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Wyoming   Wyoming Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: April 21, 2022

Overview

Wyoming produces 13 times more energy than it consumes, making it the second-biggest net energy supplier among the states.

Wyoming is a major producer of coal, crude oil, and natural gas—the fossil fuels that were created from the remains of life in the ancient seas that covered the state many millions of years ago.1,2,3 Wyoming has the smallest population of any state, and only Alaska has fewer residents per square mile.4 Wyoming produces 13 times more energy than it consumes, making it the second-biggest net energy supplier among the states after Texas.5 Wyoming is the nation's largest coal-producing state. It also produces more natural gas from federal leases than any other state and the second-highest amount of crude oil from onshore federal leases.6,7

Wyoming's lowest elevation is more than half a mile above sea level, and its mountain peaks are more than two miles high. The state's mountains, which form part of the Continental Divide, channel weather—and often fierce winds—across wide plains. The high elevations give Wyoming a cool climate overall, but temperatures can be extreme. The state's record high is 114°F in the Big Horn Basin in 1900, and the record low is 66°F below zero in Yellowstone National Park in 1933.8 National parks, including Yellowstone and Grand Teton, and national monuments like Devils Tower and Fossil Butte, as well as the Wind River and Bighorn mountain ranges, help make tourism one of Wyoming's major industries.9

Mining and oil and natural gas extraction are major contributors to Wyoming's gross domestic product (GDP) and tax revenue.10,11 Coal is mined primarily in the northeastern part of the state in the Powder River Basin.12 Crude oil and natural gas production is spread across the state, and each fossil fuel is produced alone or together in 21 of Wyoming's 23 counties.13 Mineral royalties, severance payments, and related taxes typically provide a substantial portion of state revenues.14 Although less than one-tenth of the energy produced in Wyoming is consumed there, the state's small population and energy-intensive fossil fuel production help make Wyoming first in the nation in per capita energy consumption and give it the second-most energy-intensive state economy, after Louisiana.15,16,17 Wyoming's industrial sector accounts for about three-fifths of the total end-use sector energy consumed in the state, the transportation sector consumes about one-fifth, and the commercial and residential sectors each account for about one-tenth.18

Coal

Wyoming has led the nation in coal production since 1986.

Wyoming holds almost two-fifths of U.S. recoverable coal reserves at producing mines.19 The state has led the nation in coal production since 1986, and accounts for two-fifths of all coal mined in the United States.20,21,22 Wyoming's coal production declined by about 40% from 2015 to 2020, as U.S. coal-fired power plants shut down and natural gas-fired and renewable-sourced electricity generation increased.23,24,25 In 2021, however, Wyoming's annual coal production increased, as did many coal-producing states' output, after U.S. annual coal-fired generation increased for the first time since 2014 as a result of significantly higher natural gas prices and relatively stable coal prices.26,27

Wyoming has 10 major coal fields and 8 of the 10 largest coal mines in the nation.28,29 Seams of low-sulfur subbituminous coal, some more than 100 feet thick, lie at shallow depths, allowing large-scale mechanized surface mining.30 Nearly all of the coal mined in Wyoming is subbituminous, and the state accounts for almost nine-tenths of all U.S. subbituminous coal production. Subbituminous coal has a lower heating value than other types of coal.31,32 Wyoming also produces some bituminous coal.33 Coal mining began in the state in the mid-1860s when the Union Pacific Railroad arrived.34 Today, most of the mined coal in Wyoming is loaded onto unit trains, which can stretch up to a mile-and-a-half long with about 130 coal cars.35 Wyoming's coal is shipped to 28 states, and power plants in Texas, Missouri, Wyoming, and Illinois are the biggest users of Wyoming's coal.36 Very little of the state's coal is exported to other countries.37

Petroleum

Wyoming holds about 2% of U.S. proved crude oil reserves, and the state is the eighth-largest crude oil producer, accounting for just over 2% of the nation's total crude oil output.38,39 Wyoming is a crossroads for pipelines bringing Canadian and Rocky Mountain crude oil to refineries in the Rocky Mountain and Midwest regions and for pipelines shipping refined petroleum products to markets in those regions.40,41,42 The state has four operating petroleum refineries that can process 129,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day, providing one-fifth of the refining capacity in the Rocky Mountain region that includes Colorado, Montana, and Utah.43 Wyoming's refineries produce motor gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and other petroleum products, and can process Canadian heavy sour crude oils. Those refineries deliver most of their petroleum products to neighboring states.44,45 46,47,48 In 2020, the owners of the 48,000 barrel-per-day refinery in Cheyenne shut down the petroleum facility to convert it to produce renewable diesel.49

Wyoming’s per capita consumption of petroleum is the third-highest among the states.

