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Oregon   Oregon Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: February 17, 2022

Overview

Oregon sits on the U.S. Pacific Coast between the more populous states of Washington and California.1 The Columbia River forms much of Oregon's northern border with Washington and cuts through both the Cascade Mountain Range and the Coastal Ranges, forming the Columbia Gorge, an area of high wind energy potential.2,3 Large dams along the Columbia River produce most of the hydroelectric power in Oregon and throughout the Pacific Northwest. High annual rainfall in the western part of the state coupled with runoff from the snowpack in the state's mountains make it possible for Oregon to generate substantial amounts of hydroelectric power.4,5 Mild temperatures and abundant rainfall in western Oregon contribute to rapid tree growth, which, along with agricultural residues, are ample sources of biomass for power generation.6,7 The Cascade Mountains are volcanic in origin, and in addition to containing the nation's deepest lake, they have the state's greatest geothermal resources. East of the Cascades is the Columbia Plateau, which, like the Basin and Range area along Oregon's southern border with California, is more arid than the areas west of the Cascades.8 However, the high desert country and uplands of southern and eastern Oregon are promising sites for wind, solar, and geothermal energy development.9,10,11 Oregon has only minor fossil energy reserves and no nuclear power reactors.12,13,14

Energy use per capita in Oregon is less than in almost three-fourths of the states.15 The transportation sector accounts for three-tenths of state end-use sector total energy consumption. The industrial sector is the second-largest energy consumer, followed closely by the residential sector. Each of those sectors accounts for about one-fourth of the state's end-use sector total energy consumption, and the commercial sector accounts for about one-fifth.16 Although the state's agriculture, food processing, and forestry activities, including the manufacture of forest products, are energy-intensive, most of Oregon's gross domestic product (GDP) comes from non-energy-intensive businesses. Computers and electronic products accounted for almost half of the state's manufacturing GDP in 2020, and Oregon's industrial sector per capita energy consumption is less than in two-thirds of the states.17,18 In part because most of Oregon's population centers are in mild climate zones in the Willamette Valley and along the Pacific Coast west of the Cascades, the state's residential sector energy use per capita ranked 42nd in the nation in 2019.19,20,21

Electricity

Hydroelectric power typically provides more than half of Oregon's in-state total electricity net generation. However, because of abnormally dry weather and drought in recent years, hydroelectric power supplied less than half of Oregon's in-state net generation in 2019 for the first time in more than 20 years. In 2020, hydroelectric power accounted for 50% of Oregon's in-state electricity generation.22,23 Nevertheless, Oregon was the second-largest hydroelectric power producer in the nation in 2020.24 Oregon's four largest electricity generating facilities—John Day, The Dalles, Bonneville, and McNary—are on the Columbia River and are all at federally owned and operated dams, the youngest of which is 50 years old. They account for two-thirds of the generating capacity from the 10 largest power plants in the state. The Bonneville Power Administration markets the power they produce.25,26 Many smaller hydroelectric plants along Oregon's rivers also supply the state with power.27

Hydroelectric power typically provides more than half of the electricity generated in Oregon.

Natural gas fuels the second-largest share of Oregon's electricity generation. In 2020, natural gas-fired power plants provided 30% of the state's total net generation. Nonhydroelectric renewable resources—wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal power—provide almost all the rest of Oregon's total generation, almost 18% in 2020. Two decades ago, coal fueled about 10% of Oregon's in-state net generation, but, by 2020, coal's share was less than 3%, and Oregon's only coal-fired power plant closed in October 2020.28,29 There are no commercial nuclear power plants in the state.30 Oregon's only nuclear power plant shut down after cracks in the steam tubes were detected in 1992. The plant was decommissioned and demolished in 2006.31

Oregon's total electricity retail sales per capita are near the U.S. average.32 The residential sector, where about half the households heat with electricity, accounted for almost two-fifths of Oregon's electricity retail sales in 2020.33 The commercial sector and the industrial sector each accounted for slightly more than three-tenths. The transportation sector consumed a small amount of electricity.34

In every year since 2007, Oregonians used less electricity than the state's power plants generated and the excess power went to other states by way of the Western Interconnection—one of North America's principal power grids.35 The Western Interconnection reaches from western Canada down to Baja California in Mexico and stretches from the Pacific Ocean eastward across the Rocky Mountains to the Great Plains.36 Major transmission lines of the Western Interconnection link Oregon's electricity grid to California's grid, allowing for large interstate electricity transfers between the Pacific Northwest and the Southwest. The 846-mile Pacific Intertie Direct Current transmission line, which runs from the Oregon-Washington border to Los Angeles, can move up to 3,220 megawatts of power.37 Although originally designed to transmit electricity south during California's peak summer demand season, the flow sometimes reverses at night and in the winter when power demand to meet heating needs increases in the Pacific Northwest.38

