands' only operating LNG import terminals.

Massachusetts has the only LNG import terminals in New England, one at Everett on Boston Harbor and two offshore from Gloucester.45,46 The Everett terminal is connected to regional pipelines, a natural gas utility, and a power plant. LNG is also transported by truck to storage tanks for several natural gas local distribution companies.47 The Northeast Gateway, one of the two offshore terminals, received LNG deliveries in 2015 and 2016 after several years of inactivity. The other offshore terminal, Neptune, has been inactive since the facility's completion in 2010.48,49,50 The Canaport LNG terminal in St. John, New Brunswick, Canada, also sends natural gas south by pipeline. LNG, used primarily during the winter when natural gas is needed for heating, provides almost one-tenth of New England's natural gas supply.51 Massachusetts typically sends natural gas by pipeline to other New England states, but it is a net supplier only to Connecticut and, in some years, to New Hampshire.52

Half of the households in Massachusetts rely on natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating.53 Because of the difference in cost between natural gas and fuel oil, many households switched to natural gas in the past decade.54,55 The residential sector uses more than one-fourth of the state's total natural gas consumption, but the largest consumer in Massachusetts is the electric power sector, which uses almost two-fifths of the total.56 Like other New England states, Massachusetts has no underground natural gas storage and depends on storage capacity in other states to meet peak winter demand.57 As increasing amounts of natural gas are used for electricity generation in Massachusetts and throughout New England, assurance of natural gas supply remains a critical energy issue for the region.58

Coal

Massachusetts does not have any coal reserves or production.59 With no active coal mining, the state obtains all of the coal it needs either by ocean vessel from foreign suppliers or by rail from domestic mines, mostly in West Virginia.60,61,62 Some coal from Kentucky and Pennsylvania is delivered to industrial users in Massachusetts, but coal consumption for electricity generation has gradually fallen as coal-fired generation has decreased.63 Massachusetts' last operational coal-fired generating plant, the 1,505-megawatt Brayton Point plant located on the coast at Somerset, is the largest coal-fired power plant in New England. It is scheduled to shut down permanently by June 2017.64,65 Two other coal-fired power plants were closed in 2014: the Mount Tom plant, near Holyoke, Massachusetts, and the Salem Harbor plant, north of Boston.66

Electricity

Natural gas has become the primary fuel for electricity generation in Massachusetts, displacing coal and petroleum.

Natural gas fuels two-thirds of the electricity generation in Massachusetts.67 As coal and petroleum power plants are retired, their capacity is being replaced by natural gas-fired power plants. A new natural gas-fired power plant is being constructed at the site of the recently retired Salem Harbor coal-fired power plant.68,69 A decade ago, coal fueled about one-fourth of the state's power generation, but, by 2016, coal's share had fallen to less than 6% of net generation. In 2017, coal's contribution will end with the scheduled retirement of the state's last large coal-fired power plant.70,71 Petroleum-fired generation decreased from 15% in 2005 to only 1.3% in 2016.72 The grid operator has expressed reliability concerns, as petroleum-fired capacity is being shut down.73 Use of petroleum for generation had dropped to less than 0.5% between 2010 and 2012 but has increased to its current levels as the regional grid operator, Independent System Operator-New England (ISO-NE), has paid generators with dual-fired power plants to stockpile petroleum fuel to meet demand in severe winters when the natural gas delivery system is constrained.74,75 Massachusetts has received about one-sixth of its electricity from the Pilgrim nuclear power plant in Plymouth on Cape Cod Bay.76,77 However, the nuclear facility will no longer be generating electricity after June 2019.78

Virtually all new nonrenewable electricity generation being planned in Massachusetts will be fueled by natural gas. Infrastructure has been added to transport natural gas to the Northeast from the productive Marcellus and Utica shales of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio. Among the states near the shale region, Massachusetts is one of the leaders in the amount of natural gas-fired capacity added.79

Overall, more electricity is consumed in Massachusetts than is generated there, even though, on a per capita basis, electricity consumption in the state is among the lowest in the nation.80,81,82 Only about one in seven Massachusetts households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating. Although many Massachusetts homes have air conditioning, most homes do not have or do not use air conditioning during the state's mild summers.83,84

Renewable energy

Massachusetts aims to have 2,000 megawatts of wind capacity and 1,600 megawatts of solar capacity by 2020.