Wyoming has the sixth-lowest petroleum consumption among the states. However, because of its small population, high vehicle miles traveled, and large energy-intensive fossil fuel extraction industries, Wyoming ranks as the third-highest state in per capita petroleum consumption, after Louisiana and Alaska.50 The transportation sector consumes nearly two-thirds of the petroleum used in Wyoming. The industrial sector accounts for most of the rest, except for a small amount used in the state's residential and commercial sectors.51 Wyoming drivers have the second-highest per capita gasoline expenditures of any state, after North Dakota, which reflects Wyoming's small population, less access to alternative forms of transportation, and high vehicle miles traveled by state residents.52 Wyoming does not require ethanol to be blended into its gasoline, although most gasoline sold throughout the state and the rest of the United States contains at least 10% ethanol.53,54

After reaching its highest level in 30 years in 2019, Wyoming's crude oil production fell sharply in 2020 in response to the drop in petroleum demand and crude oil prices during the COVID-19 pandemic. The state's crude oil production continued to decline in 2021, dropping to the lowest output level since 2017.55,56 Most of the state's recent crude oil production comes from two regions in eastern Wyoming: the Niobrara Shale in the southeastern corner of the state and the Powder River Basin in the northeastern corner.57,58 59 Southwestern Wyoming overlies part of the Green River oil shale, which is a formation rich in kerogen-an organic material found in some sedimentary rocks that can be converted into petroleum liquids when heated. Green River, by some estimates, could be a large source of petroleum if technology were developed to extract the petroleum economically.60,61,62

Natural gas

Wyoming’s natural gas reserves and marketed production are among the top 10 states.

Wyoming ranks among the top 10 states in both natural gas reserves and marketed natural gas production.63,64 Most of the state's natural gas production is on federal lands leased by energy companies.65,66 Production takes place throughout the state, but most of Wyoming's natural gas has come from fields in the Green River Basin, located in the state's southwest corner.67,68,69 Wyoming has 16 of the nation's 100 largest natural gas fields, including the Pinedale and Jonah fields that rank among the top 10.70 Although natural gas exploration has expanded across the state, including into the Powder River Basin, Wyoming's marketed gas production has decreased by almost half from its 2009 peak, due in part to lower natural gas prices. In 2021, the state's natural gas output was the lowest in 21 years, despite a rise in natural gas prices.71,72,73,74 In 2018, the federal government approved a large natural gas project in the basin that would drill 3,500 wells over 10 years.75,76,77 The state imposed requirements to control the emissions from drilling to help improve air quality.78,79,80

Wyoming is the third-largest producer of natural gas from coal beds, behind Colorado and New Mexico, but the state's production steadily declined during the past decade.81,82 Low natural gas prices made some coalbed methane wells uneconomical.83,84 Coalbed methane accounts for about 6% of the state's natural gas production.85

Most natural gas produced in Wyoming leaves the state through interstate pipelines that cross into Utah, Nebraska, Colorado, and Montana, on its way to both Midwest and West Coast markets.86,87 Several interstate pipelines converge at Opal, Wyoming, a major interstate natural gas trading hub.88,89 Some of the natural gas that remains in the state is placed in underground storage. Wyoming has nine natural gas underground storage sites that can hold a combined 156 billion cubic feet of gas, which is about 1.7% of U.S. total storage capacity.90,91

Wyoming consumes about one-tenth of the natural gas it produces. Two-fifths of the state's natural gas consumption is used in the production, processing, and distribution of natural gas. The state's industrial sector accounts for another two-fifths of natural gas use, and the residential, commercial, and electric power sectors together account for the remaining one-fifth.92,93 Natural gas is Wyoming's most widely used home heating fuel, found in 6 out of 10 households.94

Electricity

In 2021, coal-fired power plants produced about 73% of Wyoming's electricity net generation, down from its peak of 97% in 2003. Wind power more than doubled since 2019 and provided 19% of the state's generation in 2021. Natural gas-fired generating units and hydroelectric facilities accounted for most of the rest of Wyoming's in-state electricity supply.95

Wyoming's small population contributes to it being among the 10 states with the lowest total electricity demand, but it has the highest per capita electricity use.96 Wyoming sends almost three-fifths of the electricity it generates out of state.97 Several major interstate transmission line projects are in development to carry more electricity supplies from Wyoming to western population centers.98 Within Wyoming, the industrial sector was the largest electricity consumer in 2021, and accounted for three-fifths of the electricity used in the state. The commercial sector was second and consumed just over one-fifth of the state's electricity, and the residential sector accounted for slightly less than one-fifth of power demand.99 One out of five Wyoming households relies on electricity as the primary heating source.100 In 2021, Wyoming ranked among the five states with the lowest average electricity retail price.101

The largest uranium mining operations in the nation are located in Wyoming.

