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Indiana   Indiana Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: July 15, 2021

Overview

Indiana lies just west of the Appalachian Mountains and extends 270 miles south from Lake Michigan to the Ohio River. Indiana's length is almost twice its width, but, with the exception of Hawaii, it is the smallest state west of the Appalachians.1 Sediments deposited over millions of years, when the state was covered by inland seas and later by lush swamps, became the geologic layers that contain Indiana's fossil fuel resources, predominantly coal but also crude oil and some natural gas.2,3,4,5 The flat plains and slightly rolling terrain in the northern two-thirds of the state are the result of the 2,000-foot-thick glacier that covered much of the state during the Ice Ages. The retreat of the glacier more than 10,000 years ago left behind the fertile topsoil that supports Indiana's agriculture.6,7 Ample rainfall and rich prairie soils allow Indiana farmers to produce the abundant corn and soybean crops that make the state a major producer of ethanol and biodiesel.8,9,10 Indiana's open farmland also has excellent wind energy resources, and there are many wind farms in west-central Indiana.11,12

Although Indiana is not a large state, it has a varied climate. In the north, Indiana experiences lake-effect snows and winds off Lake Michigan. In the south, the hilly terrain creates localized weather variations. The weather statewide is influenced by the interplay of polar air moving south from Canada and warm, moist air moving north from the Gulf of Mexico. Indiana's winters can be bitterly cold, spring weather often includes tornadoes, and some summer days have very high humidity and heat.13 In part because of those weather extremes, Indiana ranks 12th among the states in total energy use per capita.14 The industrial sector is the state's largest energy-consuming sector, and it accounts for almost half of the state's total energy consumption.15 In addition to motor vehicle and trailer manufacturing, Indiana's industries include energy-intensive chemical, petroleum, and primary metal manufacturing.16 The transportation sector is the second-largest energy consumer among Indiana's end-use sectors, followed closely by the residential sector. Those two sectors each account for about one-fifth of the state's energy use. The commercial sector uses the rest.17 Overall, almost three times as much energy is consumed in the state as is produced there.18

Coal

Indiana has about 1.5% of U.S. economically recoverable coal reserves. The state is the nation's fifth-largest producer of bituminous coal and the eighth-largest coal producer overall.19 In 2019, Indiana mines yielded almost 32 million tons of coal, which was more than 4% of the nation's total coal production.20 The state's mines are in southwestern Indiana within the coal-rich Illinois Basin.21 In 2019, more than 7% of Indiana's mined coal was exported to other countries.22 The rest was primarily used in Indiana or shipped to more than a dozen other states by rail, barge, and truck.23

In 2020, Indiana was the nation’s third-largest coal consumer, after Texas and Missouri.

In 2020, Indiana's total coal consumption was 29 million tons, third in the nation after Texas and Missouri, and down from almost 37 million tons in 2019, when it ranked second in the nation.24 Even though Indiana is one of the nation's top coal producers, production does not meet state demand.25,26 Almost all of the additional coal Indiana uses arrives by rail and barge from mines in Kentucky, West Virginia, Illinois, and Wyoming.27 In 2019, Indiana consumed 31 million tons of coal for electricity generation, more than any other state except Texas. Most of the rest of the coal consumed in the state is used in the industrial sector. Indiana ranked third in the nation in industrial sector coal use, after North Dakota and Pennsylvania.28 Indiana is a leader in steel manufacturing, and some of the coal used in the state is delivered to coking plants that supply the state's steel industry.29,30,31 However, the industrial sector's coal consumption declined every year from 2010 until 2019.32 A very small amount of coal is used in the commercial sector.33

Electricity

In 2020, Indiana ranked sixth in the nation in industrial sector electricity consumption.

Indiana is among the top 10 states in the share of its in-state electricity that is generated from coal, and 8 of Indiana's 10 largest power plants by capacity and 7 of the 10 largest by generation are coal-fired.34,35 However, coal-fired electricity generation in the state declined from 90% of total generation in 2010 to 53% in 2020.36 About 3,800 megawatts of coal-fired capacity retired since 2010, and more than 7,100 additional megawatts of coal-fired capacity are scheduled for retirement in the next decade.37 Most of the decline in coal-fired generation has been offset by natural gas-fueled generation. Between 2010 and 2020, the share of net generation from natural gas-fired power plants in Indiana increased from 5% to 36%.38 In 2020, renewable resources, primarily wind, supplied about 9% of the state's electricity net generation. The rest of Indiana's net generation came from other gases, petroleum liquids, and other energy sources.39

