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South Dakota   South Dakota Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: April 16, 2020

Overview

South Dakota's vast prairie stretches from the lowlands in the east across the rolling hills, canyons, and buttes of the plains to the state's highest peaks, including Mount Rushmore, in the Black Hills in the west. The Black Hills are mineral-rich with gold, silver, copper, and lead deposits.1 The state's modest crude oil and natural gas production is also concentrated in western South Dakota. However, substantial renewable resources are found statewide.2,3,4 The Missouri River, the longest river in North America, cuts across central South Dakota and, along with its many tributaries, provides the state with abundant hydroelectric resources.5 Four of the six major hydroelectric dams along the Missouri River are located in South Dakota.6 Nine-tenths of the state is covered by crops or pastureland, and high winds that blow unobstructed across South Dakota provide a significant wind energy resource.7,8 Solar resources are greatest in the western half of South Dakota, and geothermal potential is present across much of the western two-thirds of the state.9,10 Biomass generated on South Dakota's farms and in the state's western forests provides an additional renewable resource.11,12 Uranium, the source for nuclear reactor fuel, was found in western South Dakota in the early 1950s. Although uranium is not currently produced in the state, a uranium in-situ-leach plant project is in development.13,14,15

The industrial sector is South Dakota's leading energy-consuming end-use sector, and agriculture is one of the state's leading industries.16,17 In addition to South Dakota's many farms, the industrial sector includes several manufacturing industries. Food products, machinery, chemical products, fabricated metal products, and transportation equipment are among the state's leading manufactured items.18 Gold mining on a large-scale ceased in 2001 with the closing of the Homestake mine, which produced more than 40 million ounces of gold during its 125-year history.19 However, other large-scale, energy-intensive mining activities continue in the state, including the extraction of sand, gravel, stone, gypsum, copper, and silver.20

Because South Dakota has one of the smallest populations of any state, its total energy consumption is among the lowest in the nation.21,22 However, with its energy-intensive industries and a climate typified by hot summers and exceptionally cold winters, South Dakota is one of the top 10 energy-consuming states on a per capita basis.23,24

Electricity

Hydroelectric power provides the largest share of South Dakota's electricity net generation.

Hydroelectric power provides the largest share of South Dakota's in-state generation, typically between about 40% and 55%.25 In 2019, hydropower accounted for about 45% of South Dakota's in-state generation.26 Three of the state's largest power plants are hydroelectric facilities located on the upper Missouri River and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.27 The northernmost is at the Oahe Dam. Forming the fourth-largest man-made reservoir in the nation, the Oahe began generating hydroelectric power in 1962. Downstream is the Big Bend Dam, which went into operation in 1964. The Fort Randall Dam, just north of the Nebraska state line, is the oldest and first produced power in March 1954. Water released from upstream dams is stored in Lewis and Clark Lake behind a fourth dam, Gavins Point. That dam straddles the border between South Dakota and Nebraska; however, its power plant is on the Nebraska side. The Gavins Point Dam plays an important role in controlling the water flow on the 800 miles of open river between South Dakota and St. Louis, Missouri.28,29

South Dakota's remaining electricity is generated almost entirely from wind, coal, and natural gas. In 2019, wind power supplied almost one-fourth of the state's net generation. Coal's contribution declined from more than half of state net generation in 2008 to about one-fifth in 2019. At the same time, the share of state generation provided by natural gas increased. In 2019, about one-tenth of South Dakota's electricity generation was natural gas-fired.30,31 The state does not have any nuclear power plants.32

In part because South Dakota has a small population, it consumes less electricity than most other states.33,34 However, South Dakota's per capita electricity retail sales are greater than in about two-thirds of the states.35 As a result, South Dakotans use more electricity than is generated in the state, and additional supplies are received from the regional electric grid.36 The commercial and residential sectors together account for almost four-fifths of electricity retail sales in South Dakota, and the rest is purchased by the industrial sector. Retail sales to the commercial sector are slightly greater than those to the residential sector, where almost one-third of households use electricity as the primary energy source for home heating.37,38 Per capita retail sales of electricity to the residential sector are well above the national average in part because of the significant use of electricity for home heating during the state's extremely cold winters.39

Renewable energy

In 2019, renewable resources, led by hydropower, provided seven-tenths of South Dakota’s electricity net generation.

