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Oregon   Oregon Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: January 21, 2021

Overview

Oregon has many renewable energy resources. High annual rainfall in the western part of the state coupled with runoff from the snowpack in mountains across the state make it possible to generate substantial amounts of hydroelectric power.1 Large dams along the Columbia River generate most of the hydroelectric power not only in Oregon, but throughout the Pacific Northwest. The Columbia River forms much of Oregon's northern border and cuts through both the Cascade Mountain Range and the Coast Ranges, forming the Columbia Gorge, an area of high wind energy potential.2,3 The high desert country and uplands of southern and eastern Oregon, as well as the Cascades Mountains in western Oregon, are promising sites for both wind and geothermal energy development.4,5,6 Mild temperatures and abundant rainfall in the western part of the state contribute to rapid tree growth, which, along with agricultural and other waste products, are ample sources of biomass for power generation.7,8 Oregon has only minor fossil energy reserves and no nuclear power reactors.9,10,11

Energy use per capita in Oregon is less than in about three-fourths of the states.12 The transportation sector accounts for about three-tenths of state end-use energy consumption. The industrial sector is the second-largest energy consumer, followed closely by the residential sector. Each of those sectors accounts for about one-fourth of the state's end-use energy consumption.13 Although the state's agriculture, food processing, and forestry activities, including the manufacture of forest products, are energy-intensive, most of Oregon's gross domestic product (GDP) comes from non-energy-intensive businesses. Computers and electronic products accounted for almost half of the state's manufacturing GDP in 2019, and Oregon's industrial sector per capita energy consumption is less than in almost two-thirds of the states.14,15 In part because most of Oregon's population centers are in mild climate zones in the Willamette Valley and along the Pacific Coast west of the Cascades, the state's residential sector energy use per capita ranks 44th in the nation.16,17,18 The commercial sector accounts for the remaining one-fifth of Oregon's end-use energy consumption.19

Electricity

Hydroelectric power typically provides more than half of the electricity generated in Oregon.

Hydroelectric power typically provides more than half of the electricity generated in Oregon.20 In 2019, Oregon was the fourth-largest producer of hydroelectric power among the states. However, for the first time in at least three decades hydroelectric power supplied slightly less than half of state generation, in part because much of the state experienced abnormally dry weather and drought.21,22 Oregon's four largest electricity generating facilities—John Day, The Dalles, Bonneville, and McNary—are all hydroelectric power plants located on the Columbia River. They account for about two-thirds of the generating capacity from the 10 largest power plants in the state.23 Many smaller hydroelectric plants generate power along several rivers in Oregon.24

Natural gas fuels the second-largest share of Oregon's electricity generation. In 2019, natural gas-fired power plants provided one-third of the state's net generation. Two decades ago, coal fueled about one-tenth of Oregon's in-state net generation, but, by 2019, coal's share was only 4%. Coal no longer supplies any in-state generation because Oregon's single coal-fired power plant closed in October 2020.25 Nonhydroelectric renewable resources, including wind, biomass, solar, and geothermal power, provide almost all the rest of Oregon's generation.26 There are no commercial nuclear power plants in the state.27 Oregon's only nuclear power plant, the Trojan plant northwest of Portland, opened in 1976 and was shut down after cracks in the steam tubes were detected in 1992. The plant was decommissioned and demolished.28

Oregon's residential sector, where half the households heat with electricity, accounted for two-fifths of state electricity retail sales in 2019.29 The commercial sector accounted for slightly more than one-third, and the industrial sector accounted for one-fourth.30 In every year since 2008, Oregonians have used less electricity than the state's power plants generated and the excess was sent to other states by way of the Western Interconnection—one of North America's principal power grids.31

Oregon has collaborated with Washington, California, and British Columbia to create the West Coast Electric Highway.