Oregon partnered with Washington, California, and British Columbia, Canada, to create the West Coast Electric Highway corridor, a network of public charging stations for electric vehicles located every 25 to 50 miles along Interstate 5 and other major roads in the Pacific Northwest. It is part of the West Coast Green Highway system that spans more than 1,300 miles from British Columbia to Baja, Mexico.39,40 As of February 2022, there were about 900 public electric charging stations with more than 2,100 charging ports in service across Oregon.41 The state is also part of the Multi-State Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) collaborative.42 As of December 2020, Oregon had almost 23,000 registered all-electric vehicles.43

Renewable energy

In 2020, wind power accounted for 14% of Oregon’s in-state electricity generation.

In 2020, renewable resources, led by hydroelectric power, accounted for about 68% of Oregon's total in-state electricity net generation.44 Although hydroelectric power accounted for three-fourths of the state's renewable generation, utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) electricity generation from nonhydroelectric renewable sources more than doubled during the past decade. Wind accounted for the largest share of the increased generation.45 In 2020, wind power accounted for 14% of Oregon's total in-state electricity net generation.46 Most of the state's wind farms are along the Columbia Gorge and in eastern Oregon's Blue Mountains.47 By November 2021, Oregon had almost 3,800 megawatts of wind capacity.48 A 200-megawatt wind farm in northern Oregon is scheduled to come online in 2022.49

In 2020, solar energy supplied about 2% of Oregon's total electricity net generation, including small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) installations, surpassing the contribution from biomass for the first time. All of Oregon's solar powered electricity generation is photovoltaic (PV).50 The state's first utility-scale solar facilities came online in late 2011, but most of Oregon's solar generation came from rooftop and other small-scale solar power installations until 2017.51 Several larger utility-scale solar projects came online since then. A 56-megawatt solar PV facility came online in October 2017, and the state's first solar PV facility with greater than 70 megawatts of capacity came online in 2021.52 There are additional larger solar PV projects in development, and more than 400 megawatts of solar PV capacity is scheduled to come online in 2022.53

Biomass generates most of the rest of Oregon's renewable-sourced electricity—about 1.5% of the state's total net generation in 2020.54 Wood and wood waste fuel most of the state's biomass generation, but landfill gas, municipal solid waste, and other biomass-fueled facilities also contribute.55,56 Forest covers almost half of the state, and many industrial facilities in Oregon use woody biomass to generate electricity.57,58 Biomass is also a thermal energy source, and some commercial facilities in the state, including schools and hospitals, use wood for space heating. About 6% of Oregon households heat with wood.59,60 Oregon also has five operating wood pellet manufacturing facilities with a combined production capacity of more than 250,000 tons per year, or about 2% of the nation's total.61

Although geothermal energy accounts for less than 1% of Oregon's net generation, the state has excellent geothermal resources.62,63 A U.S. Department of Energy study ranked the state's geothermal potential third in the nation, after Nevada and California.64 Oregon's Cascade Mountains are an active volcanic region and, along with other high-temperature geothermal areas in the state, have an estimated 2,200 megawatts of electricity generating potential.65,66 Oregon has two geothermal power plants, but only one is operational. The state's larger geothermal power plant, built in 2012, is active and has about 18 megawatts of capacity. The second and much smaller geothermal power plant, with a capacity of about 2 megawatts, has been offline since 2017.67,68 Oregon residents have used low-to-moderate temperature geothermal resources for more than a century in direct heat applications. Almost the entire state east of the Cascade Range has ample low- to mid-temperature geothermal resources, and there are more than 2,000 thermal wells and springs in Oregon that furnish direct heat to buildings, communities, and other facilities in the state.69,70

Oregon is in the early stages of tapping its marine and hydrokinetic—wave and tidal—energy resources.71 A U.S. Department of Energy-funded investigation led by Oregon State University has two marine test sites off the coast of Newport, Oregon. The first, PacWave North, is a stand-alone test site for small-scale technologies. A second site, PacWave South, will be the first full-scale grid-connected, wave energy conversion technology test facility in the United States. When complete, the 20-megawatt capacity site will be the largest grid-connected wave energy testing facility in the world.72,73 Construction of PacWave South began in mid-2021.74

In 2021, Oregon's legislature increased its Clean Energy Standard (CES) The legislature established a 100% clean energy target for the state's largest investor-owned utilities. The law calls for a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of 80% of baseline by 2030, 90% by 2035, and 100% by 2040.75 Oregon's original renewable energy portfolio standard (RPS) required that the state's largest utilities—those with more than 3% of the state's electricity retail sales—acquire at least 50% of the electricity they sell from renewable-sourced generation by 2040.76

Natural gas

Oregon has the only natural gas field in the Pacific Northwest.