Renewable resources supply about seven-tenths of the electricity generated in South Dakota, almost all of it from hydroelectric power and wind energy. More generation comes from hydroelectric power than from any other source. In 2019, hydroelectric power provided two-thirds of the state's electricity net generation from renewable resources.40 South Dakota also has some of the best onshore wind resources in the nation, and it ranks among the top five states in the share of its in-state electricity generation provided by wind.41,42 In 2019, South Dakota had more than 800 wind turbines statewide at 19 active wind farms with a combined total of more than 1,500 megawatts of installed generating capacity.43,44 Several additional areas of the state are being considered for further wind energy development.45

South Dakota has other renewable energy resources including geothermal energy, solar energy, and biomass. Geothermal energy has been used in direct heat applications for district heating, geothermal heat pumps, and for heating spas, swimming pools, residences, barns, and other buildings.46 South Dakota also has abundant biomass resources from forest waste and from agricultural activities.47,48 However, there is no utility-scale electricity generation from geothermal energy or biomass in the state.49 South Dakota does have two wood pellet manufacturing plants that have a combined production capacity of 76 tons per year.50 Wood pellets can be used for electricity generation and space heating.51 Moderate solar PV potential exists across most of South Dakota, with the greatest solar potential in the state's southwestern corner.52 However, South Dakota has only small amounts of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation, much of it from small-scale, customer-sited installations, such as rooftop solar panels.53

In February 2008, South Dakota's legislature established a voluntary renewable portfolio objective. Renewable and recycled energy resources, and later energy conservation, were to provide 10% of all electricity retail sales by 2015. Many of the state's electricity providers met the goal, but other providers noted barriers that limited their ability to do so. Those barriers included lack of transmission capacity for renewable projects, intermittent supply, competition from natural gas, and physical locations away from transmission lines and markets.54,55 South Dakota does have state and utility policies, financial incentives, and technical resources that encourage energy efficiency and renewable electricity generation. The state also has interconnection standards, but no net metering rules, and interconnection costs are usually paid by the generating system owner.56,57

Petroleum

South Dakota has no significant proved crude oil reserves and no oil refineries, but it does have a small amount of crude oil production.58,59,60 Although the Williston Basin extends into South Dakota from the north, the oil-rich Bakken Shale does not. Other potentially productive formations are present but unexplored.61,62 Almost all of the state's crude oil production is concentrated in the northwestern corner of the state, where Harding County produces most of South Dakota's crude oil and natural gas.63 The state's annual crude oil production has ranged between about 1 million and 2 million barrels per year for three decades. It declined from a peak of nearly 1.9 million barrels in 2013 to less than 1.2 million barrels in 2019.64 State crude oil production accounts for less than 0.1% of the nation's total production.65

Petroleum product pipelines that enter South Dakota from neighboring states bring refined products to South Dakota consumers.66 The transportation sector accounts for almost four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in South Dakota, primarily as motor gasoline and diesel fuel.67,68 The industrial sector uses most of the rest of the petroleum consumed in the state. About one in six South Dakota households use petroleum products, mostly propane, for heating, and the residential sector accounts for about 5% of the state's petroleum consumption.69,70

South Dakota is a top ethanol-producing state and makes about 7% of the nation’s total.

Statewide use of conventional gasoline without ethanol is allowed.71 However, there are more than 80 fueling stations in South Dakota that sell E85 a motor gasoline blend that is 85% ethanol.72 South Dakota is one of the nation's top 10 corn producers, and the state's abundant corn crop is used, in part, to supply the feedstock for South Dakota's fuel ethanol production industry.73,74,75 Fifteen fuel ethanol plants are in operation in South Dakota, and all of them use corn as a feedstock.76,77 South Dakota's ethanol plants can produce about 26 million barrels per year, of which only about 1.2 million barrels per year are consumed in the state.78,79 South Dakota's ethanol plants account for about 7% of the nation's total ethanol production.80

Natural gas

South Dakota does not have any significant proved natural gas reserves, and like crude oil, natural gas production in the state is modest.81,82 Production of natural gas had increased steadily from 1980 until it reached an annual high of more than 16 billion cubic feet in 2013. It stayed near that level through 2015. However, production has rapidly decreased with the decline in the number of producing natural gas wells.83 In 2016, natural gas production fell to less than 500 million cubic feet per year, where it has remained.84 In 2018, the state accounted for less than 0.01% of U.S. natural gas production.85 South Dakota's natural gas is produced from wells in Harding county in the northwest corner of the state.86

