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Wyoming   Wyoming Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: December 21, 2017

Overview

The tectonic forces that created Wyoming's complex Rocky Mountain terrain preserved organic-rich fossil beds from multiple geologic eras,1 making the state a major producer of coal, natural gas, and crude oil.2 It has the smallest population of any state, and only Alaska has fewer residents per square mile.3 Wyoming produces more energy than it consumes and supplies more energy to other states than any other state in the nation4 Wyoming produces more onshore oil on federal leases than any other state and produces the second highest amount of federal onshore gas5

Wyoming supplies more energy to other states than any other state in the nation.

Wyoming’s lowest elevation point is more than half a mile above sea level, and its mountain peaks exceed 2 miles high. The state’s mountains, which form part of the Continental Divide, channel weather—and often fierce winds—across wide plains. The high elevations give Wyoming a cooler climate overall, but temperatures can be extreme. The state's record high is 114°F in the Big Horn Basin, and the record low is 66°F below zero in Yellowstone National Park.6National parks like Yellowstone and the Grand Teton, and national monuments like Devils Tower and Fossil Butte, as well as the Wind River and Bighorn mountain ranges, help make tourism the state's second largest industry.7

The biggest industry in Wyoming is energy-related mining and minerals extraction.8 Coal, crude oil, natural gas, or some combination of those fuels was produced in 20 of Wyoming's 23 counties during 2016.9 Mineral royalties and severance and related taxes typically provide a substantial portion of state revenues.10 Although only 6% of the energy produced in Wyoming is consumed there,11 is among the top five states with the highest per capita energy consumption,12 and its large energy and minerals production gives it one of the most energy-intensive state economies.13 The industrial sector uses more than half of all energy consumed in the state, and the transportation sector consumes more than one-fifth. 14

Petroleum

Wyoming has less than 3% of proved U.S. crude oil reserves,15 and the state typically accounts for between 2% and 3% of the nation’s total crude oil production.16 Wyoming is a crossroads for pipelines bringing Canadian and Rocky Mountain crude oil to refineries in the Rocky Mountain states and the Midwest and for pipelines shipping refined products to markets in those regions.17Wyoming has five operating crude oil refineries that provide one-fourth of the refining capacity in the Rocky Mountain region that also includes Colorado, Idaho, Montana, and Utah. 18 Wyoming’s refineries produce motor gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, and other products, and they have added the capability to process Canadian heavy sour crude oils.19,20,21,22,23

Wyoming’s per capita consumption of petroleum is one of the highest of all the states.

Wyoming is among the five states with the lowest total petroleum consumption.24 However, because the state has the smallest population, Wyoming ranks among the five states with the highest consumption of petroleum on a per capita basis.25,26 The state’s refineries deliver much of their output to neighboring states. Of the petroleum products consumed in Wyoming, three-fifths are used in the transportation sector and most of the remaining barrels are used by the industrial sector.27 Wyoming is one of the few states that allow statewide use of conventional motor gasoline.28,29

Following a steady decline in the state’s oil production that begin in 1985, producers using advanced drilling technologies increased the state’s crude oil production starting in 2010. Most of the production increase has come from two regions in eastern Wyoming: the Niobrara Shale north of the Colorado border and the coal-rich Powder River Basin south of the Montana border. However, when crude oil prices declined, oil production fell from its peak in the spring of 2015.30,31,32,33,34Southwestern Wyoming overlies part of the Green River oil shale, a formation rich in kerogen, an organic material found in sedimentary rock, which can be mined, crushed, and heated to extract crude oil. Green River, by some estimates, could be the world's largest crude oil resource if technology were developed to extract the oil economically.35,36

Natural gas

Two-thirds of Wyoming’s natural gas production occurs on federal lands.