Oregon has the only natural gas field in the Pacific Northwest—the Mist field of northwestern Oregon, discovered in 1979—but the state does not have significant natural gas reserves or production.77,78,79 Although it produces only a small fraction of the U.S. total, Mist Field production reached a high of 4.6 billion cubic feet of natural gas per year in the mid-1980s. Annual natural gas production from the field declined to 320 million cubic feet in 2020.80 Mist Field also contains two of the state's underground natural gas storage reservoirs.81,82 Oregon's natural gas storage fields have a combined capacity of about 35 billion cubic feet.83 Typically, natural gas is put into storage during warmer months, when prices and demand are low, and removed from storage reservoirs during colder months to meet peak customer heating demand. However, natural gas withdrawals occur at other times to meet the needs of electricity suppliers as they balance intermittent generation from renewable energy resources, particularly wind.84

Natural gas supplies enter Oregon by way of interstate pipelines, primarily from western Canada through Washington and from domestically produced natural gas that arrives through Nevada and Idaho. Almost all of the natural gas that enters Oregon continues on to California markets.85,86 Several Oregon liquefied natural gas (LNG) import/export terminal projects have been proposed since 2005, but none remain active.87,88,89

Oregon's total and per capita natural gas consumption is less than in two-thirds of the states.90 The electric power sector receives half of the natural gas delivered to Oregon consumers. The industrial sector accounts for about one-fifth of state consumption. The residential sector, where almost two-fifths of Oregon households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating, accounts for slightly more than one-sixth of natural gas deliveries, and the commercial sector uses almost all the rest. The transportation sector uses a very small amount of compressed natural gas as vehicle fuel.91,92

Petroleum

Oregon receives about 90% of its refined petroleum products from Washington’s Puget Sound refineries.

Oregon does not have any crude oil reserves or production and only operating crude oil refinery closed in 2008.93,94,95 The Puget Sound refineries in the state of Washington provide about 90% of the refined petroleum products, such as motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil (diesel), and jet fuel, used in Oregon. Those petroleum products arrive in the state by way of the Olympic Pipeline and by barge at seven Portland-area terminals.96 Refineries in Utah also send refined petroleum products to Oregon, and some arrives by tanker or rail from California and Canada.97 Small amounts come from overseas.98 Exports of Canadian and North Dakota crude oil move through the Portland port for shipment overseas.99

In 2019, the transportation sector used about 87% of the petroleum consumed in Oregon, and three-fifths of that was as motor gasoline.100,101 However, in 2020, historic consumption patterns changed because of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the state's motor gasoline consumption declined to its lowest level in more than 25 years.102,103 In 2019, the industrial sector accounted for 8% of state petroleum consumption and the commercial sector used about 4%. The residential sector, where only about 1 in 30 households use petroleum products—including fuel oil, kerosene, and propane—for home heating, accounted for less than 2%.104,105

Oregon's renewable fuel standard requires, with few exceptions, that motor gasoline sold in the state contain a minimum of 10% fuel ethanol.106 There is one fuel ethanol production plant in Oregon, near the Washington border on the Columbia River.107 That plant produces enough fuel ethanol annually to meet about one-fourth of the state's needs.108,109 Additional fuel ethanol supplies primarily come by rail from the Midwest.110 Diesel fuel sold in Oregon must be blended with at least 5% biodiesel.111 Oregon has one biodiesel plant, in Portland, that collects used cooking oils and grease from restaurants and other businesses.112 Its production capacity is less than three-tenths of the state's annual biodiesel consumption.113,114

Coal

Coal was mined in southwest Oregon from the mid-19th century until the 1920s, and the state has few remaining coal reserves. There are no active commercial coal mines in Oregon today.115,116,117 Limited amounts of coal, shipped by rail from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming, fueled Oregon's only coal-fired power plant until October 2020, when the power plant closed.118 In 2020, a small amount of coal arrived from Utah for use at industrial plants in Oregon.119

