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Massachusetts   Massachusetts Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: September 16, 2021

Overview

Massachusetts, home to almost half of New England's residents, is one of the most densely populated states in the nation.1,2 Most of the state's population resides in the eastern half of the state, particularly around Boston on the Atlantic coast.3 Massachusetts has no fossil fuel reserves, but the state's energy policies encourage renewable energy development, especially from solar and wind energy.4,5,6 Solar arrays and rooftop panels contribute the largest share of Massachusetts' renewable generation and are found statewide.7 Elevations in Massachusetts rise from sea level around the coastal marshes of Cape Cod in the east to almost 3,500 feet in the Berkshire and Taconic Mountains in the west.8 Offshore winds in the east and onshore ones on the state's western mountain ridges provide Massachusetts with substantial wind power potential.9 More than three-fifths of Massachusetts is forested, but, despite its abundant forest resources, the state's primary biomass resource used for electricity generation is municipal solid waste.10,11 Biomass, primarily from urban waste, fuels several power plants in the eastern half of the state.12,13 The region's longest river, the Connecticut, cuts across central Massachusetts and, along with other rivers, provides the state with hydropower resources.14

Massachusetts summers are generally mild and mid-winter temperatures are often below freezing, but rarely below zero. Precipitation, as rain or snow, is equally distributed throughout the year.15 Although only one-tenth of the state is farmland, and half of that farmland is woodland or pasture, farming occurs in many of the state's counties, especially in the fertile Connecticut River valley in the center of the state.16,17 The ocean-moderated climate and coastal bogs of Plymouth and Cape Cod in eastern Massachusetts help make the state the nation's second-largest producer of cranberries after Wisconsin.18,19

Massachusetts uses less energy per dollar of economic output than all but two other states.

Massachusetts consumes about 15 times more energy than it produces.20 But, it is among the 10 states with the lowest energy consumption on a per capita basis, in part because the state's economy relies on less energy-intensive service industries.21 Massachusetts uses less energy to produce a dollar of gross domestic product (GDP) than all but two other states, New York and California.22 About half of Massachusetts' GDP comes from finance, insurance, real estate, rental, and leasing; professional and business services; and state and local governments. Overall, private service-providing industries account for more than three-fourths of state GDP.23

The transportation sector leads Massachusetts' end-use energy consumption, accounting for about one-third of total state use. However, the residential sector and the commercial sector consume almost as much at slightly less than three-tenths each. The industrial sector uses about one-tenth.24

Electricity

In 2020, Massachusetts consumed more than twice as much electricity as it generated.

Natural gas fueled about two-thirds of Massachusetts' total in-state electricity net generation in 2020, and, as of June 2021, Massachusetts had two-fifths of the natural gas-fired generating capacity in New England, the largest share in the region.25,26 A decade ago, coal fueled about one-fourth of Massachusetts' electricity net generation, but since mid-2017 there has been no utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) coal-fired electricity generation in the state. Petroleum-fired generation, which is largely used to meet peak electricity demand during winter, continued, but decreased from more than one-fifth of the state's net generation in 2001 to less than 1% in 2020. Before 2019, Massachusetts received more than one-tenth of its electricity generation from the Pilgrim nuclear power plant, located in Plymouth on Cape Cod Bay. Because of economic factors, the plant ceased generating electricity in May 2019 and is in the process of decommissioning.27,28 Overall, in-state electricity generation has declined to less than half of what it was in 2010, in part because a reduction in fossil fuel-fired generation during the preceding 10 years and because of the retirement of the state's only nuclear power plant in mid-2019. In 2020, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic contributed to a further decrease.29,30 Renewable resources provide about three-tenths of Massachusetts' total in-state generation, most of it from solar energy. Small-scale solar PV systems (less than 1-megawatt) account for almost two-thirds of the state's total solar capacity and accounted for three-fifths of the state's solar electricity net generation in 2020.31,32 Utility-scale solar capacity has increased and almost 140 megawatts came online in 2020 and 2021. Currently, all of the state's planned electricity generation additions will be fueled by renewable energy or natural gas.33

Massachusetts is part of the northeastern Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), an 11-state cooperative effort to limit and reduce carbon emissions from power plants.34 With its declining use of coal and petroleum for electricity generation, Massachusetts has reduced its total greenhouse gas emissions. In 2017, the state's emissions were 22.4% below the 1990 baseline level, which was on track to meet the goal of a 25% reduction by 2020.35 The Governor's Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs set a new goal of net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.36