Renewable resources fuel almost one-tenth of utility-scale net electricity generation in Massachusetts.85 Until a decade ago, all utility-scale renewable power generation in the state came from hydroelectric and biomass facilities.86 Since 2008, wind and solar resources have come online, and by 2016, more than one-eighth of the state's power was generated with renewable energy, including distributed (small-scale, customer-sited) generation. More than half of that total was provided by wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power.87 Massachusetts has set a goal of 2,000 megawatts of wind capacity by 2020. About 6% of that capacity was in place by early 2017.88,89 Massachusetts policies also promote solar energy. As of 2015, there were solar installations in 350 of the state's 351 cities and towns.90 By 2016, Massachusetts ranked sixth in the nation in combined utility-scale and distributed solar PV electricity generation.91

Even though most of the onshore commercial wind development in Massachusetts has taken place along the coast, the largest projects are in the mountains near the state's northwestern border.92 Ridge crests in the mountains of western Massachusetts have good wind potential; however, coastal regions and offshore areas have the state's highest wind resource potential.93,94 In 2009, Massachusetts issued its first comprehensive Ocean Management Plan for state waters, identifying areas appropriate for offshore wind development.95 In 2010, the first commercial offshore renewable energy lease in the United States was granted to a project in the federal waters off Massachusetts' Cape Cod.96 The state's wind resources are excellent around Cape Cod and the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, but there has been opposition to building facilities within sight of land.97 The U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and the state have worked together to open more offshore areas to wind development.98

Massachusetts first adopted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2002. Currently the RPS requires companies selling retail electricity in Massachusetts to acquire increasing amounts of renewably sourced power to reach a goal of at least 15% of total electricity sold by 2020. There are additional requirements for percentage of sales from facilities in operation before January 1, 1998, and for power generated from municipal solid waste combustion. The state's RPS also specifies that at least 1,600 megawatts must come from solar by 2020.99 More than nine-tenths of that capacity requirement was installed by the end of 2016 and nearly all of it by April 2017. Massachusetts was seventh in the nation in installed solar PV generating capacity by the end of 2016.100,101 Massachusetts also has an Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard, requiring that 5% of electric load be met with high-efficiency customer-sited systems, such as industrial cogeneration, by 2020.102

Massachusetts is part of the Independent System Operator-New England (ISO-NE) regional electricity market. ISO-NE has promoted demand response programs to maintain the reliability of the electricity grid. As a result, industrial and commercial consumers in Massachusetts have committed to making substantial power reductions during demand peaks and emergencies.103 In 2016, Massachusetts had the highest electricity demand reduction target among all the states with energy efficiency resource standards.104 Massachusetts is also part of the northeastern Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a market-based cooperative effort to limit carbon emissions.105 With its declining use of coal and petroleum for electricity generation, the state is within its RGGI goals.106