Endnotes

1 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals: 2010-2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019; April 1, 2020; and July 1, 2020.
2 Geology.com, Oregon Map Collection, Oregon Rivers Map, accessed January 19, 2022.
3 Sharp, Justin, and Clifford F. Mass, "Columbia Gorge Gap Winds: Their Climatological Influence and Synoptic Evolution," Weather and Forecasting, Volume 19, Issue 6 (December 2004), p. 970-992.
4 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Oregon, accessed January 19, 2022.
5 Oregon Department of Energy, Energy in Oregon, Hydropower, Hydropower in Oregon, accessed January 20, 2022.
6 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Oregon, Climate and the Economy, accessed January 19, 2022.
7 Oregon Department of Energy, Energy in Oregon, Bioenergy, accessed January 19, 2022.
8 NETSTATE, Oregon, The Geography of Oregon, updated February 25, 2016.
9 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Oregon, Oregon 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed January 19, 2022.
10 U.S. EIA, Oregon Profile Overview, Solar Resources Map Layer, accessed January 23, 2022.
11 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program, Oregon, DOE/GO-102004-2036 (February 2005), p. 1.
12 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Dry Production, 2015-20.
13 Duncan, Donald C., Geology and Coal Deposits in Part of the Coos Bay Coal Field, Oregon, U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey Bulletin 982-B (Washington, 1953), p. 53.
14 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Oregon, updated March 19, 2020.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
17 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, All statistics in table, Oregon, 2020.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
19 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Oregon Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
20 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Oregon, accessed January 19, 2022.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
22 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2001-20.
23 National Integrated Drought Information System, Current U.S. Drought Monitor Conditions for Oregon, accessed January 20, 2022.
24 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Geography (Check all), Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2001-20.
25 U.S. EIA, Oregon Electricity Profile 2020, Tables 2A, 2B.
26 Bonneville Power Administration, BPA Facts, DOE/BP-5172 (August 2021).
27 Oregon Department of Energy, Energy in Oregon, Hydropower, Hydropower in Oregon, accessed January 20, 2022.
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
29 Oregon Department of Energy, 2020 Biennial Energy Report (November 2020), Energy by the Numbers, p. 2.
30 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Oregon, updated March 19, 2020.
31 Oregon Department of Energy, Trojan Nuclear Site Spent Fuel Storage, accessed January 20, 2022.
32 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
33 U.S. Census Bureau, Oregon, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
34 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Oregon, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation, Other, Annual, 2020.
35 U.S. EIA, Oregon Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020.
36 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Learn More About Interconnections, Western Interconnection, accessed January 20, 2022.
37 Bonneville Power Administration, Factsheet, Celilo Converter Station, DOE/BP-4757 (April 2016).
38 Bonneville Power Administration, "Direct current line still hot after 40 years," Press Release (May 26, 2010).
39 Lundahl, Erika, "The West Coast Electric Highway Enables Zero Emission Road Trips," Yes! (July 20, 2018).
40 West Coast Green Highway, West Coast Electric Highway, accessed January 20, 2022.
41 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Electric Vehicle Charging Station Locations, Oregon Electric, Public Access, accessed January 20, 2022.
42 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Deployment Support, accessed January 20, 2022.
43 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Electric Vehicle Registrations by State (June 2021).
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2020.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, October 2009 to September 2010-20.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, All Fuels, Wind, Annual, 2020.
47 U.S. EIA, Oregon Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed January 20, 2022.
48 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (January 2022), Table 6.2.B.
49 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of November 2021.
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Wind, Biomass, Geothermal, All solar, Small-scale photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001-20.
51 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, All Fuels, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Utility-scale photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-20.
52 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860) Inventory of Operating Generators as of November 2021.
53 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of November 2021.
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
55 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, Biomass, Wood and wood-derived fuels, Other biomass, Annual, 2001-20.
56 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of November 2021.
57 Oregon Department of Forestry, About Oregon's Forests, accessed January 21, 2022.
58 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, List of plants for wood and wood-derived fuels, Oregon, all sectors, 2020.
59 Oregon Department of Energy, Bioenergy, Biomass in Oregon, accessed January 21, 2022.
60 U.S. Census Bureau, Oregon, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