The Western Interconnection reaches from western Canada down to Baja California in Mexico and stretches from the Pacific Ocean eastward across the Rocky Mountains to the Great Plains.32 Major transmission lines of the Western Interconnection link Oregon's electricity grid to California's grid, allowing for large interstate electricity transfers of power between the Pacific Northwest and the Southwest. The 846-mile Pacific Intertie Direct Current transmission line, which runs from the Oregon-Washington border to Los Angeles, is capable of moving up to 3,220 megawatts of power.33 Although it was originally designed to transmit electricity south during California's peak summer demand season, the flow has sometimes been reversed at night and in the winter when power demand to meet heating needs increases in the Pacific Northwest.34

Oregon has collaborated with Washington, California, and British Columbia, Canada, to create the West Coast Electric Highway corridor, a network of public charging stations for electric vehicles located every 25 to 50 miles along Interstate 5 and other major roads in the Pacific Northwest. It is part of the West Coast Green Highway system that spans more than 1,300 miles from British Columbia to Baja, Mexico.35,36 As of December 2020, there were more than 670 public electric charging stations with more than 1800 charging outlets in service across Oregon.37 Oregon is part of the Multi-State Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) collaborative, and the state had a goal of registering 50,000 zero emission vehicles in the state by 2020.38 As of August 1, 2020, more than 32,000 zero emission electric vehicles were registered in Oregon.39

Renewable energy

In 2019, wind power accounted for more than one-tenth of Oregon’s in-state electricity generation.

In 2019, renewable resources, led by hydroelectric power, accounted for more than three-fifths of the electricity generated in Oregon.40 Although hydroelectric generation typically accounts for three-fourths of the state's renewable generation, utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) electricity generation from renewable sources other than hydroelectric power doubled in the past decade. Most of the increased generation came from wind.41 With wind farms along the Columbia Gorge and in eastern Oregon's Blue Mountains, the state has more than 1,900 wind turbines with more than 3,400 megawatts of wind capacity.42,43 In 2019, wind power accounted for more than one-tenth of Oregon's total utility-scale generation.44

Biomass fuels most of the rest of Oregon's renewable-sourced electricity. It is primarily in the form of wood and wood waste, but there are also several small landfill gas and other biomass-fueled facilities.45,46 Forest covers almost half of the state, and many industrial facilities in Oregon use woody biomass to generate electricity.47,48 Biomass is widely used as a thermal energy source in Oregon as well. Some commercial facilities, including schools and hospitals, use wood for space heating, and about 6% of Oregon households heat with wood.49,50 Oregon also has five operating wood pellet manufacturing facilities with a combined production capacity of more than 250,000 tons per year, or about 2% of the nation's total.51

Almost 1.5% of Oregon's in-state electricity generation is from the state's solar resources. Solar potential is greatest east of Oregon's Cascade Mountain Range.52 All of Oregon's solar powered electricity generation is photovoltaic (PV). Before 2017, the majority of Oregon's solar generation came from rooftop and other small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) solar power installations. However, utility-scale solar generation surpassed small-scale, customer-sited generation in 2017. Even though small-scale generation has increased since 2017, utility-scale projects generated three times as much electricity as small-scale facilities in 2019. Overall, all solar generation in Oregon was almost eight times greater in 2019 than it was in 2015.53 Several utility-scale solar projects have been active in the state since October 2011, but the largest have come online since 2016. A 56-megawatt solar PV facility came online in October 2017, and the state's first solar PV facility greater than 75 megawatts was approved in 2018.54,55 In April 2020, a 303-megawatt solar project was approved, and several other large solar PV projects are under review. Solar energy is also used as a thermal resource in Oregon for water and space heating.56

Although geothermal energy accounts for only a small amount of Oregon's net generation, the state's geothermal potential is ranked third in the nation, after Nevada and California.57,58 Oregon's Cascade Mountains are an active volcanic region.59 The Cascade Mountains and other high-temperature geothermal areas in the state have an estimated 2,200 megawatts of generating potential.60,61 Oregon's largest geothermal power plant has about 20 megawatts of capacity and has operated in Malheur County since 2012.62 There are two smaller utility-scale electricity generating geothermal facilities in the state, one of which has been offline since 2017.63 Some much larger ones are in development.64 Oregon residents have used low-to-moderate temperature geothermal resources for more than a century in direct heat applications. Almost the entire state east of the Cascade Range has ample low- to mid-temperature geothermal resources. There are more than 2,000 thermal wells and springs that furnish direct heat to buildings, communities, and other facilities in the state.65,66

Oregon is in the early stages of tapping its marine and hydrokinetic energy resources. The U.S. Department of Energy's (U.S. DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory deployed buoys off the Oregon coast during the summer of 2017 to record wave and tidal movements in support of projects designed to convert energy from waves into electricity.67 A U.S. DOE-funded investigation led by Oregon State University has two marine test sites off the coast of Newport, Oregon. The first, PacWave North is a stand-alone test site for small-scale technologies. A second site, PacWave South, will be the first full-scale grid-connected, wave energy conversion technology test facility in the United States. When complete, it will be the largest grid-connected wave energy testing facility in the world. It is expected to become operational in 2022.68,69