Endnotes

1 U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census 2010, Resident Population Data (Text Version), Population Density, accessed May 22, 2017.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Massachusetts Profile Data, Reserves and Supply, accessed May 22, 2017.
3 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, accessed May 22, 2017.
4 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Clean Energy in My State, Massachusetts Renewable Energy Resource Maps, accessed May 22, 2017.
5 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.10.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
6 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Table PEPANNRES, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016, 2016 Population Estimates.
7 US Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Massachusetts Profile, Population Density by Census Tract, accessed May 22, 2017.
8 NETSTATE, The Geography of Massachusetts, The Land, accessed May 22, 2017.
9 Connecticut River Watershed Council, Watershed Facts, accessed May 22, 2017.
10 Lotspeich, Charlie, "Water Power to the People of Holyoke," Valley Advocate (June 4, 2009).
11 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, Massachusetts' Climate, The CoCoRaHS State Climate Series, accessed May 22, 2017.
12 Massachusetts Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, Bureau of Forestry, accessed May 22, 2017.
13 US Census Bureau, Geography, State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates, accessed May 22, 2017.
14 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, State Fact Sheets, Massachusetts, 2012, updated April 14, 2017.
15 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2016 State Agriculture Overview, Massachusetts, accessed May 22, 2017.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 through 2014, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2014, accessed May 22, 2017.
17 Massachusetts Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, Energy Efficiency, accessed May 22, 2017.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), Table C13, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
19 American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, State and Local Policy Database, Massachusetts, State Government, updated July 2016.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), Table C12, Total Energy Consumption, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2014.
21 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, All Industries, Massachusetts, 2015.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), Table C10, Total Consumption by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
23 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Data, Reserves and Supply, accessed May 22, 2017.
24 MassPort, About Port of Boston, accessed May 22, 2017.
25 U.S. EIA, Movements by Tanker and Barge between PAD Districts, Petroleum Products, 2011–16, accessed May 22, 2017.
26 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports (February 2016–February 2017).
27 Hansen, Lee, "Buckeye Pipeline," Connecticut General Assembly, Office of Legislative Research (October 1, 2013).
28 Rhode Island Department of Administration, Division of Planning, Energy 2035, Rhode Island State Energy Plan (October 8, 2015), p. 14.
29 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
30 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2014.
31 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, 'Opt-In' Areas, accessed May 22, 2017.
32 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Massachusetts, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate.
33 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR), accessed May 22, 2017.
34 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Heating Oil Reserve History, accessed May 22, 2017.
35 "Colonial Pipeline to stop shipping high sulfur heating oil in June," S&P Global Platts (April 23, 2015).
36 U.S. EIA, "Heating Oil Futures Contract Now Uses Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel," Today in Energy (May 10, 2013).
37 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Data, Reserves and Supply, accessed May 22, 2017.
38 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Supply and Disposition by State, Consumption, Annual, 2011–15, accessed May 22, 2017.
39 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Massachusetts, Annual, 2011–16, accessed May 22, 2017.
40 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Massachusetts, 2010–15, accessed May 22, 2017.
41 Kinder Morgan, Natural Gas Pipelines, Tennessee Gas Pipeline, accessed May 22, 2017.
42 Turkel, Tux, "Despite opposition, project expands New England natural-gas pipeline capacity," Portland Press Herald (December 27, 2016).
43 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Pipelines, U.S. state-to-state capacity, Inflow by State, Outflow by State, 1990–2016.
44 Spectra, U.S. Pipelines, Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline, Algonquin Gas Transmission, accessed May 22, 2017. Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company
45 Engie, Natural Gas and LNG, accessed May 22, 2017
46 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Import/Export Terminals, Existing, updated May 1, 2017.
47 Northeast Gas Association, NGA "Regional Market Outlook" January 2017, p. 4.
48 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Imports by Port of Entry, LNG Imports into Everett, MA, Annual 2011–16, accessed May 23, 2017.
49 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Imports by Port of Entry, LNG Imports into Northeast Gateway, Annual 2011–16, accessed May 23, 2017.
50 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Imports by Port of Entry, LNG Imports into Neptune Deepwater Port, Annual 2011–16, accessed May 23, 2017.
51 Northeast Gas Association, About LNG, The Role of LNG in the Northeast Natural Gas (and Energy) Market, accessed May 22, 2017.
52 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Massachusetts, Annual 2010–15, accessed May 23, 2017.
53 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Massachusetts, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate.