Wyoming ranks among the top 5 states with the most natural gas reserves,37 and it is one of the top 10 natural gas-producing states in the nation.38 Two-thirds of the state’s natural gas is produced on federal leases.39 Production takes place throughout the state, but most of Wyoming’s natural gas has come from fields in the Green River Basin located in the state's southwest.40,41,42

Production of coalbed methane from coal seams in the Powder River Basin has steadily declined since 2000.43 Recent lower natural gas prices made some coalbed methane wells uneconomical.44,45 Coalbed methane accounts for almost one-tenth of Wyoming’s natural gas production.46 Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming are the leading coalbed methane producers in the United States.47

Wyoming has 16 of the largest U.S. natural gas fields, with two of the fields ranked in the top 10.

Wyoming typically consumes less than one-tenth of the natural gas it produces, with more than half of that gas used by the state’s industrial sector; mainly in the production and distribution of energy.48,49 Most natural gas produced in the state is shipped out through interstate pipelines50 that cross into Utah, Colorado, and Nebraska, and deliver natural gas to both the Midwest and the West Coast.51 Several interstate pipelines converge at Opal, Wyoming, creating a major interstate natural gas trading hub.52,53 Wyoming's natural gas storage capacity increased by about one-fourth in 2012 after a new storage field came online at the Opal hub.54 The state has nine natural gas storage fields.55

Wyoming has 16 of the nation’s largest natural gas fields, including the Pinedale and Jonah fields that rank among the top 10.56 Natural gas exploration has expanded across the state, including into the Powder River Basin, although Wyoming’s total gas production has decreased from its 2009 peak.57,58 The state has imposed new requirements to control the emissions from drilling.59,60 The reduction in emission releases, plus a slowdown in drilling because of depressed natural gas prices, have resulted in recent air quality improvements.61 Natural gas is Wyoming’s most widely used home heating fuel, used in three out of five households.,62

Coal

Seven of the 10 largest U.S. coal mines are located in Wyoming’s Powder River Basin.

Wyoming holds more than one-third of the U.S. recoverable coal reserves at producing mines.63 The state  has led the nation in coal production since 1986, and accounts for two-fifths of all coal mined in the United States.64,65 Seven of the 10 largest U.S. coal mines are located in Wyoming's Powder River Basin.66 Seams of subbituminous coal, some more than 100 feet thick, lie at shallow depths, allowing large-scale mechanized surface mining.67 Most of the coal is loaded on to unit trains, which can stretch up to a mile-and-a-half long with about 130 coal cars.68 Wyoming’s coal is shipped to power plants in more than 30 states.69 Coal-fired power plants in Texas, Illinois, and Missouri are the biggest users of Wyoming’s coal.70

The primary transportation route for coal from the rugged and sparsely populated Powder River Basin region is the PRB Joint Line, co-owned by two major railroads.71,72 The railroads have gradually added parallel tracks to decrease congestion and minimize shipping delays, particularly after three train derailments in 2005 severely damaged the PRB Joint Line and halted coal shipments.As area coal mining has grown, the railroads have gradually added parallel tracks to decrease congestion and minimize shipping delays, particularly after three train derailments in 2005 severely damaged the PRB Joint Line and halted coal shipments.73,74 Little of Wyoming’s coal is exported to other countries.75

Wyoming has more than one-third of recoverable U.S. coal reserves at producing mines. In the short term, coal use is expected to decline nationwide as older coal-fired electricity generating units are retired. In the longer term, demand is expected to stabilize for Wyoming's low-sulfur coal, which can help some generating units comply with air quality standards., Wyoming also has the world's largest known deposit of trona, a mineral used in dry sorbent injection technology to meet federal emission standards, which helps generators to continue to use coal., Although little Wyoming coal has been exported overseas, coal producers and railroads serving the Powder River Basin are considering more exports from Pacific ports to Asia.,,