Oregon's renewable energy portfolio standard (RPS) requires that the state's largest utilities—those with more than 3% of the state's electricity retail sales—acquire at least 50% of the electricity they sell from renewable-sourced generation by 2040. The RPS counts electricity generated from wind, solar, hydropower, wave, tidal, ocean thermal, geothermal, hydrogen, municipal solid waste, and biomass energy facilities that became operational or were significantly upgraded after January 1, 1995. Smaller utilities have a target of 10% renewable electricity by 2025, and the smallest utilities, those servicing less than 1.5% of the state's power demand, have a target of 5%.70

Natural gas

Oregon has the only natural gas field in the Pacific Northwest.

Oregon does not have significant natural gas reserves and produces only small amounts of natural gas, but the state does have the only natural gas field in the Pacific Northwest—the Mist field in northwestern Oregon71,72 Numerous reservoirs have been found in the field since its discovery in 1979. Exploration wells continue to be drilled in the Mist field. Although it was only a small fraction of U.S. total production, Mist Field production reached a high of 4.6 billion cubic feet of natural gas per year in the mid-1980s. Annual natural gas production from the field declined to less than 400 million cubic feet by 2018.73 There are also two natural gas storage projects in the Mist Field.74,75 Overall, there are a total of eight underground natural gas storage projects in Oregon with a combined storage capacity of about 35 billion cubic feet.76,77 Natural gas typically is put into storage in warmer months when prices and demand are low and removed from storage reservoirs during colder months to meet peak customer demand. Natural gas also is used to meet the needs of electricity suppliers as they balance intermittent generation from renewable energy resources, particularly wind.78

Natural gas supplies enter Oregon by way of interstate pipelines, primarily from western Canada through Washington and from domestically produced natural gas that arrives through Nevada and Idaho. Almost all of the natural gas that enters Oregon continues on to California markets.79,80 Several liquefied natural gas (LNG) shipping terminals were proposed in Oregon, but, because of changing market conditions, only one proposal remains active. In 2006, developers proposed an LNG import terminal at Coos Bay, but in 2012, they decided to build an export terminal instead. That facility has received federal approvals but is not under construction.81,82,83

Oregon's per capita natural gas consumption is less than in three-fourths of the states.84 The electric power sector uses more than half of the natural gas delivered to consumers in Oregon. The industrial sector is the next largest natural gas consumer, but it uses less than half as much as the electric power sector and accounts for about one-fifth of state consumption. The residential sector, where almost two in five Oregon households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating, consumes slightly more than one-sixth of natural gas deliveries, and the commercial sector uses most of the rest. Very little natural gas is used as vehicle fuel.85,86

Petroleum

Oregon does not have any crude oil reserves or production and has not had an operating oil refinery since 2008.87,88,89 The Puget Sound refineries in the state of Washington provide about 90% of the refined petroleum products used in Oregon. Those products arrive in the state by way of the Olympic Pipeline and by barge.90 Refineries in Utah and in British Columbia also provide refined petroleum products to Oregon, and small amounts come by tanker from California and the Pacific Rim countries.91

In 2018, the transportation sector used almost 90% of the petroleum consumed in Oregon, and three-fifths of that was as motor gasoline.92 However, in 2020, historic consumption patterns were altered by the COVID-19 pandemic and motor gasoline consumption declined.93,94 The industrial sector and commercial sector accounted for most of the rest of state petroleum consumption in 2018. The residential sector, where about 1 in 30 households use petroleum products for home heating, accounted for less than 2%.95,96

Oregon receives about 90% of its refined petroleum products from Washington’s Puget Sound refineries.

Oregon's renewable fuel standard requires that, with few exceptions, motor gasoline sold in the state must be blended with a minimum of 10% fuel ethanol.97 There is one corn-based fuel ethanol production plant in Oregon that can produce about one-fourth of the state's annual fuel ethanol needs.98,99,100,101 Additional fuel ethanol supplies are brought in from out of state, primarily by rail from the Midwest.102 Diesel fuel sold in the state must be blended with at least 5% biodiesel.103 Oregon has one biodiesel plant, and its production capacity is about one-third the amount used in the state each year.104,105

Coal

Oregon’s only coal-fired power plant closed in October 2020.