In 2020, Indiana ranked 13th in the nation in total electricity retail sales but was sixth in the nation in electricity consumption by the industrial sector.40,41 Industry accounted for more than two-fifths of the state's electricity consumption. The residential sector, where 3 in 10 households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating, accounted for more than one-third of state use.42 The commercial sector consumed almost one-fourth.43 Although the state's electricity retail sales remained fairly level until 2019, electricity net generation in Indiana declined by 18% between 2010 and 2019.44,45 In part because of the retirement of several large coal-fired generators, Indiana consumers used more electricity every year since 2012 than in-state generators supplied.46 To meet power demand in 2019, 5% of Indiana's electricity supply came from other states.47

Renewable energy

Indiana is the sixth-largest ethanol producer in the nation.

Renewable resources accounted for more than one-tenth of Indiana's utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) generating capacity and supplied 9% of the state's total electricity net generation in 2020. Wind energy contributed the largest share at about 7%.48 The state's first utility-scale wind project, the 103.5-megawatt Benton County Wind Farm, came online in 2008.49 Today, wind turbines can be seen across central Indiana, and the state has more than 2,940 megawatts of wind capacity.50,51 Indiana's solar, biomass, and hydroelectric facilities also generate small amounts of electricity. Southwestern Indiana has the state's best, although moderate, solar resources, but solar power facilities are found statewide.52 Utility-scale facilities provide nearly three-fourths of the electricity generation from solar resources. The rest is from small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) customer-sited installations like rooftop solar panels. Solar energy from all sources contributed less than 1% of the state's total electricity net generation in 2020.53 Biomass and hydroelectric power supply the rest of the state's renewable-sourced net generation. Landfill gas fuels most of Indiana's biomass power plants, mostly located in the northern half of the state, but other biomass resources, including animal waste and municipal solid waste, also generate electricity.54,55,56 Indiana has two wood pellet plants that use woody biomass to manufacture up to about 16,000 tons of pellets each year for use in electricity generation and space heating.57 In part because of its relatively level terrain, Indiana has only five utility-scale hydroelectric facilities.58 The largest is on the Ohio River at Indiana's southeastern boundary.59,60

Indiana's abundant corn and soybean crops provide the feedstock for biofuel production, and the state is among the nation's top producers of biofuels.61,62,63,64 Indiana has the sixth-largest fuel ethanol production capacity and is the sixth-largest producer of fuel ethanol in the United States.65 In 2019, the state produced about 25 million barrels, or nearly 1.1 billion gallons, of fuel ethanol and accounted for more than 7% of U.S. total production.66 In 2019, only 7 million barrels—2% of the nation's total—were consumed in the state.67 Indiana also has the nation's seventh-largest biodiesel production capacity at 107 million gallons per year.68 In 2019, 817,000 barrels, or about 34 million gallons, of biodiesel were consumed in Indiana, which was about 2% of the nation's total biodiesel consumption.69

Although Indiana's legislature created a voluntary clean energy portfolio standard in 2011, as of 2020, no Indiana utility had chosen to participate. If an electric utility elects to participate, it agrees to acquire 10% of the electricity it sells from clean energy sources by 2025. In return, the utility receives financial incentives. However, Indiana utilities are required to offer net metering for customer-sited renewable generating facilities with less than 1 megawatt of capacity. A utility is allowed to limit net metering to 1.5% of its most recent peak summer load.70

Petroleum

Indiana's proved crude oil reserves are modest and production was less than 1.4 million barrels in 2020.71,72 The Trenton Field, discovered in east-central Indiana in 1876, was the nation's first oil field to produce more than 100 million barrels of crude oil. The field ceased production in the early 20th century, and the center of the state's crude oil production moved to the Illinois Basin in southwestern Indiana, where output peaked at almost 13 million barrels per year in 1956.73 Although advanced drilling technology increased Indiana's crude oil production in recent years, the state's production, like its crude oil reserves, dropped to its lowest level in more than 40 years in 2020.74,75 Indiana accounted for less than 0.04% of the nation's total crude oil production in 2020.76

The Whiting refinery in Indiana is the largest inland crude oil refinery in the nation.