Electricity

Coal-fired power plants dominate Wyoming’s electricity sector, producing about 85% of the state’s net electricity generation. Wind energy’s share has increased rapidly in the last 10 years, and contributed nearly 10% of net electricity generation in 2016. Small hydroelectric facilities and natural gas-fired and petroleum-fueled generating units contribute the remaining 5% of Wyoming’s electricity.76,77Most power from natural gas is generated and consumed at industrial facilities,78but new natural gas-fired capacity is being built by electric utilities to replace aging coal units.79,80

Because of the state's small population, total electricity demand is low, and Wyoming sends about 60% of the electricity it generates to nearby states.81,82, High-voltage transmission lines carrying electricity from Wyoming often operate at maximum capacity,83and the state government encourages transmission expansion. Several major interstate projects are in development to transmit more electricity supplies from Wyoming to western population centers.84 Within Wyoming, the industrial sector is the largest electricity consumer, accounting for more than half of the electricity used in the state.85Wyoming ranks among the 10 states with the lowest average electricity rates in the nation.86

Wyoming is home to nearly 60% of the nation’s operating capacity for producing uranium ore.

Wyoming does not have any nuclear power plants, but it is one of seven states with significant uranium reserves.87 The largest uranium mining operations in the United States are located in Wyoming, and the state is home to nearly 60% of the nation’s operating capacity for producing the uranium ore that fuels nuclear power plants.88 Expectations of rising uranium ore prices as more nuclear power plants in other countries come online could result in new mining activity in the state.89,90

Renewable energy

Winds are funneled through Wyoming’s mountain passes and across the prairie, creating among the best U.S. wind resources.

Wyoming has some of the largest wind resources in the nation, especially in the southeast corner of the state.91Sustained winds are funneled through mountain passes and out across the high prairie, giving Wyoming wind farms high operating capacity factors.92,93The amount of installed wind-powered generating capacity has grown rapidly during the last 10 years, with Wyoming ranked 15th in the nation in 2016 at nearly 1,500 megawatts of wind power capacity.94,95, Several large-scale projects are in development,96,97 including a 3,000-megawatt project at Chokecherry-Sierra Madre, which may become the largest wind project in the nation.98,99Wyoming officials are actively seeking customers for the state's wind power in California and Colorado, which have significant renewable energy requirements.100,101 The Wyoming Infrastructure Authority is encouraging several large transmission projects aimed at transporting Wyoming’s wind-generated electricity to Nevada, Arizona, and California.102

Most of Wyoming's hydroelectric dams are relatively small, old, and owned by the federal government.103,104 Though the state has significant potential solar resources,105 no utility-scale solar generation has been installed, in part because of Wyoming's relatively low electricity rates. A small amount of distributed small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity, located mostly on residential rooftops, has been installed around the state.106,107,108 While Wyoming does not have a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) or other requirement to generate electricity from  renewable energy,109 the state does provide net metering for residential, commercial, and industrial customers with renewable energy systems smaller than 25 kilowatts, including solar PV panels, wind turbines, biomass plants, and hydroelectric generators.110

Wyoming’s geothermal resources are used mainly in Yellowstone National Park and Hot Springs State Park. Geothermal energy is also used in the state to heat buildings, water, and roadways.111 Wyoming does have adequate geothermal resources to support geothermal heat pumps for supplying heat in new buildings or in retrofits of existing buildings.112

Energy on tribal lands

Wyoming's Wind River Reservation, one of the nation's largest reservations at more than 3,500 square miles, is home to both the Arapahoe and the Shoshone tribes.113,114 It is Wyoming's only reservation, and it occupies most of the northern and central parts of the Wind River Basin in west-central Wyoming.115 Crude oil and natural gas have been produced on the Wind River Reservation for well over a century.116

The state's first oil well was drilled in the Wind River Basin in 1884, south of the reservation boundary.117 About a half century later, several oil seeps were discovered within the reservation, and crude oil and natural gas production on tribal lands followed.118 Between 1884 and the mid-1990s, more than 550 million barrels of crude oil and almost 3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas were produced from reservoirs in the Wind River Basin.119 In 2012, a settlement was reached between the tribes and the federal government for underpayment and improper management of royalties owed on crude oil and natural gas production from reservation land. The settlement included a $157 million payment to the tribes.120,121