Oregon has some coal reserves, and coal was mined in southwest Oregon from the mid-19th century until the 1920s and then again, briefly, during the Second World War. However, there are no active commercial coal mines in Oregon today.106,107,108 Limited amounts of coal were shipped by rail from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming to fuel Oregon's coal-fired electricity generation until October 2020, when the state's only coal-fired power plant closed.109 Small amounts of coal also are shipped from Utah to industrial plants in Oregon.110

Endnotes

1 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Oregon, accessed December 2, 2020.
2 Geology.com, Oregon Map Collection, Oregon Rivers Map, accessed December 2, 2020.
3 Sharp, Justin, and Clifford F. Mass, "Columbia Gorge Gap Winds: Their Climatological Influence and Synoptic Evolution," Weather and Forecasting, Volume 19, Issue 6 (December 2004), p. 970-992.
4 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Oregon, accessed December 2, 2020.
5 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, Geologic Provinces, Basin and Range and Owyhee Uplands, accessed December 2, 2020.
6 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program, Oregon, DOE/GO-102004-2036 (February 2005), p. 1.
7 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Oregon, Climate and the Economy, accessed December 2, 2020.
8 Oregon Department of Energy, Energy in Oregon, Bioenergy, accessed December 2, 2020.
9 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Dry Production, 2014-19.
10 Duncan, Donald C., Geology and Coal Deposits in Part of the Coos Bay Coal Field, Oregon, U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey Bulletin 982-B (Washington, 1953), p. 53.
11 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Oregon, updated March 19, 2020.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
14 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, All statistics in table, Oregon, 2019.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
16 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Oregon Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
17 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of Oregon, accessed December 2, 2020.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
20 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2001-19.
21 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B.
22 National Integrated Drought Information System, Pacific Northwest Drought Early Warning System, accessed December 29, 2020.
23 U.S. EIA, Oregon Electricity Profile 2019, Tables 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2017, and 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2019.
24 Oregon Department of Energy, Energy in Oregon, Hydropower, accessed December 3, 2020.
25 Oregon Department of Energy, 2020 Biennial Energy Report (November 2020), Energy by the Numbers, p. 2.
26 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-19.
27 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Oregon, updated August 23, 2018.
28 Oregon Department of Energy, Trojan Nuclear Site Spent Fuel Storage, accessed December 29, 2020.
29 U.S. Census Bureau, Oregon, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
30 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.4.B.
31 U.S. EIA, Oregon Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
32 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Learn More About Interconnections, Western Interconnection, accessed December 3, 2020.
33 Bonneville Power Administration, Factsheet, Celilo Converter Station, DOE/BP-4757 (April 2016).
34 Bonneville Power Administration, "Direct current line still hot after 40 years," Press Release (May 26, 2010).
35 Lundahl, Erika, "The West Coast Electric Highway Enables Zero Emission Road Trips," Yes! (July 20, 2018).
36 West Coast Green Highway, West Coast Electric Highway, accessed December 3, 2020.
37 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Electric Vehicle Charging Station Locations, Oregon Electric, accessed December 3, 2020.
38 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Deployment Support, accessed December 3, 2020.
39 Go Electric Oregon, accessed December 3, 2020.
40 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2019.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, Fuel Type (Check all), Monthly, October 2009 to September 2020.
42 U.S. EIA, Oregon Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed December 4, 2020.
43 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in Oregon, accessed December 4, 2020.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, All Fuels, Wind, Annual, 2019.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, All Fuels, Annual, 2001-19.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, List of plants for other biomass, Oregon, all sectors, 2019.
47 Oregon Department of Forestry, About Oregon's Forests, accessed December 10, 2020.
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, List of plants for wood and wood-derived fuels, Oregon, all sectors, 2019.
49 Oregon Department of Energy, Bioenergy, accessed December 10, 2020.
50 U.S. Census Bureau, Oregon, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
51 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, August 2020.
52 University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory, Northwest Solar Resource Maps, accessed December 11, 2020.
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, All Fuels, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Utility-scale photovoltaic, Annual, 2010-19.
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
55 Oregon Department of Energy, Solar, accessed December 11, 2020.