Wyoming does not have any nuclear power generation, but the state has the largest reserves of uranium ore that provides the fuel used by nuclear power plants.102,103,104 While there is no conventional uranium mining in Wyoming, the state has three operating in-situ recovery plants that extract uranium from underground by dissolving the ore with a solution and pumping it to the surface where the uranium is recovered.105,106,107,108 In 2021, U.S. uranium production fell to an all-time low, as most utility companies bought uranium from other countries.109,110

Renewable energy

Wyoming ranked third among the states in the amount of wind power capacity under construction at the end of 2021.

In 2021, renewable energy sources generated 22% of the electricity in Wyoming, with wind power accounting for more than four-fifths of the state's renewable electricity.111 Wyoming has some of the greatest wind resources in the nation, especially in the southeastern corner of the state.112 Sustained winds are funneled through the state's mountain passes and out across the high prairie, which enables Wyoming wind farms to operate at high capacity levels.113,114 In 2020 and 2021, the amount of wind powered-generating capacity installed in Wyoming nearly doubled to just over 3,000 megawatts.115,116 117 Several more large wind projects are in development or under construction, including the 3,000-megawatt Chokecherry-Sierra Madre project with about 900 turbines in south-central Wyoming. Wyoming ranked third, after Texas and California, in the amount of wind powered-generating capacity under construction at the end of 2021.118,119 120,121,122 There are several large transmission projects in Wyoming to transport the state's wind-generated electricity to other states, including California, that have significant renewable energy requirements.123,124,125

Hydroelectric power is the fourth-largest source of Wyoming's generation, accounting for slightly more than 2% of the state's total generation and almost one-tenth of the state's renewable generation in 2021.126 The state has 16 hydropower dams. Most of Wyoming's hydroelectric generating units are relatively small, more than 70 years old, and owned by the federal government.127

Wyoming has significant solar resources, but there was little solar generation in the state until 2019. Almost all of the state's solar generation comes from the 92-megawatt Sweetwater Solar farm, which came online at the end of 2018 and is the state's only utility-scale solar power facility.128 The large solar power farm and small-scale solar panels on residential rooftops together provided about 2% of the state's renewable generation in 2021.129,130

Wyoming's geothermal resources are used for direct heating applications, mainly in Yellowstone National Park and Hot Springs State Park. Geothermal energy is also used in the state to heat buildings, water, and some roadways.131,132 Wyoming does not have adequate geothermal resources for commercial electricity generation, but the state does have buildings heated by geothermal heat pumps.133

Wyoming does not have a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) or other requirement or goal to generate a certain amount of the state's electricity from renewable energy.134 However, the state provides net metering for residential, commercial, and industrial customers with renewable energy generating systems smaller than 25 kilowatts. Eligible renewable generating systems include solar panels, wind turbines, biomass-fueled generators, and small hydroelectric generators.135

Energy on tribal lands

The Wind River Reservation has produced crude oil and natural gas for over a century.

Wyoming's Wind River Reservation, home to both the Northern Arapahoe and the Eastern Shoshone tribes, is the third-largest Native American reservation in the United States at more than 3,500 square miles.136,137 It is Wyoming's only reservation and occupies most of the Wind River Basin in the west-central area of the state.138,139 The Wind River Reservation has produced crude oil and natural gas for well over a century.140

The state's first oil well was drilled in the Wind River Basin in 1884, south of the reservation's boundary.141 About a half century later, several oil seeps were discovered within the reservation, and crude oil and natural gas production on tribal lands followed.142 Most current crude oil production occurs in the western half of the reservation while most natural gas production occurs in the eastern half.143 In 2012, the Wyoming tribes and the federal government reached a settlement to resolve underpayment of royalties owed on crude oil and natural gas production from reservation land. The settlement included a $157 million payment to the tribes.144,145

There are two utility-scale electricity generating facilities on the reservation. Both are hydroelectric dams; one has a generation capacity of 17 megawatts and the other has 1.6 megawatts. They are owned and operated by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.146