The Wind River Reservation has significant wind energy resources along the mountain ridges that border the reservation.122,123 Several areas of the reservation have been evaluated for wind projects that could give the two tribes an additional source of energy.124 The reservation has potential solar resources as well.125

Endnotes

1 McClendon, Russell, "Where Does Coal Come From?" Mother Nature Network (August 4, 2009).
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P4, Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2015.
3 U.S. Census Bureau, Resident Population Data, Population Density, 1910-2010.
4 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Production, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2015.
5 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Wyoming Oil and Gas Lease Sales, accessed November 1, 2017.
6 Gray, Steve, “Wicked Wind, Raging Blizzards and Bitter Cold—and That’s Just Summer in Wyoming,” Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed November 1, 2017.
7 Forbes, Best States for Business, Wyoming (November 2016).
8 U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Wyoming, updated September 26, 2017.
9 Petroleum Association of Wyoming, 2017 Facts and Figures, Production.
10 State of Wyoming, Department of Revenue, 2016 Annual Report, Mineral Tax Division, p. 3, 39–52.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Production, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2015.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2015.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
15 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, 2015 (December 2016), Table 6, Crude oil plus lease condensate proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2015.
16 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2011–16.
17 Jeffries, Brian, Update on Natural Gas, NGLs and Crude, Wyoming Pipeline Authority (August 25, 2015), Slides 23, 31–33.
18 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2017, Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2017.
19 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2017, Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2017, p. 19.
20 HollyFrontier Corp., Cheyenne Refinery, accessed November 2, 2017.
21 Silver Eagle Refining, About, accessed November 2, 2017.
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23 Sinclair Oil, Refineries, accessed November 2, 2017.
24 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2015
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2015.
26 U.S. Census Bureau, Resident Population Data, Population Density, 1910–2010.
27 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
28 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Learn About Gasoline, accessed November 2, 2017.
29 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements (June 2015).
30 U.S. EIA, Wyoming Field Production of Crude Oil, Monthly, accessed November 2, 2017.
31 Richards, Heather, “Wyoming trudges through oil price slump,” Casper Star Tribune, March 24, 2017.
32 Richards, Heather, “The Powder River Basin is poised for growth when oil prices rise. But what will it mean for jobs?” Casper Star Tribune (June 17, 2017).
33 Voge, Adam, “Niobrara Production, Permitting on the Rise,” Casper Star Tribune (August 13, 2012).
34 DrillingEdge, Oil & Gas Production in Wyoming, Oil and Gas Production by Year in Wyoming, accessed November 2, 2017.
35 U.S. Government Accountability Office, Opportunities and Challenges of Oil Shale Development, GAO-12-740T (May 10, 2012).
36 Maffly, Brian, “Company Wants to Run Utility Corridor Through Public Land for Oil-Shale Mine in Uinta Basin,” The Salt Lake Tribune (April 7, 2016).
37 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, 2015 (December 2016), Table 10, Total natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2015.
38 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2011–16, and Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2011–16.
39 U.S. Department of the Interior, Natural Resources Revenue Data, Production on federal land in Wyoming, accessed November 4, 2017.
40 Petroleum Association of Wyoming, Wyoming Oil & Gas, Facts & Figures 2017 Edition, Production.
41 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Wyoming Oil & Gas Facts, Wyoming’s Natural Gas, accessed November 4, 2017.
42 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Greater Green River Basin, Past Production, updated January 31, 2017.
43 U.S. EIA, Wyoming Coalbed Methane Production, 2000–15.