South Dakota has more livestock than people, and almost two-fifths of the state‘s agricultural economy comes from raising cattle and hogs.87,88 A renewable natural gas (RNG) project that will use animal manure from some of the state's dairy farms to produce biogas is in development. It is anticipated that the project will produce more than 200 million cubic feet of RNG each year that will be fed into the interstate pipeline system for use across the state.89 The city of Sioux Falls also uses biogas created by anaerobic digestion. The city's water reclamation facility uses the biogas that is produced there to generate enough electricity to meet about 40% of the facility's needs.90

In part because of its small population, South Dakota uses little natural gas. However, more natural gas is consumed in the state than is produced there.91,92 The industrial sector is South Dakota's largest natural gas-consuming sector. In 2018, it accounted for slightly more than half of the state's total natural gas consumption. Although almost half of South Dakota households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating, the residential sector uses only about one-third as much natural gas as the industrial sector. The commercial sector uses slightly less than the residential sector, and a small but increasing amount of natural gas is used for electric power generation. In 2018, the electric power sector accounted for about one-tenth of the state's total natural gas consumption.93,94 A handful of major interstate pipelines bring natural gas into South Dakota.95 Almost all the natural gas that enters the state comes from North Dakota. South Dakota does not have any underground natural gas storage fields, and about nine-tenths of the natural gas that enters South Dakota continues on to Minnesota and other states.96,97

Coal

South Dakota's estimated coal reserves are small, and the state has no coal production.98 The state relies on shipments of coal from other states, mainly Wyoming, to meet its limited coal demand. About nine-tenths of the almost 1.7 million tons of coal consumed in South Dakota is used for electricity generation. The rest of the coal is delivered to industrial facilities in the state.99,100

Energy on tribal lands

More than 70,000 Native Americans live in South Dakota, which is almost one-tenth of the state's population.101 Almost one-tenth of the land in the state is held by tribes or individual tribal members as well, giving South Dakota the fifth-largest amount of acreage in tribal hands in the nation.102 The tribes on the Pine Ridge, Cheyenne River, Rosebud, and Standing Rock reservations are among the largest tribal landholders in the lower 48 states.103 In all, the state is home to nine federally recognized tribes on nine reservations, more reservations than in any other state. However, two of the reservations straddle the North Dakota-South Dakota border.104,105

Although South Dakota's tribal lands do not have significant fossil energy resources, they do have substantial renewable energy resources. Four of the nation's five tribes with the greatest wind-powered electricity generation potential on tribal lands are in South Dakota.106 In 2003, South Dakota's Rosebud Sioux Tribe installed a 750-kilowatt wind turbine. It was the first tribe-owned and -operated large commercial wind turbine in the Lower 48 states.107 In 2013, South Dakota tribes announced plans for the collaborative development of an interconnected grid of wind farms. The planned facilities could provide up to 2,000 megawatts of generating capacity.108 To expedite development of the wind project, including transmission lines, a Multi-Tribal Power Authority, that allows the tribes to own the transmission and generating facilities, was formed by six Sioux tribes in South Dakota. Construction of the first two interconnected wind power projects is scheduled to begin in 2020. The locations were selected because they are near existing transmission lines.109 In 2014, another South Dakota Sioux tribe, the Crow Creek, received a federal grant to begin work on a proposed 100- to 400-megawatt wind farm on 7,000 acres of its tribal land.110 Now planned as a 400-megawatt facility, it is expected to become operational at the end of 2024.111

South Dakota tribes also have biomass and solar resources. The Sisseton Tribe of northeastern South Dakota is one of the five tribes in the nation with the greatest biomass potential on their reservations. The Pine Ridge reservation of southwestern South Dakota and northern Nebraska has some of the largest concentrating solar power potential in the nation. The Standing Rock reservation that straddles the North and South Dakota border is one of the five reservations with the greatest utility-scale solar PV potential in the nation.112 What would be the state's largest solar farm is planned on tribal lands within the Pine Ridge reservation. The solar farm is to be built on land leased from tribal members and could provide up to 140 megawatts of power to the electric grid.113 Individual tribal members on several reservations in South Dakota have installed small-scale, customer-sited solar PV systems.114,115