56 Oregon Department of Energy, 2020 Biennial Energy Report (November 2020), Energy by the Numbers, p. 23, 29.
57 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Oregon, All Fuels, Geothermal, Annual, 2001-19.
58 Roberts, Billy J., Geothermal Resources of the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
59 U.S. Geological Survey, Volcano Hazards Program, Cascades Volcano Observatory, Why Study Cascade Volcanoes?, updated March 22, 2019.
60 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program, Oregon, DOE/GO-102004-2036 (February 2005), p. 1.
61 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geothermal Resources of the United States (October 13, 2009).
62 Oregon Department of Energy, Geothermal, accessed December 11, 2020.
63 Oregon Department of Energy, 2020 Biennial Energy Report (November 2020), Technology & Resource Reviews, p. 38.
64 Renewable Northwest, Renewable Energy Projects Map, select Oregon Geothermal, accessed December 11, 2020.
65 Roberts, Billy J., Geothermal Resource of the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
66 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program, Oregon, DOE/GO-102004-2036 (February 2005), p. 1.
67 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, "NREL Deploys Wave and Tidal Measurement Buoys," Press Release (June 14, 2017).
68 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, PacWave, accessed December 11, 2020.
69 Oregon Department of Energy, 2020 Biennial Energy Report (November 2020), Technology & Resource Reviews, p. 96.
70 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Oregon Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated June 6, 2018.
71 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Annual, 2018.
72 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Dry Production, 2019.
73 U.S. EIA, Oregon Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1979-2019.
74 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, Mineral Land Regulation & Reclamation, Program Overview, Oil & Gas Program, updated November 3, 2020.
75 Oregon Department of Energy, Energy Facilities & Safety, Facilities, Mist Underground Natural Gas Storage Facility, accessed December 13, 2020.
76 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2019.
77 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2019.
78 Nemec, Rich, "NW Natural Ushering in Unique ‘No-Notice' NatGas Storage in Oregon," Natural Gas Intelligence (August 17, 2017).
79 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Oregon, 2019.
80 Williams Company, Northwest Pipeline, accessed December 14, 2020.
81 Oregon Department of Energy, State of Oregon Biennial Energy Plan 2013-15, p. 20, 37.
82 Oregon Department of Energy, 2020 Biennial Energy Report (November 2020), History Timeline, p. 13-14.
83 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Natural Gas, LNG, North American LNG Export Terminals-Existing, Approved not Yet Built, and Proposed, updated September 17, 2020.
84 U.S. Department of Energy, "U.S. Department of Energy Issues LNG Export Approval to Jordan Cove," Press Release (July 6, 2020).
85 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
86 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Oregon, Annual, 2019.
87 U.S. Census Bureau, Oregon, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
88 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, as of December 31, 2018.
89 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual Thousand Barrels, 2019.
90 U.S. EIA, Oregon Number of Operable Refineries as of January 1, 2020.
91 Oregon Department of Energy, 2020 Biennial Energy Report (November 2020), Energy 101, p. 47.
92 Oregon Department of Energy, 2018 Biennial Energy Report (November 2018), Chapter 1, Energy by the Numbers, p.18.
93 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2018.
94 Oregon Department of Energy, 2020 Biennial Energy Report (November 2020), Policy Briefs, p. 211.
95 U.S. EIA, Oregon Total Gasoline Through Company Outlets Volume by Refiners, Monthly 2016-20.
96 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
97 U.S. Census Bureau, Oregon, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
98 Oregon Department of Energy, Renewable Fuels, Ethanol, accessed December 14, 2020.
99 U.S. EIA, U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Production Capacity: January 2020, Excel spreadsheet.
100 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated February 24, 2020.
101 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F4, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2018.
102 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2018.
103 Oregon Department of Energy, 2018 Biennial Energy Report (November 2018), Chapter 1, Energy by the Numbers, p.18.
104 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Biodiesel Laws and Incentives in Oregon, Renewable Fuels Mandate, accessed December 14, 2020.
105 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (November 2020) Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, September 2020.
106 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2018.
107 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
108 Duncan, Donald C., Geology and Coal Deposits in Part of the Coos Bay Coal Field, Oregon, U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey Bulletin 982-B (Washington, 1953), p. 53.
109 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, Mineral Land Regulation and Reclamation, Program Overview, Surface Mining Program, accessed December 14, 2020.
110 Oregon Department of Energy, 2020 Biennial Energy Report (November 2020), Energy by the Numbers, p. 2.
111 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), By Coal Destination State, Oregon Table DS-35, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.