The Wind River Reservation has significant wind energy resources for potential electricity generation, especially along the mountain ridges that border the reservation.147,148 Several areas of the reservation were evaluated for wind projects that could give the two tribes additional sources of energy.149 The Wind River reservation is also one of the top 15 reservations in the nation with the best potential to generate electricity from solar energy resources.150

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2019.
2 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Wyoming's Energy Resources, accessed March 21, 2022.
3 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Geologic History of Wyoming, accessed March 21, 2022.
4 World Population Review, U.S. States-Ranked by Population 2022.
5 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Production, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
6 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
7 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Wyoming Oil and Gas Lease Sales, accessed March 21, 2022.
8 Gray, Steve, "Wicked Wind, Raging Blizzards and Bitter Cold—and That's Just Summer in Wyoming," Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed March 21, 2022.
9 Forbes, Best States for Business, Wyoming (December 2019).
10 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Wyoming, All statistics in table, 2020.
11 Petroleum Association of Wyoming, Oil and Gas Facts & Figures 2021, Gross Domestic Production (GDP) by Industry (in millions).
12 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Coal Production & Mining, accessed March 22, 2022.
13 Petroleum Association of Wyoming, Oil and Gas Facts & Figures 2021, Production.
14 State of Wyoming, Department of Revenue, DOR Annual Reports, 2021 Annual Report, Mineral Tax Division, p. 4, 40, 53.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Production, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
19 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2020 and 2019.
20 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report (April 1, 2022), Table 2, Coal production by state.
21 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), United States, 2001-20.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data Systems, Table PT1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Wyoming, 1960-2019.
23 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), Wyoming, 2015-20.
24 U.S. EIA, "New electric generating capacity in 2020 will come primarily from wind and solar," Today in Energy (January 14, 2020).
25 U.S. EIA, "More power generation came from natural gas in first half of 2020 than first half of 2019," Today in Energy (August 12, 2020).
26 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report (April 1, 2022), Table 2, Coal production by state.
27 U.S. EIA, "Annual U.S. coal-fired electricity generation will increase for the first time since 2014," Today in Energy (December 21, 2021).
28 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Wyoming Coal, accessed March 22, 2022.
29 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 9, Major U.S. Coal Mines, 2020.
30 Wyoming Mining Association, Coal, Origin, accessed March 22, 2022.
31 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for subbituminous (short tons), U.S. and Wyoming, 2020.
32 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Coal Explained, updated October 19, 2021.
33 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for bituminous (short tons), U.S. and Wyoming, 2020.
34 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Wyoming Coal, accessed March 22, 2022.
35 Trainfanatics.com, Wyoming Coal Trains Keep Moving Day and Night!, accessed March 22, 2022.
36 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin state, consumer, destination, and method of transportation, Wyoming, Table OS-28, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2020.
37 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by origin state, 2020.
38 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2020 (January 13, 2022), Table 6, Crude oil plus lease condensate proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2020.
39 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2016-21.
40 American Petroleum Institute, Where are the Pipelines? Liquid Pipelines, accessed March 23, 2022.
41 Jeffries, Brian, Update on Natural Gas, NGLs and Crude, Wyoming Pipeline Authority (August 25, 2015), slides 24, 31-33.
42 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Oil & Natural Gas Resources in Wyoming (January 2022), p. 1-2.
43 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2021 (June 25, 2021), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2021.
44 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2021 (June 25, 2021), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2021.
45 Silver Eagle Refining, Evanston, Wyoming—Silver Eagle Refining Plant, accessed March 23, 2022.
46 Par Pacific, Wyoming Refining Company, accessed March 23, 2022.
47 Sinclair Oil, Refineries, Sinclair Wyoming Refining Company and Sinclair Casper Wyoming Refining Company, accessed March 23, 2022.
48 HF Sinclair, Renewable Diesel, accessed March 23, 2022.
49 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
50 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
51 U.S. EIA, Table E20, Motor Gasoline Price and Expenditure Estimates, Ranked by State, 2019.