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, South Dakota, The Geography of South Dakota, updated February 25, 2016.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2018.
3 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2018.
4 South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Production and Injection Data, 2019 Oil and Gas Statistics, accessed March 25, 2020.
5 Geology.com, South Dakota Lakes, Rivers and Water Resources, accessed March 3, 2020.
6 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Great Plains Region, Lewis and Clark: Big Dam Era, updated July 1, 2015.
7 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2017 Census of Agriculture, State Profile, South Dakota.
8 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in South Dakota, accessed March 3, 2020.
9 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NSRDB Data Viewer, South Dakota, accessed March 3, 2020.
10 Roberts, Billy J., Geothermal Resource of the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (October 13, 2009).
11 Roberts, Billy J., Crop Residues, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (August 4, 2014).
12 Meneguzzo, Dacia M., and Charles S. Paulson, Forests of South Dakota, 2018, Resource Update FS-199, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station (2019), p. 3.
13 Azarga Uranium, Dewey Burdock Uranium Project, accessed February 7, 2019.
14 U.S. EIA, Domestic Uranium Production Report, 4th Quarter 2019 (February 2020), Table 4, U.S. uranium in-situ-leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status.
15 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Dewey Burdock Site, updated April 19, 2019.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2017.
17 South Dakota Department of Agriculture, South Dakota Agriculture, Facts and Impacts, accessed March 25, 2020.
18 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by state, GDP in current dollars, South Dakota, All statistics in table, 2017.
19 "The Homestake Mine Through the Years—From Nuggets to Neutrinos, the Mine Continues to Evolve to Help Science and Society," Benzinga (November 30, 2009).
20 Jones, Shannon, "Top 5 Industries in South Dakota: Which Parts of the Economy Are Strongest?," Newsmax (April 10, 2015).
21 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2019, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019 (NST-EST2019-01).
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2017.
23 Hoover, Herbert T., South Dakota, Climate, Encyclopaedia Britannica, updated January 17, 2020.
24 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
25 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Electricity Profile 2018, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2018.
26 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B.
27 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Electricity Profile 2018, Tables 2A, 2B.
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), South Dakota, Conventional Hydroelectric.
29 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Great Plains Region, Lewis and Clark: Big Dam Era, updated July 1, 2015.
30 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B, 1.14.B.
31 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Electricity Profile 2018, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2018.
32 U.S. EIA, Nuclear Reactor, State, and Net Capacity (December 2019).
33 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2019, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019 (NST-EST2019-01).
34 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 5.4.B.
35 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2017.
36U.S. EIA, South Dakota Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018.
37 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.4.B.
38 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, South Dakota.
39 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2017.
40 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
41 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, United States—Land-Based and Offshore Annual Average Wind Speed at 100 m (September 19, 2013).
42 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
43 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in South Dakota, Wind Projects as of 4Q 2019, accessed March 6, 2020.
44 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, U.S. Installed and Potential Wind Power Capacity and Generation, Installed and Potential, accessed March 6, 2020.
45 South Dakota Public Utilities Commission, South Dakota Wind Energy Projects (January 2020).
46 Lund, John W., "South Dakota Geothermal Resources," Geo-Heat Center Bulletin (December 1997), p. 1, 3-5.
47 South Dakota Department of Agriculture, Biomass Utilization, accessed March 6, 2020.
48 Roberts, Billy J., Crop Residues, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (August 4, 2014).
49 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.15.B, 1.16.B.
50 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, November 2019.
51 U.S. EIA, Glossary, Densified Biomass Fuel, accessed March 6, 2020.
52 Robert, Billy J., "Global Horizontal Solar Irradiance, National Solar Radiation Database Physical Solar Model," National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
53 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.17.B.
54 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, South Dakota Renewable, Recycled and Conserved Energy Objective, updated June 27, 2018.
55 South Dakota Public Utilities Commission, South Dakota's Renewable, Recycled and Conserved Energy Objective, Report for Calendar Year 2016 (December 29, 2017).
56 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, South Dakota Programs, accessed March 7, 2020.
57 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, South Dakota Interconnection Standards, updated October 27, 2016
58 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2018.
