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Indiana   Indiana Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: June 18, 2020

Overview

Indiana, located in the nation’s interior lowlands just west of the Appalachian Mountains, extends from Lake Michigan south to the Ohio River.1,2 Sediments deposited over millions of years, when the state was covered by inland seas and later by lush swamps, became the geologic layers that contain Indiana’s fossil fuel resources, predominantly coal but also crude oil and some natural gas.3,4,5,6 The flat plains and slightly rolling terrain in the northern two-thirds of the state are the result of the 2,000-foot-thick glacier that covered much of the state during the Ice Ages. The retreat of the glacier more than 10,000 years ago left behind the excellent topsoil that supports Indiana’s agriculture.7 Ample rainfall and rich prairie soils allow Indiana farmers to produce abundant corn and soybean crops that make the state a major producer of ethanol and biodiesel.8,9,10,11 Indiana’s open farmland also has excellent wind energy resources, and most of the state’s wind farms are in west-central Indiana.12,13

Although Indiana is one of the smallest states in land area west of the Appalachian Mountains, it has a varied climate because of its length from north to south.14 In the north, Indiana experiences lake-effect snows and winds off Lake Michigan. In the south, the hilly terrain creates localized weather variations. The climate statewide is influenced by the interplay of polar air moving south from Canada and warm, moist air moving north from the Gulf of Mexico. Indiana’s winters can be bitterly cold, spring weather often includes tornadoes, and summer days may have oppressive humidity and heat.15 In part because of those weather extremes, Indiana ranks 11th among the states in total energy use per capita.16 The industrial sector is the state’s largest end-use energy-consuming sector, and it accounts for almost half of the end-use energy consumption in the state.17 In addition to motor vehicle and trailer manufacturing, Indiana’s industrial activities include the energy-intensive chemical, petroleum, and steelmaking industries.18,19 Overall, more than three times as much energy is consumed in the state as is produced there.20

Coal

Indiana is the nation’s second-largest coal consumer, after Texas.

Indiana has about 1.5% of U.S. economically recoverable coal reserves.21 The state is the nation’s eighth-largest coal producer. Its mines yielded almost 35 million tons of coal in 2018 and accounted for nearly 5% of U.S. coal production. Indiana is the fifth-largest producer of bituminous coal in the nation, all of which is produced from 12 surface and 6 underground mines in the Indiana portion of the coal-rich Illinois Basin.22,23,24 More than one-tenth of Indiana’s coal production is exported to other countries.25 The rest is primarily used in Indiana or is shipped to more than a dozen other states by rail, barge, and truck.26

Even though Indiana is one of the top coal producers in the nation, production does not meet state demand.27,28 In 2018, Indiana consumed more than 44 million tons of coal. The state’s total coal consumption ranked second after Texas.29 Almost all of the additional coal Indiana needs arrives by rail and barge from mines in West Virginia, Kentucky, Illinois, and Wyoming.30 In 2018, Indiana consumed 39 million tons of coal for electricity generation, also second in the nation after Texas. The amount of coal used by Indiana’s industrial sector ranked third in the nation, after North Dakota and Pennsylvania.31 Indiana is a leader in steel manufacturing, and some of the coal used in the state is delivered to coking plants that supply the state’s steel industry.32,33,34 However, the industrial sector’s coal consumption has declined every year since 2010.35 A very small amount of coal is used in the commercial sector and almost no coal is used in the residential sector, where 0.1% of households heat with coal.36,37

Electricity

Indiana is among the top five states in electricity use by the industrial sector.