Massachusetts' commercial sector accounts for almost half of the state's electricity retail sales. The residential sector accounts for about two-fifths.37 However, only one in six Massachusetts households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating, and electricity use for air conditioning is relatively low because of the mild Massachusetts summers.38,39 The industrial sector accounts for a little more than one-tenth of state electricity purchases, and the transportation sector uses less than 1%.40 On a per capita basis, Massachusetts' total electricity consumption, as measured by retail sales, is less than in all but three other states.41 Even so, in 2019, Massachusetts consumed more than twice as much electricity as it generated, and additional electricity was brought in over the regional grid by ISO-New England (ISO-NE). ISO-NE manages and maintains the reliability of the region's electricity grid.42,43

Renewable energy

Massachusetts plans to have 3,200 megawatts of offshore wind power generating capacity by 2035.

The contribution of renewable resources to Massachusetts' electricity net generation has increased steadily since 2008, and in 2020, renewable-sourced electricity accounted for three-tenths of total in-state net generation. All utility-scale renewable power generation in Massachusetts came from hydroelectric and biomass facilities until 2008, when solar and wind-powered generating units came online. By 2020, almost one-fifth of the state's total net generation, including small-scale generation, was produced by solar power, and the state ranked ninth in the nation in the amount of electricity generated from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels.44,45 By the end of 2020, Massachusetts ranked eighth in the nation in combined utility-scale and small-scale solar PV generating capacity with about 2,710 megawatts installed.46

Biomass has been used for power generation in Massachusetts for decades and was the second-largest source for the state's renewable-sourced electricity in 2020, when it provided about 5% of the state's total electricity net generation.47,48 Massachusetts' biomass power plants have a total of about 284 megawatts of capacity, and the plants with the highest capacities are fueled with municipal solid waste.49,50 Hydropower supplied the third-largest amount of in-state renewable electricity and accounted for slightly less than 5% of the state's total net generation.51 There are 30 conventional hydroelectric power plants in Massachusetts and two hydroelectric pumped storage facilities.52 In the 19th century, many dams were built on the state's rivers to provide mechanical power to industrial mills. South Hadley Falls, the highest falls on the Connecticut River, is in central Massachusetts near the city of Holyoke. The state's oldest operating hydroelectric power plant, built in 1893, is located there.53,54,55

In mid-2021, Massachusetts had 23 utility-scale wind power facilities online with a combined 106 megawatts of generating capacity.56 Wind power accounted for 1.5% of the state's utility-scale net generation in 2020.57 Most of the onshore commercial wind development in Massachusetts is along the coast, but the largest wind farms and the largest share of the state's wind generating capacity, about two-fifths, is in two projects in the mountains near the state's northwestern border.58 In 2016, the state enacted legislation that required utilities to conduct competitive solicitations for offshore wind capacity and to enter into cost-effective, long-term contracts for offshore wind energy generation equal to about 1,600 megawatts by mid-2027. In 2018, the state's Department of Energy Resources was given the authority to require an additional 1,600 megawatts by 2035.59,60,61 The best offshore wind resources are around Cape Cod and the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket.62 Massachusetts' first offshore wind farm, which is expected to have 800 megawatts of generating capacity, is in development 15 miles south of Martha's Vineyard and is scheduled to begin operating in 2024.63,64 An additional wind project, Mayflower Wind, is in development in the federal offshore south of Martha's Vineyard. That project will connect to the transmission infrastructure at the site of the former Brayton Point coal-fired power plant.65,66

Massachusetts' renewable portfolio standard (RPS) applies to investor-owned utilities and retail electricity suppliers. Originally, the RPS required that electricity sales from renewable resources increase by 0.5% per year until they reached 4% in 2009. However, in 2009, the annual RPS requirement increased to 1% per year with no established end date. A portion of all power sales must be generated from solar and waste energy. Massachusetts also established a Clean Energy Standard (CES) similar to the RPS. The CES sets a minimum percentage of electricity sales that suppliers must obtain from clean energy sources that have net lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of at least 50% below those from the most efficient natural gas-fueled generator. Eligible technologies include hydroelectric and nuclear power. The CES requirement began at 16% of sales from clean energy by 2018, and, after that, it requires increases of 2% annually with a final goal of 80% in 2050.67

Petroleum

One of the three Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve storage sites is located in Revere, Massachusetts.