44 Bleizeffer, Dustin, “Coalbed Methane: Boom, Bust and Hard Lessons,” Wyoming State Historical Society, accessed November 4, 2017.
45 Richards, Heather, “Talking Points: The Basics on Wyoming’s Orphaned Wells,” Casper Star Tribune (August 30, 2017).
46 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Wyoming, 2011–16.
47 U.S. EIA, Coalbed Methane Production, 2010–15.
48 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption By End-Use, Wyoming, 2011–16.
49 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Wyoming, 2011–16, Wyoming.
50 Jeffries, Brian, Update on Natural Gas, NGLs and Crude, Wyoming Pipeline Authority (August 25, 2015), Slides 2, 14.
51 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Wyoming, 2011–16.
52 A Barrel Full, Opal Natural Gas Market Hub, see links to Ruby and Northwest Gas Pipelines, accessed November 4, 2017.
53 NGI Data, Opal, Opal Description, accessed November 4, 2017.
54 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Wyoming Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, accessed November 4, 2017.
55 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Wyoming Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, accessed November 6, 2017.
56 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015).
57 Petroleum Association of Wyoming, Wyoming Oil & Gas, Facts & Figures 2017 Edition, Production.
58 DrillingEdge, Oil & Gas Production in Wyoming, Browse Wyoming Counties by Production, accessed November 4, 2017.
59 Storrow, Benjamin, “State Regulators Move to Clamp Down on Oil and Gas Emissions,” Casper Star Tribune (October 23, 2015).
60 Richards, Heather, “Energy Journal: Lessons from Pinedale; Capturing Carbon Emissions in Gillette,” Casper Star Tribune (July 11, 2016).
61 Storrow, Benjamin, “Ozone Levels Down in Pinedale Area as EPA Prepares a More Stringent Pollution Threshold,” Casper Star Tribune (September 1, 2015).
62 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Wyoming, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, 2016.
63 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 15, 2017), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2016 and 2015.
64 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 15, 2017), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2016, 2015.
65 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2015.
66 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 15, 2017), Table 9, Major U.S. Coal Mines, 2016.
67 Wyoming Mining Association, Coal, accessed November 8, 2017.
68 Trainfantics.com, Wyoming Coal Trains Keep Moving Day and Night!, accessed November 8, 2017.
69 Wyoming Mining Association, Coal, accessed November 8, 2017.
70 Wyoming State Geological Survey, Coal Production and Mining, accessed November 16, 2017.
71 Dorgan, Randy, “Will Coal’s Rail Problem be Solved in 2015?” Casper Star Tribune (February 6, 2015).
72 Western Organization of Resource Councils, Heavy Traffic Ahead (July 2012), p. 20–21.
73 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Deliveries of Coal from the Powder River Basin: Events and Trends, 2005-2007 (October 2007), Executive Summary.
74 "UP, BNSF Announce Southern Powder River Basin Joint Line $100 Million Capacity Expansion Plan," Union Pacific Railroad, Press Release (May 8, 2006).
75 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 21, 2017), Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by state origin.
76 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B, 1.10.B, 1.14.B.
77 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source, 1990–2015.
78 Stafford, Jim, Wyoming's Electrical Generation, Wyoming State Geological Survey (February 2012), p. 2–3.
79 "Wyoming Company to Close Coal Power Plant; Natural Gas Plant Will Open in Cheyenne," Greeley Tribune (March 31, 2014).
80 Dixon, Tom, “The Big Switch: Utilities’ Conversion from Coal to Natural Gas,” Casper Star Tribune (May 31, 2014).
81 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 5.4.B, 1.3.B.
82 U.S. EIA, Wyoming Electricity Profile, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990–2015.
83 Stafford, Jim, Wyoming's Electrical Generation, Wyoming State Geological Survey (February 2012), p. 3.
84 Wyoming Infrastructure Authority, Power Transmission and Generation Projects, accessed November 9, 2017.
85 U.S. EIA, Wyoming Electricity Profile 2015, Table 8, Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2015.
86 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.6.B.
87 U.S. EIA, Domestic Uranium Production Report - Annual, 2016 (May 24, 2017), Table 10, Uranium reserve estimates at the end of 2015 and 2016.