Indiana is among the top 10 states in the share of its electricity that is generated from coal. Although coal-fired electricity generation in the state has declined from 90% of total generation in 2010 to 59% in 2019, 8 of Indiana’s 10 largest power plants by generation are still coal-fired.38,39,40 Indiana has about 15,000 megawatts of coal-fired capacity, even though 3,400 megawatts have retired since 2010. More than 3,100 additional megawatts of coal-fired capacity are scheduled for retirement in the next decade.41,42 From 2010 to 2019, the share of generation from natural gas-fired power plants increased from 5% to 31% of the state’s net generation.43 Renewable resources, primarily wind, supplied about 7% of Indiana’s electricity generation in 2019, and other gases, including those produced by refineries, fueled 2%. The rest of the state’s net electricity generation comes from petroleum liquids and other energy sources.44

Indiana is among top one-fourth of the states in total electricity consumption and was among the top five states in electricity use by the industrial sector in 2018. Industry accounts for more than two-fifths of state consumption. The residential sector, where 3 in 10 Indiana households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating, accounts for one-third of state use.45,46 Since 2012, Indiana consumers have used more electricity each year than in-state generators supplied. To meet power demand in 2018, 3% of Indiana’s electricity supply came from other states.47 Out-of-state power supplies are delivered by the two interstate power grids serving Indiana: the PJM Interconnect in the northeast corner of the state and the Midcontinent Independent System Operator in the west and south.48

Renewable energy

Indiana is the fifth-largest ethanol producer in the nation.

Wind energy supplied 6% of Indiana’s electricity generation in 2019.49 The state’s first utility-scale wind project, the 103.5-megawatt Benton County Wind Farm, came online in 2008.50 Today, wind turbines can be seen across central Indiana, and the state has more than 2,300 megawatts of wind capacity.51,52 Indiana had the seventh-largest increase in generation from wind in the nation in 2019, an increase of 14% over 2018.53

Indiana’s solar, biomass, and hydroelectric facilities also generate small amounts of electricity. Southwestern Indiana has the state’s best, although moderate, solar resources, but solar facilities are found statewide.54 Nearly three-fourths of the electricity generation from solar resources in the state is provided by utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) facilities.55 Most of Indiana’s biomass power plants are landfill gas facilities located in the northern half of the state, but the state’s biomass resources also include crop and forest residues, animal waste, and municipal solid waste.56,57,58 There are also four wood pellet plants in Indiana that convert wood waste into pellets used for heating and electricity generation. Those plants have a combined manufacturing capacity of more than 100,000 tons of pellets per year.59 Despite its relatively level terrain, Indiana has five utility-scale hydroelectric facilities.60 The state’s largest hydroelectric power plant is on the Ohio River at Indiana’s southeastern boundary.61,62

Indiana’s abundant corn and soybean crops provide the feedstock for biofuel production, and the state is among the nation’s top producers of biofuels.63 Corn is the feedstock for Indiana’s many fuel ethanol plants.64 The state’s biodiesel plants use soy oil as a feedstock.65,66,67 Indiana has the nation’s fifth-largest fuel ethanol production capacity and is the fifth-largest producer of fuel ethanol.68 The state accounted for more than 7% of U.S. total production in 2017, about 28 million barrels.69 In 2018, only about 7 million barrels—2% of the nation’s total—were consumed in the state.70 Indiana also has the nation’s sixth-largest biodiesel production capacity, more than 100 million gallons per year.71 In 2018, about 42 million gallons of biodiesel were consumed in Indiana.72

Indiana’s geothermal energy resources are minimal, and there are no geothermal power plants in the state.73 However, Indiana does have what was described, when it was completed in 2012, as the nation’s largest ground-source, closed-loop district geothermal energy system. It is located at Ball State University in Muncie. That system was designed to replace coal-fired boilers and to provide heating and cooling to 47 university buildings.74,75

In 2011, Indiana’s legislature created a voluntary clean energy portfolio standard; however, as of 2019, no Indiana utility had chosen to participate.76 If an electric utility elects to participate, it agrees to acquire 10% of the electricity it sells from clean energy sources by 2025. In return, the utility receives financial incentives. At least half of the qualifying clean energy has to be generated within the state. In addition to wind energy, solar power, and biomass, eligible sources of clean energy also include coalbed methane, clean coal technology, nuclear energy, combined heat and power systems, and geothermal energy.77