54 Ailworth, Erin, "Natural gas supply worries arise," Bostonglobe.com (August 23, 2012).
55 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Massachusetts, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2015 and 2006, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
56 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Massachusetts, Annual, 2011–16, accessed May 23, 2017.
57 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, accessed May 23, 2017.
58 van Welie, Gordon, ISO-New England, State of the Grid: 2016 (January 26, 2016), p. 22.
59 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Data, Reserves and Supply, accessed May 23, 2017.
60 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 2016), Massachusetts Table DS-20, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2015.
61 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report (Abbreviated), October-December 2016 (April 2017), Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.
62 Union of Concerned Scientists, Burning Coal, Burning Cash: Ranking the States That Import the Most Coal, 2014 Update (2014), p. 16.
63 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 2016), Massachusetts Table DS-20. Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2015.
64 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2015.
65 "Dynegy set to close coal-fired Brayton Point power plant June 1," S&P Global Platts (May 22, 2017).
66 U.S. EIA, Capacity of Electric Power Plants, Detailed EIA-860 survey data, Coal-fired generating units capacity, energy source, date of first operation, and planned retirement date, 2015 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Retired & Canceled Coal Units Only), accessed May 23, 2017.
67 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
68 Footprint Power, Salem Harbor Station, accessed May 23, 2017.
69 Smallheer, Susan, "Power supply may be tight this summer," Rutland Herald (April 28, 2017).
70 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (March 2007), Tables 1.6.B, 1.7.B; (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
71 "Dynegy set to close coal-fired Brayton Point power plant June 1," S&P Global Platts (May 22, 2017).
72 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (March 2006), Tables 1.6.B, 1.8.B; (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.5.B.
73 ISO New England, Retirements of Non-Gas-Fired Power Plants, accessed May 23, 2017.
74 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (March 2011), Tables 1.6.B, 1.8.B; (February 2013), Tables 1.6.B, 1.8.B.
75 ISO-NEwswire, "Update on the 2016/2017 Winter Reliability Program," ISO-New England (January 17, 2017).
76 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B
77 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, accessed May 22, 2017.
78 Holtzman, Michael, "Region's Energy Needs Are Point of Concern amid Pilgrim Nuclear Plants Closure Announcement," The Taunton Daily Gazette (October 13, 2015).
79 U.S. EIA, "Many natural gas-fired power plants under construction are near major shale plays," Today in Energy (May 19, 2016).
80 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Electricity Profile, 2015, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2015.
81 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01).
82 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.4.B.
83 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Massachusetts, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate.
84 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2009 RECS Survey Data, Housing Characteristics, Table HC7.8 Air Conditioning in Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009.
85 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
86 U.S. EIA, Detailed State Data, 1990–2015, Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923).
87 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
88 ISO New England, Massachusetts 2013-14 State Profile, accessed May 25, 2017.
89 Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, Department of Energy Resources, Renewable Energy Snapshot, accessed May 25, 2017.
90 Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, "Baker-Polito Administration Announces Solar Milestone for Massachusetts," Press Release (May 7, 2015).
91 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.17.B.
92 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Overview, Map Layer Wind Power Plant, accessed May 25, 2017.
93 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Massachusetts Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, accessed May 25, 2017.
94 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Massachusetts Offshore 90-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential, accessed May 25, 2017.
95 Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, 2015 Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan, Volume 1, Management and Administration (2015), p. 1-5.
96 U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Cape Wind, accessed May 25, 2017.
97 Vigeant, Paul, "Offshore wind but not Cape Wind," Commonwealth Magazine (May 13, 2016).
98 U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Commercial Wind Leasing Offshore Massachusetts, accessed May 25, 2017.
99 NC Clean Technology Center, DSIRE, Massachusetts Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated May 23, 2017.
100 Solar Energy Industries Association, Top 10 Solar States, accessed May 25, 2017.
101 Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, Department of Energy Resources, Renewable Energy Snapshot, accessed May 25, 2017.
102 NC Clean Technology Center, DSIRE, Massachusetts Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard, updated May 22, 2017.
103 ISO New England, New England Power Grid State Profiles 2016–2017 (January 2017).
104 U.S. EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2016 With Projections to 2040 (August 2016), p. LR-18.
105 Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Welcome, accessed May 25, 2017.
106 Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, "Massachusetts on Track to Meet 25% Greenhouse Gas Reduction Target for 2020," Press Release (January 19, 2016).