61 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, October 2021.
62 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, All Fuels, Geothermal, Annual, 2001-20.
63 Roberts, Billy J., Geothermal Resources of the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
64 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program, Oregon, DOE/GO-102004-2036 (February 2005), p. 1.
65 U.S. Geological Survey, Volcano Hazards Program, Cascades Volcano Observatory, Why Study Cascade Volcanoes?, accessed January 21, 2022.
66 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program, Oregon, DOE/GO-102004-2036 (February 2005), p. 1.
67 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of November 2021.
68 Oregon Department of Energy, 2020 Biennial Energy Report (November 2020), Technology & Resource Reviews, p. 38.
69 Roberts, Billy J., Geothermal Resource of the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
70 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program, Oregon, DOE/GO-102004-2036 (February 2005), p. 1.
71 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, "NREL Deploys Wave and Tidal Measurement Buoys," Press Release (June 14, 2017).
72 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, PacWave, accessed January 21, 2022.
73 Oregon Department of Energy, 2020 Biennial Energy Report (November 2020), Technology & Resource Reviews, p. 96.
74 PacWave, South Test Site, Construction Updates, accessed January 21, 2022.
75 Oregon Legislature, 81st Oregon Legislative Assembly, 2021 Regular Session, Enrolled House Bill 2021, Clean Energy Targets, Sections 1 thru 17.
76 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Oregon Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated May 20, 2021.
77 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Annual, 2020.
78 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Dry Production, 2020.
79 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, Mineral Land Regulation & Reclamation, Program Overview, Oil & Gas Program, updated March 1, 2021.
80 U.S. EIA, Oregon Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1979-2020.
81 Oregon Department of Energy, Energy Facilities & Safety, Facilities, Mist Underground Natural Gas Storage Facility, accessed January 22, 2022.
82 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2020.
83 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2020.
84 Nemec, Rich, "NW Natural Ushering in Unique ‘No-Notice' NatGas Storage in Oregon," Natural Gas Intelligence (August 17, 2017).
85 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Oregon, 2020.
86 Williams Company, Northwest Pipeline, accessed January 22, 2022.
87 Oregon Department of Energy, State of Oregon Biennial Energy Plan 2013-15, p. 20, 37.
88 Oregon Department of Energy, State of Oregon Biennial Energy Plan 2020, History Timeline, 13-14.
89 Farah, Niina H., et al., "Jordan Cove project dies. What it means for FERC, gas," E&E News Energywire (December 2, 2022).
90 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
91 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Oregon, Annual, 2020.
92 U.S. Census Bureau, Oregon, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
93 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2020.
94 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual Thousand Barrels, 2020.
95 U.S. EIA, Oregon Number of Operable Refineries as of January 1, 2021.
96 Oregon Department of Energy, Road Trip: Where Oregon Gets Its Transportation Fuels, May 13, 2021.
97 Oregon Department of Energy, 2020 Biennial Energy Report (November 2020), Energy 101, p. 36, 47.
98 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, Oregon, accessed January 23, 2022.
99 Schick, Tony, "Canadian Crude Oil Is Going by Rail To Portland Before Shipping Off To Asia," OPB: Oregon Public Broadcasting (March 16, 2018).
100 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
101 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
102 Oregon Department of Energy, 2020 Biennial Energy Report (November 2020), Policy Briefs Chapter, COVID-19 Response and Effects on the Energy Sector, p. 208.
103 U.S. EIA, Oregon Total Gasoline Through Company Outlets Volume by Refiners, Monthly October 1993-April 2020.
104 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
105 U.S. Census Bureau, Oregon, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
106 Oregon Department of Energy, Renewable Fuels, Ethanol, accessed January 23, 2022.
107 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, January 2021, Excel spreadsheet.
108 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2020.
109 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2019.
110 Oregon Department of Energy, 2018 Biennial Energy Report (November 2018), Chapter 1, Energy by the Numbers, p.18.
111 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Biodiesel Laws and Incentives in Oregon, Renewable Fuels Mandate, accessed January 23, 2022.
112 Oregon Oils, About Our Company in Portland, Oregon, accessed February 8, 2022.
113 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 2021) Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
114 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
115 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
116 Duncan, Donald C., Geology and Coal Deposits in Part of the Coos Bay Coal Field, Oregon, U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey Bulletin 982-B (Washington, 1953), p. 53.
117 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, Mineral Land Regulation and Reclamation, Program Overview, Surface Mining Program, accessed January 21, 2022.
118 Oregon Department of Energy, 2020 Biennial Energy Report (November 2020), Energy by the Numbers, p. 2.
119 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), By Coal Destination State, Oregon Table DS-32, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.