Massachusetts has no crude oil production, reserves, or refineries.68,69 The Port of Boston, one of the nation's oldest seaports, has petroleum product terminals that supply most of the demand in Massachusetts.70 Refined products are transported to Boston Harbor by ship or barge from refineries in the United States, Canada, Europe, and other regions of the world for redistribution inland.71,72 Additionally, two small-capacity petroleum product pipelines run from ports in Connecticut and Rhode Island to terminals in central Massachusetts. Petroleum products also enter Massachusetts by truck.73,74

The transportation sector uses almost four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in Massachusetts, primarily as motor gasoline and diesel fuel.75,76 Massachusetts is one of the few states that require the statewide use of reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol to limit smog and toxic pollutant formation.77,78 The largest share of the state's remaining petroleum use occurs in the residential sector, where one in four households heat with fuel oil or kerosene.79,80 Massachusetts, like much of New England, is vulnerable to distillate fuel oil shortages and price spikes during the winter months. The U.S. Department of Energy created the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to avoid heating fuel shortages. The reserve holds 1 million barrels of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) in terminals at three locations in the Northeast, one of which is in Revere, Massachusetts. That site can store 400,000 barrels of ULSD.81,82 All the northeastern states, including Massachusetts, require the use of ULSD—which has sulfur levels that are no greater than 15 parts per million—for heating.83 Massachusetts is also home to one of the three storage sites that make up the 1-million-barrel federal Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve, which was created to counter motor fuel supply disruptions caused by hurricanes, winter storms, and other natural events.84

Natural gas

Massachusetts has New England’s only operating LNG import terminals.

Massachusetts does not have any natural gas reserves or production.85,86 The state receives its natural gas supply from interstate pipelines and liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminals. Pipeline deliveries of natural gas have shifted as production from the Marcellus and Utica shales in the Appalachians has offset shipments from other regions.87 Natural gas also comes from offshore Nova Scotia in Canada.88 In recent years, pipeline infrastructure has been added to transport natural gas deliveries to the Northeast.89 Most of the natural gas that enters Massachusetts by pipeline comes through New York and Rhode Island.90 Additional pipeline deliveries come via a pipeline that traverses Maine and New Hampshire to deliver offshore, onshore, and LNG-sourced natural gas from Canada.91 The natural gas that is not consumed in the state is typically sent by pipeline to Rhode Island and New Hampshire. A small amount is sent to Connecticut.92

Although Massachusetts receives most of its natural gas supplies by pipeline through other states, natural gas also arrives by tanker at the state's LNG terminals. Massachusetts has the only LNG import terminals in New England, one at Everett on Boston Harbor and two offshore in Massachusetts Bay.93,94,95,96 In 2020, U.S. LNG imports were less than 7% of their 2007 peak.97 However, in 2020, Everett received the most LNG imports of any U.S. terminal, most of it from the Caribbean, and the Everett terminal handled about 60% of all U.S. LNG imports.98,99 The terminal is connected to regional pipelines, a natural gas utility, and a power plant. LNG is also transported by truck to storage tanks for several local natural gas distribution companies. The Northeast Gateway, one of the two offshore terminals, did not receive any LNG imports in 2020. The other offshore terminal, Neptune Deepwater Port, has been inactive since it received initial LNG deliveries at the time of the facility's completion in 2010. LNG provides more than one-fourth of New England's natural gas supplies during peak heating demand days in the winter.100,101

Like other New England states, Massachusetts has no underground natural gas storage and depends on storage capacity in other states to meet peak winter natural gas demand for heating and for electricity generation.102 As increasing amounts of natural gas are used for electricity generation in Massachusetts and throughout New England, assurance of natural gas supply remains a critical energy issue for the region.103

In proportion to the state's share of the region's population, Massachusetts consumers account for nearly half of the natural gas used in New England.104,105 The residential sector typically accounts for about three-tenths of natural gas consumption in Massachusetts.106 Slightly more than half of households in the state rely on natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating.107 Although the electric power sector has been the largest consumer of natural gas for almost two decades, in 2019 it used less than the residential sector. The amount of natural gas delivered to the electric power sector declined further in 2020, when it fell to its lowest level in two decades.108 The commercial sector and the electric power sector each accounted for slightly less than three-tenths of the state's natural gas consumption. The industrial sector used slightly more than one-tenth.109