Indiana has two petroleum refineries with a combined capacity of 463,800 thousand barrels per calendar day or about 3% of the U.S. total. The Whiting refinery, located in northwestern Indiana, is the largest inland crude oil refinery in the nation; only five Gulf Coast refineries have higher capacities.77,78 The Whiting refinery can process about 435,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day and produces large quantities of motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel, as well as about 7% of the nation's asphalt.79,80 A second, small refinery is located in Mount Vernon at the southern tip of Indiana. That refinery processes Illinois Basin crude oil from southern Indiana, southern Illinois, and western Kentucky. Its refined products—motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and lubricants—are delivered to customers in Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, and Kentucky.81 The nation's first plastics-to-fuel plant is in Indiana and is expected to be fully operational in 2021. The plant will process 100,000 tons of non-recycled plastic waste into 18 million gallons of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel and naphtha and 6 million gallons of wax each year.82,83

More than three-fourths of the petroleum consumed in Indiana is used in the transportation sector.84 Nearly half of Indiana's petroleum consumption is in the form of motor gasoline, and almost three-tenths is distillate fuel oil, mostly diesel fuel. Some is also used as jet fuel.85 Although conventional motor gasoline can be sold in most of Indiana, reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol is required in the state's northwestern corner near Chicago. In addition, motor gasoline formulated to reduce the emissions that contribute to ground-level ozone is required during the summer months in southeastern Indiana near Louisville, Kentucky.86,87 Most of the petroleum not used by the transportation sector is consumed by industry, which accounts for about one-fifth of the petroleum consumed in the state. The commercial and residential sectors, which consume almost equal amounts, use the rest.88 About 7% of Indiana's homes use hydrocarbon gas liquids, mostly propane, for space heating, and fewer than 1% use fuel oil or kerosene.89 A small amount, about 0.1%, of Indiana's electricity net generation is petroleum-fired.90

Natural gas

Indiana does not have significant natural gas reserves, but the state does produce some natural gas.91 Although the number of wells completed using hydraulic fracturing increased natural gas production, peaking at 9 billion cubic feet in 2011, the state's total annual output was only about 5 billion cubic feet in 2019, less than 0.02% of the U.S. total.92,93 Many of the state's natural gas fields are in east-central Indiana where natural gas was first discovered in the mid-1870s, but the availability of advanced drilling technologies has renewed interest in a shallow natural gas play in the Albany Shale in southwestern Indiana. Shallow coalbed methane resources have also been found in southwestern Indiana.94

The many interstate natural gas pipeline systems that cross Indiana bring natural gas into the state, primarily through Illinois and Ohio.95 Slightly more than one-third of the natural gas that enters Indiana is used there. Most of the rest is sent to Ohio, Kentucky, Michigan, and Illinois.96 Some of the natural gas that enters Indiana is put in underground storage. The state has 23 natural gas storage fields with a combined total storage capacity of almost 113 billion cubic feet, a little more than 1% of the nation's total.97,98

Indiana is one of the nation’s top 10 natural gas-consuming states.

Indiana is one of the top 10 natural gas-consuming states.99 The industrial sector is the state's largest natural gas consumer and accounts for nearly half of the natural gas delivered to Indiana consumers. As more natural gas-fired power plants have come online, consumption of natural gas by the state's electric power sector has increased. In 2020, natural gas use for electricity generation accounted for more than one-fourth of deliveries to consumers and was almost four times greater than it was in 2010. Since 2016, the electric power sector's natural gas consumption has exceeded that of the residential sector, where three in five households use natural gas for space heating.100,101 The residential sector received almost one-sixth of the natural gas delivered to Indiana consumers, and the commercial sector used the rest.102