88 U.S. EIA, Domestic Uranium Production Report - Annual, 2016 (May 24, 2017),  Table 5, U.S. uranium in-situ leach plants by owner, location, capacity and operating status at the end of the year, 2011–16.
89 Gregory, Robert, Wyoming’s Uranium Resources, Wyoming State Geological Survey (February 2015).
90 Beck, Madelyn, “Busted Uranium Market Gears Up For Potential Boom,” IE Inside Energy (August 30, 2017).
91 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wyoming Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity (September 24, 2015).
92National Renewable Energy Laboratory, “NREL Study Indicates Economic Potential for Wyoming Wind Transmission to California,” Press Release (March 24, 2014).
93University of Wyoming, “UW Study Determines Wyoming Wind Could Benefit Colorado Economically” (April 3, 2013).
94U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990–2015, Existing Nameplate and Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source, Producer Type and State (EIA-860).
95American Wind Energy Association, Wyoming Wind Energy, accessed November 9, 2017.
96U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Wyoming, Wind Energy, updated November 22, 2013.
97Jaffe, Mark, “Wyoming Wind Farm Energy Would Go to L.A.,” The Denver Post (September 24, 2014).
98U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Chokecherry and Sierra Madre Wind Energy Project, accessed November 9, 2017.
99Power Company of Wyoming, Putting Wind to Work in Carbon County, accessed November 9, 2017.
100TransWest Express LLC, Delivering Wyoming Wind Energy to the West, accessed November 9, 2017.
101Duke American Transmission Co., Zephyr Power Transmission Project, accessed November 9, 2017.
102 Wyoming Infrastructure Authority, Power Transmission and Generation Projects, accessed November 9, 2017.
103Foundation for Water & Energy Education, Hydroelectric Projects in Wyoming, accessed November 9, 2017.
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105National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Solar Maps, U.S. Solar Resource Maps, Direct Normal Solar Resource of Wyoming,   updated April 4, 2017.
106Joyce, Stephanie, “Solar Economics Looking Sunnier, Even in Coal Country,” Wyoming Public Radio (February 27, 2015).
107 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.17.B.
108Solar Energy Industries Association, Wyoming Solar, accessed November 9, 2017.
109National Conference of State Legislatures, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals, updated August 1, 2017.
110NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Net Metering, Wyoming, updated December 1, 2015.
111Wyoming State Geological Survey, Geothermal Resources, accessed November 16, 2017.
112Wyoming State Geological Survey, Potential for Geothermal Energy in Wyoming, updated April 20, 2015.
113U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Wind River Agency, accessed November 9, 2017.
114 National Council of State Legislators, Federal and State Recognized Tribes, updated October 2016.
115Mason, Jon P., Sonja K. Sebree, and Thomas L. Quinn, Monitoring-Well Network and Sampling Design for Ground-Water Quality, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming, USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5027, Description of Study Area, updated January 10, 2013.
116U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind River Reservation, p. 2, accessed November 5, 2017.
117Wyoming State Geological Survey, Wind River Basin, p. 2, updated January 31, 2017.
118 Stillwell, Dean P., Stan W. Davis-Lawrence, and Alfred M. Elser, Reasonable Foreseeable Development Scenario for Oil and Gas, Lander Field Office, Wyoming (February 9, 2009), p. 22.
119 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind River Reservation, p. 2, accessed November 14, 2017.
120 Zhorov, Irina, “Secretary Salazar Finalizes Indian Trust Settlement,” Wyoming Public Radio (November 27, 2012).
121Zhorov, Irina, “Money Heads to the Wind River Indian Reservation,” Wyoming Public Radio (April 17, 2014).
122U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development, Native American Wind Resource Atlas (2010 Edition), p. 62–63.
123U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wyoming Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, updated September 24, 2015.
124U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation-2006 Project.
125National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Solar Maps, U.S. Solar Resource Maps, Photovoltaics and Concentrating Solar Power, updated April 4, 2017.