52 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements (January 2018).
53 U.S. EIA, "New EPA ruling expands sale of 15% ethanol blended motor gasoline," Today in Energy (July 16, 2019).
54 U.S. EIA, Wyoming Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 1981-2021.
55 Erickson, Camille, "Wyoming's economy slammed by pandemic, new report shows," Casper Star-Tribune (September 28, 2020).
56 U.S. EIA, State Profile and Energy Estimates, Wyoming, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells, Tight Oil/Shale Gas Play, accessed March 23, 2022.
57 "New wells boost Wyoming's oil production to highest level in 25 years," World Oil (June 6, 2019).
58 U.S. Government Accountability Office, Opportunities and Challenges of Oil Shale Development, GAO-12-740T (May 10, 2012).
59 Maffly, Brian, "Company Wants to Run Utility Corridor Through Public Land for Oil-Shale Mine in Uinta Basin," The Salt Lake Tribune (April 7, 2016).
60 Maffly, Brian, "Major Utah oil-shale project clears ‘tremendous milestone,' but at what cost to the environment?" The Salt Lake Tribune (October 2, 2018).
61 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2020 (January 13, 2022), Table 10, Proved reserves, reserves changes, and production of natural gas, wet after lease separation, 2020.
62 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2016-21.
63 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Wyoming Oil and Gas Lease Sales, accessed March 23, 2022.
64 U.S. Department of the Interior, Natural Resources Revenue Data, Wyoming, Production, Natural Gas, Oil, 2016-20.
65 Petroleum Association of Wyoming, Oil and Gas Facts & Figures 2021, Production.
66 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Greater Green River Basin, Past Production, updated January 31, 2017.
67 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Wyoming's Oil & Gas Basins, Greater Green River Basin Geology, accessed March 23, 2022.
68 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 8-10.
69 Petroleum Association of Wyoming, Oil and Gas Facts & Figures 2021, Production.
70 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, Wyoming, 1967-2021.
71 Erickson, Camille, "A quiet decline: As the natural gas market falters, Wyoming has a lot to lose," Casper Star-Tribune (December 24, 2020).
72 Bleizeffer, Dustin, "Oil and gas industry continues to show signs of recovery in Wyoming," Casper Star-Tribune (November 25, 2021).
73 Richards, Heather, "Feds approve 3,500-well gas project in western Wyoming," Casper Star-Tribune (August 28, 2018).
74 McKim, Cooper, "NPL Oil And Gas Project Prepares For Drilling Later This Year," Wyoming Public Radio (April 5, 2019).
75 Jonah Energy LLC, Normally Pressured Lance (NPL) Overview, accessed March 23, 2022.
76 Nemec, Richard, "Wyoming DEQ Sets Rules to Lower Oil, Gas Emissions," NGI's Shale Daily (January 2, 2019).
77 Erickson, Camille, "Wyoming regulators call ozone action day for Upper Green River Basin," Casper Star-Tribune (January 20, 2020).
78 Richards, Heather, "As federal methane rules wane, Wyoming pressed to do more," Casper Star-Tribune (September 12, 2018).
79 Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, 2015-20.
80 U.S. EIA, Wyoming Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, 2007-20.
81 Bleizeffer, Dustin, "Coalbed Methane: Boom, Bust and Hard Lessons," Wyoming State Historical Society (March 29, 2015).
82 Richards, Heather, "Talking Points: The Basics on Wyoming's Orphaned Wells," Casper Star-Tribune (August 30, 2017).
83 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, Wyoming, 2016-21.
84 American Petroleum Institute, Where are the Pipelines? Natural Gas Pipelines, accessed March 23, 2022.
85 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Wyoming, 2015-20.
86 A Barrel Full, Opal Natural Gas Market Hub, see links to Ruby and Northwest Gas Pipelines, accessed March 23, 2022.
87 NGI Data, Opal, Opal Description, accessed March 23, 2022.
88 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Wyoming, 2015-20.
89 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Wyoming, 2015-20.
90 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption By End-Use, Wyoming, 2015-20.
91 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, Wyoming, 2016-21.
92 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Wyoming.
93 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Wyoming, Annual, 2001-21.
94 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
95 U.S. EIA, Wyoming Electricity Profile, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990-2020.
96 TransWest Express LLC, Critical grid infrastructure to connect the West, accessed March 24, 2022.
97 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), Wyoming, Annual, 2018-21.
98 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Wyoming.
99 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 5.6.B.
100 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Operating Nuclear Power Reactors by Location or Name, updated October 1, 2021.
101 U.S. EIA, Domestic Uranium Production Report - Annual, 2020 (May 17, 2021), Table 10, Uranium reserve estimates at the end of 2019 and 2020.
102 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Uranium, accessed March 24, 2022.
103 U.S. EIA, Domestic Uranium Production Report - Annual, 2020 (May 17, 2021), Table 5, U.S. uranium in-situ leach plants by owner, location, capacity and operating status at the end of the year, 2016-20.