59 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, Annual as of January 1, 2019.
60 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Monthly Thousands of Barrels, January to December 2019.
61 U.S. Department of Energy, Fossil Energy Office of Oil and Natural Gas, South Dakota Natural Gas Flaring and Venting Regulations, South Dakota Producing Plays and Basins, updated May 2019.
62 The Office of Governor Dennis Daugaard, South Dakota Oil & Gas Development/Preparedness Executive Branch Work Groups, Summary of Findings (September 2012), p. 10.
63 South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Production and Injection Data, 2019 Oil and Gas Statistics.
64 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual (1981-2018) and Monthly (Jan-Dec 2019).
65 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2012-18.
66 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Profile Overview, Petroleum Product Pipeline Map Layer, accessed March 13, 2020.
67 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2017.
68 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2017.
69 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, South Dakota.
70 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2017.
71 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements as of January 2018, ExxonMobil.
72 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Advanced Filters, South Dakota, Ethanol (85), accessed March 13, 2020.
73 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Crop Production, 2019 Summary (January 2020), p. 11.
74 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2017.
75 "U.S. Ethanol Plant, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine (February 24, 2020).
76 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2019, XLS.
77 "U.S. Ethanol Plant, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine (February 24, 2020).
78 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2019.
79 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2018.
80 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2017.
81 U.S. EIA, Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2018.
82 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, South Dakota, Annual, 2013-18.
83 South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Production and Injection Data, Producing Gas Wells.
84 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2018.
85 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2018.
86 South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Production and Injection Data, 2019 Oil and Gas Statistics.
87 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2017 Census of Agriculture, State Profile, South Dakota.
88 U.S. Census Bureau, QuickFacts, South Dakota (July 1, 2019).
89 "New dairy methane project launched in South Dakota," Solid Waste & Recycling (February 14, 2020).
90 City of Sioux Falls, South Dakota, SiouxperGrow (Biosolids) Program, accessed March 17, 2020.
91 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, 2018.
92 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2018.
93 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, South Dakota.
94 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, South Dakota, Annual, 2014-18.
95 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Profile Overview, Natural Gas Inter/Intrastate Pipeline Map Layer, accessed March 15, 2020.
96 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, South Dakota, 2013-18.
97 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2013-18.
98 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2018 and 2017, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
99 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), By Coal Destination State, South Dakota Table DS-36, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2018.
100 U.S. EIA Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2018 and 2017.
101 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 2013 American Indian Population and Labor Force Report (January 16, 2014), p. 14.
102 U.S. Forest Service, Forest Service National Resource Guide to American Indian and Alaska Native Relations, Appendix D: Indian Nations, The American Indian Digest (April 1997), p. D-3.
103 U.S. Forest Service, Forest Service National Resource Guide to American Indian and Alaska Native Relations, Appendix D: Indian Nations, The American Indian Digest (April 1997), p. D-2.
104 National Conference of State Legislatures, Federal and State Recognized Tribes, updated October 2019.
105 South Dakota Indian Business Alliance, South Dakota Reservation Map, accessed March 15, 2020.
106 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy, Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands, Data and Resources for Tribes, DOE/IE-0015 (April 2013), p. 56.
107 U.S. Department of Energy, Rosebud Sioux Wind Energy Project, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, DOE Grant DE-FC36-99R810676, Final Report, RST Utilities Commission (April 2008), p. ii.
108 Fried, Rona, "Sioux Tribes Collaborate on Biggest US Wind Farm," SustainableBusiness.com News (July 10, 2013).
109 Robertson, Josh, "Oceti Sakowin Power Authority: How a Six-Tribe Coalition Is Defining a New and Bigger Business Model," Native Business (November 11, 2019).
110 Simmons-Ritchie, Daniel, "Crow Creek receives federal grant to launch billion-dollar wind farm," Rapid City Journal (March 18, 2014).
111 Crow Creek Wind, accessed March 16, 2020.
112 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy, Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands, Data and Resources for Tribes, DOE/IE-0015 (April 2013), p. 36, 40, 52.
113 Balaskovitz, Andy, "Tribal Leaders Hope Large South Dakota Solar Project Becomes Model for Others," Native News Online (January 12, 2020).
114 GRID Alternatives, Students Serve Pine Ridge Veterans with Solar (August 14, 2018).
115 GRID Alternatives, Standing Rock shines a spotlight on clean energy (January 9, 2018).