Coal

Massachusetts does not have any coal mines, reserves, or production.110 A small amount of coal is brought into the state from Pennsylvania to meet the limited needs of industrial plants.111 There is no longer any utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation in Massachusetts.112 The state's last operational coal-fired generating plant, the 1,488-megawatt Brayton Point plant located on the coast at Somerset, was permanently shut down at the end of May 2017.113 Two other coal-fired power plants closed in 2014—the Mount Tom plant near Holyoke and the Salem Harbor plant north of Boston.114

Endnotes

1 Statista, Population density in the U.S. by federal states including the District of Columbia in 2020, accessed August 16, 2021.
2 U.S. Census Bureau, Quick Facts, Vermont; Rhode Island; New Hampshire; Maine; Massachusetts; Connecticut, accessed August 7, 2021.
3 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Massachusetts Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Massachusetts Profile Data, Reserves, 2019.
5 Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, Renewable Energy Division, Solar Information & Programs, accessed August 16, 2021.
6 Massachusetts Clean Energy Center, Commonwealth Wind, accessed August 16, 2021.
7 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Overview, Solar Power Plant Map Layer, accessed August 25, 2021.
8 NETSTATE, The Geography of Massachusetts, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
9 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Massachusetts, accessed August 16, 2021.
10 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MassWoods, Massachusetts Forests, accessed August 16, 2021.
11 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2021.
12 Roberts, Billy J., Solid Biomass Resources in the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (January 15, 2014).
13 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Overview, Biomass Power Plant Map Layer, accessed August 25, 2021.
14 Connecticut River Conservancy, Watershed Facts, accessed August 16, 2021.
15 The CoCoRaHS State Climate Series, Climate of Massachusetts, accessed August 16, 2021.
16 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, State Fact Sheets: Massachusetts, Farm Characteristics, updated June 2, 2021.
17 University of Massachusetts Amherst, Center for Agriculture, Food, and the Environment, Geography of Farms, accessed August 22, 2021.
18 Shahbandeh, M., "Cranberry production in the U.S. 2020, by state," Statista (May 18, 2021).
19 Beckius, Kim Knox, "Visiting Cranberry Bogs in Massachusetts," Tripsavvy, updated May 10, 2019.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
23 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Massachusetts, All statistics in table, 2019, 2020.
24 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
25 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Massachusetts, All fuels, Natural gas, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-20.
26 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (August 2021), Table 6.2.C.
27 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Massachusetts, All fuels, Coal, Petroleum, Nuclear, Annual, Monthly, 2001-20.
28 Entergy, "Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Shut Down Permanently," Press Release (May 31, 2019).
29 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Massachusetts, Net generation for all sectors, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
30 Knight, Patrick, "COVID-19 Lowers Electricity Use in New England," Synapse Energy Economics, Inc. (May 18, 2020).
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Massachusetts, Net generation for all sectors, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2020.
32 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (August 2021), Table 6.2.B.
33 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2021 and Inventory of Planned Generators as of June 2021.
34 Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Welcome, accessed August 18, 2021.
35 Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, GHG Emissions and Mitigation Policies, accessed August 19, 2021.
36 Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, "Baker-Polito Administration Issues Letter Establishing Net Zero Emissions Target," Press Release (April 22, 2020).
37 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (July 2021), Table 5.4.B.
38 U.S. Census Bureau, Massachusetts, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables.
39 U.S. EIA, Household Energy Use in Massachusetts, accessed August 18, 2021.
40 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.4.B.
41 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
42 ISO New England, Operating the Power System, accessed August 18, 2021.
43 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Electricity Profile, 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Massachusetts, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Biomass, All utility-scale solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, 2001-20.
45 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table1.17.B.
46 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 6.2.B.
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Massachusetts, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Biomass, All utility-scale solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, 2001-20.
48 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Electricity Profile 2019, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2019.
49 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (August 2021), Table 6.2.B.
50 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2021.
51 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Massachusetts, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Biomass, All utility-scale solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, 2001-20.
52 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2021.
53 Connecticut River Watershed Council, Watershed Facts, accessed August 18, 2021.