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, Indiana, The Geography of Indiana, updated February 25, 2016.
2 Gray, Henry H., Nautiloids: Shelled Marauders of Indiana's Ordovician Seas, Indiana Geological and Water Survey, accessed June 1, 2021.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
4 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2015-20.
5 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2015-19.
6 NETSTATE, Indiana, The Geography of Indiana, updated February 25, 2016.
7 City-Data, Indiana-Topography, accessed June 1, 2021.
8 City-Data, Indiana-Climate, accessed June 1, 2021.
9 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2020 State Agriculture Overview, Indiana.
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2019.
11 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Indiana 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed June 1, 2021.
12 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed June 1, 2021.
13 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA National Centers For Environmental Information, State Climate Summaries, Indiana, accessed June 1, 2021.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2019.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Classification NAICS, Indiana, All statistics in the table, 2019.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2019.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
19 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
20 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
21 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, All Coal Mines and Coal Field Map Layers, accessed June 2, 2021.
22 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), U.S. Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin.
23 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal, by Coal Origin State, Table OS-6, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2019, Indiana.
24 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Total Consumption (Short tons), Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, West Virginia, Wyoming, Annual, 2019-20.
25 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
26 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2019 and 2018.
27 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal, By Coal Destination State, Indiana, Table DS-13, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
28 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2019.
29 Brown, Alex, "Indiana Leads U.S. Steel Production," Inside Indiana Business (March 11, 2019).
30 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal, By Coal Destination State, Indiana, Table DS-13, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
31 "How does coke and coal play into steel making?," Federal Steel Supply Inc. (June 22, 2016).
32 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates, 1960 Through 2019, DOE/EIA-0214(2017) (June 2020), Indiana Table CT6, p. 183.
33 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2019.
34 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
35 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Indiana Electricity Profile 2019, Tables 2A, 2B.
36 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Indiana, All fuels (utility-scale), Coal, Annual, 2001-20.
37 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860, Inventory of Operating Generators as of March 2021, and Inventory of Retired Generators as of March 2021.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Indiana, All fuels (utility-scale), Natural gas, Annual, 2001-20.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Indiana, Fuel Type, Check all, Annual, 2020.
40 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, All states, All sectors, Annual, 2019-20.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, All states, Industrial sector, Annual, 2019-20.
42 U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, House Heating Fuel, Indiana, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, All states, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation, Other, Annual, 2019-20.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Indiana, All sectors, Annual, 2001-20.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Indiana, All fuels, Annual, 2001-20.
46 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860, Inventory of Retired Generators as of April 2021.
47 U.S. EIA, Indiana Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Indiana, All fuels (utility-scale), Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables (total), Wind, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-20.
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020ER Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
50 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed June 3, 2021.
51 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (June 2021), Table 6.2.B.
52 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Solar Power Plant and Solar Resources Map Layers, accessed June 4, 2021.
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Indiana, All fuels (utility-scale), Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables (total), Wind, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Utility-scale photovoltaic, Biomass (total), Annual, 2020.
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020ER Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
55 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Biomass Power Plant Map Layer, accessed June 4, 2021.
56 Big Town Ag, The Operation, June 5, 2021.
57 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Manufacturing facilities with capacity and status, February 2021.
58 NETSTATE, Indiana, The Geography of Indiana, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
59 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Hydroelectric Power Plant Map Layer, accessed June 4, 2021.
60 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020ER Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operating Units Only).
61 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2020 State Agriculture Overview, Indiana.
62 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated May 26, 2021.
63 "U.S. Biodiesel Plants, operational," Biodiesel Magazine, updated December 15, 2020.
64 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2019.
65 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2020 (Excel File).
66 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2019.
67 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
68 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
69 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
70 Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission, 2020 Annual Report, p. 40-41.
71 U.S. EIA, Indiana Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Annual, 1977-2017.
72 U.S. EIA, Indiana Field Production of Crude Oil, Monthly, 2020.
73 Indiana Geological and Water Survey, Indiana Geology, A Brief Overview of the History of the Petroleum Industry In Indiana, Trenton Field, accessed June 7, 2021.
74 McDivitt, Herschel, Hydraulic Fracturing 101, Indiana Division of Oil and Gas, slide 13, Indiana Hydraulic Fracturing Trends, updated October 15, 2014.
75 U.S. EIA, Indiana Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 1981-2020.
76 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2015-20.
77 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Petroleum Refinery Map Layer, accessed June 7, 2021.
78 U.S. EIA, Oil: Crude and Petroleum Products Explained, Refining Crude Oil, Top 10 U.S. refineries operable capacity, as of January 1, 2020.
79 BP, United States, Whiting Refinery, accessed June 11, 2021.
80 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2021), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2020.
81 CountryMark, About Us, Refinery, accessed June 11, 2021.
82 Brightmark, The Ashley Indiana Plastics Renewal Facility, accessed June 13, 2021.
83 "Brightmark to build $680m advanced recycling plant," Plastics in Packaging (June 11, 2021).
84 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table, F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
85 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
86 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, State Fuels, Updated List of Boutique Fuel Programs as of April 12, 2021.
87 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements As of January 2018, ExxonMobil, accessed June 13, 2021.
88 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table, F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
89 U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, House Heating Fuel, Indiana, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
90 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Indiana, All fuels (utility-scale), Petroleum liquids, Petroleum coke, Annual, 2020.
91 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2014-19.
92 U.S. EIA, Indiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2019.
93 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2015-20.
94 Indiana Geological and Water Survey, A Brief Overview of the History of the Petroleum Industry in Indiana, accessed June 13, 2021.
95 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Natural Gas Interstate Pipeline Map Layer, accessed June 13, 2021.
96 U.S. EIA, International & Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Indiana, Annual, 2014-19.
97 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2014-19.
98 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2014-19.
99 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2015-20.
100 U.S. EIA, Indiana Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2020.
101 U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, House Heating Fuel, Indiana, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
102 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Indiana, Annual, 2015-20.