104 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 127, Utah Geological Survey (2020), p. 39.
105 U.S. EIA, Nuclear explained, The nuclear fuel cycle, updated June 21, 2021.
106 Erickson, Camille, "Feds enter new agreement to help Wyoming uranium producers; conservationists have concerns," Casper Star-Tribune (July 23, 2020).
107 Basov, Vladimir, "U.S. uranium production in 2021 was 6 tonnes or 0.03% of domestic nuclear energy needs," Kitco News (February 7, 2022).
108 U.S. EIA, Domestic Uranium Production Report - Quarterly (February 3, 2022), Table 1, Total production of uranium concentrate in the United States.
109 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Wyoming, Annual, 2018-21.
110 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Wyoming, Maps & Data, accessed March 25, 2022.
111 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, "NREL Study Indicates Economic Potential for Wyoming Wind Transmission to California," Press Release (March 24, 2014).
112 University of Wyoming, "UW Study Determines Wyoming Wind Could Benefit Colorado Economically," Press Release (April 3, 2013).
113 Erickson, Camille, "Energy Journal: Wyoming's wind energy capacity almost doubled in 2020," Casper Star Tribune (February 6, 2021).
114 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of January 2022, Plant State: Wyoming, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
115 Haderlie, Carrie, "Construction resumes on wind project that has generated national attention," The Sheridan Press (May 7, 2021).
116 Power Company of Wyoming, Putting Wind to Work in Carbon County, accessed March 25, 2022.
117 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of January 2022, Plant State: Wyoming, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
118 American Clean Power, Clean Power Quarterly 2021 Q4, p. 10.
119 PacificCorp, Energy Gateway Transmission Expansion, accessed March 25, 2022.
120 TransWest Express LLC, Critical grid infrastructure to connect the West, accessed March 25, 2022.
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122 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Wyoming, Annual, 2018-21.
123 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of January 2022, Plant State: Wyoming, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric.
124 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of January 2022, Plant State: Wyoming, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
125 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Direct Normal Solar Irradiance, updated February 22, 2018.
126 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Wyoming, Annual, 2018-21.
127 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Geothermal Resources, accessed March 25, 2022.
128 University of Wyoming, Wyoming Renewables, Geothermal, accessed March 25, 2022.
129 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Potential for Geothermal Energy in Wyoming, updated April 20, 2015.
130 National Conference of State Legislatures, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals, updated August 13, 2021.
131 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Net Metering, Wyoming, updated March 12, 2021.
132 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Wind River Agency, accessed March 25, 2022.
133 National Conference of State Legislators, Federal and State Recognized Tribes, updated March 2020.
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135 Northern Plains Reservation Aid, Reservations, Wyoming: Wind River Reservation, accessed March 25, 2022.
136 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind River Reservation, p. 2, accessed March 25, 2022.
137 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Wind River Basin, Past production, p. 2, updated January 31, 2017.
138 Stilwell, Dean P., Stan W. Davis-Lawrence, and Alfred M. Elser, Reasonable Foreseeable Development Scenario for Oil and Gas, Lander Field Office, Wyoming (February 9, 2009), p. 22.
139 U.S. EIA, State Profile and Energy Estimates, Wyoming, Map, Layers/Legend: Indian Lands, Oil and Gas Wells, accessed March 25, 2022.
140 Zhorov, Irina, "Secretary Salazar Finalizes Indian Trust Settlement," Wyoming Public Radio (November 27, 2012).
141 Zhorov, Irina, "Money Heads to the Wind River Indian Reservation," Wyoming Public Radio (April 17, 2014).
142 U.S. EIA, State Profile and Energy Estimates, Wyoming, Map, Layers/Legend: Indian Lands, Hydroelectric Power Plant, accessed March 25, 2022.
143 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Wyoming, Maps & Data, accessed March 25, 2022.
144 Milbrandt, Anelia, Donna Heimiller, and Paul Schwabe, Techno-Economic Renewable Energy Potential on Tribal Lands (July 2018), National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Figure 2, Wind generation potential by reservation, p. 6.
145 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation-2006 Project.
146 Milbrandt, Anelia, Donna Heimiller, and Paul Schwabe, Techno-Economic Renewable Energy Potential on Tribal Lands (July 2018), National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Figure 4, Photovoltaic generation potential by reservation, p. 9; Table 6, Fifteen Tribal Lands with the Highest Technical Potential for Photovoltaic Electricity Generation, p. 11; Table 9, Fifteen Tribal Lands with the Highest Technical Potential for Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation, p. 15.