54 Lotspeich, Charlie, "Water Power to the People of Holyoke," Valley Advocate (June 4, 2009).
55 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), ER2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
56 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2021.
57 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Massachusetts, All fuels, Wind, Annual, 2020.
58 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed August 18, 2021.
59 The 190th General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Chapter 188, An Act to Promote Energy Diversity, approved August 8, 2016, Section 83C (b).
60 The 190th General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Chapter 227, An Act to Advance Clean Energy, approved August 9, 2018, Section 21 (a).
61 Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, Offshore Wind Study (May 2019), p. 20.
62 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Massachusetts, Maps & Data, accessed August 19, 2021.
63 Vineyard Wind, Vineyard Wind 1, Overview, accessed August 19, 2021.
64 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of June 2021.
65 Mayflower Wind, Project Description, accessed August 22, 2021.
66 Durakovic, Adnan, "Mayflower Wind to Hook Up to Brayton Point," offshoreWIND.biz (May 28, 2021).
67 Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, Renewable Energy Division, Program Summaries, accessed August 19, 2021.
68 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Estimated Production and Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2014-19.
69 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, 2016-21.
70 Boston Harbor Now, Boston's Working Port: A Foundation for Innovation (January 2018), p. 11, 28-29.
71 U.S. EIA, Movements by Tanker and Barge between PAD Districts, Petroleum Products, 2016-21.
72 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports (January 2021-May 2021).
73 U.S. Department of Energy, State of Massachusetts Energy Sector Risk Profile, p. 4, accessed August 19, 2021.
74 Rhode Island Department of Administration, Division of Planning, Energy 2035, Rhode Island State Energy Plan (October 8, 2015), p. 14-15.
75 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
76 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2019.
77 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
78 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, "Opt-In" Areas, accessed August 19, 2021.
79 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
80 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Massachusetts, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables.
81 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, History, accessed August 19, 2021.
82 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, About NEHHOR, accessed August 19, 2021.
83 Morgan, Mark S., "EPA and DOT document notification requirements for 15 PPM heating oil," New England Fuel Institute (May 18, 2018).
84 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve, About NGSR, accessed August 20, 2021.
85 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2014-19.
86 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2015-20.
87 Northeast Gas Association, NGA Regional Market Trends Update July 2021, p. 3.
88 Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities, Natural gas distribution, accessed August 20, 2021.
89 U.S. EIA, "New England natural gas pipeline capacity increases for the first time since 2010," Today in Energy (December 6, 2016).
90 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Massachusetts, Annual, 2014-19.
91 Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline, System Map, accessed August 20, 2021.
92 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Massachusetts, Annual, 2014-19.
93 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Import Terminals, Existing, updated April 16, 2021.
94 Exelon, Everett LNG Facility, accessed August 20, 2021.
95 Engie, Neptune LNG, accessed August 20, 2021.
96 Excelerate Energy, Northeast Gateway Deepwater Port, accessed August 20, 2021.
97 U.S. EIA, U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports, 1985-2020.
98 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Massachusetts, Annual, 2014-19.
99 U.S. EIA, Natural gas explained, Liquified natural gas, accessed August 25, 2021.
100 Northeast Gas Association, About LNG, The Role of LNG in the Northeast Natural Gas (and Energy) Market, Use of LNG in the Northeast, accessed August 25, 2021.
101 Northeast Gas Association, NGA Regional Market Trends Update July 2021, p. 3.
102 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2014-19.
103 ISO-New England, Natural Gas Infrastructure Constraints, accessed August 20, 2021.
104 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Annual Supply and Disposition by State, Consumption, Annual, 2015-20.
105 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals: 2010-2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019; April 1, 2020; and July 1, 2020.
106 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Massachusetts, Annual, 2015-19.
107 U.S. Census Bureau, Massachusetts, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables.
108 U.S. EIA, Massachusetts Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers and Massachusetts Natural Gas Residential Consumption, 2001-20.
109 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Massachusetts, Annual, 2015-19.
110 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Tables 1, 15.
111 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2019), Domestic Distribution of U.S. coal by destination state, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Table DS-19, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
112 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Massachusetts, All fuels, Coal, 2001-20.
113 "Dynegy reaches agreement to sell Brayton Point site," Business Wire (November 20, 2017).
114 U.S. EIA, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020ER Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Retired & Canceled Units Only), Massachusetts, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.