Indiana utilities are required to offer net metering for customer-sited renewable generating facilities with less than 1 megawatt of capacity, up to a limit of 1.5% of the utility’s peak summer load. In 2017, the Indiana legislature reduced the rate that new customers receive from utilities for their customer-sited generation. Compensation was switched from a system based on the higher retail rate for electricity to one linked to the lower wholesale power rate.78

Petroleum

Indiana’s proved crude oil reserves are small compared to almost all other crude oil-producing states and have declined from about 40 million barrels in 1979 to 5 million in 2017.79 The Trenton Field, discovered in east-central Indiana in 1876, was the nation’s first oil field to produce more than 100 million barrels of crude oil. The field ceased production in the early 20th century, and the center of the state’s crude oil production moved to the Illinois Basin in southwestern Indiana, where output peaked in 1956 at almost 13 million barrels per year.80 Although advanced drilling technology had increased Indiana’s crude oil production in recent years, the state’s production, like its crude oil reserves, dropped to its lowest level in almost 40 years in 2019.81,82 Indiana now accounts for less than 0.1% of the nation’s total crude oil production.83

The Whiting refinery in Indiana is the largest inland crude oil refinery in the nation.

The Whiting refinery, located in northwest Indiana, is one of the state’s two petroleum refineries.84 It is the largest inland crude oil refinery in the nation; only five Gulf Coast refineries have higher capacities.85 The Whiting refinery can process about 430,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day and produces large quantities of motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel as well as about 7% of the nation’s asphalt.86 A second, small refinery is located in Mount Vernon at the southern tip of Indiana. That refinery processes Illinois Basin crude oil from southern Indiana, southern Illinois, and western Kentucky. Its refined products—motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and lubricants—are delivered to customers in Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, and Kentucky.87 The nation’s first plastics-to-fuel plant is under construction in Indiana. The plant initially will be able to process 100,000 tons of non-recycled plastic waste into 18 million gallons of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel each year.88

Nearly half of Indiana’s petroleum consumption is in the form of motor gasoline, and three-tenths is distillate fuel oil, including diesel fuel.89 Although conventional motor gasoline can be sold in most of Indiana, reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol is required in the state’s northwest corner near Chicago. In addition, motor gasoline formulated to reduce emissions that contribute to ground-level ozone is required during the summer months in southeast Indiana near Louisville, Kentucky.90,91 Most of the petroleum not used by the transportation sector is consumed by industry, which uses a little more than one-sixth of the petroleum consumed in the state. The remaining almost 5% is used in the commercial and residential sectors, which consume almost equal amounts.92 Distillate fuel (heating oil) sales to the residential sector have declined over the past three decades.93 Currently, fewer than 1% of Indiana households use fuel oil or kerosene for home heating, but 7% use hydrocarbon gas liquids, mostly propane.94 A small amount, about 0.1%, of Indiana’s electricity is petroleum-fired.95

Natural gas

Indiana does not have significant natural gas reserves, but the state does produce some natural gas.96 In 2018, the state’s annual natural gas production was about 5 billion cubic feet, less than 0.02% of the U.S. total.97 However, the number of wells completed using hydraulic fracturing has improved initial production, and the state’s annual natural gas output increased in the past two decades, briefly peaking in 2011 at more than 9 billion cubic feet.98,99 Many of the state’s natural gas fields are in the east-central part of the state where natural gas was first discovered in the mid-1870s, but the availability of advanced drilling technologies has created renewed interest in a shallow natural gas play in the Albany Shale in southwestern Indiana. Shallow coalbed methane resources have also been found in southwestern Indiana.100

Indiana has 21 natural gas storage fields that can hold 113 billion cubic feet of natural gas.

Pipelines operated by nine interstate natural gas pipeline systems cross Indiana bringing natural gas produced in Appalachia, the Gulf Coast, and western Canada into the state.101 Natural gas enters Indiana primarily from Illinois and Ohio. Almost one-third of that natural gas remains in Indiana. Most of the rest is sent on to Michigan and Ohio.102 Some of the natural gas that enters Indiana is put in underground storage. The state has 21 natural gas storage fields with a combined total storage capacity of almost 114 billion cubic feet, about 1% of the nation’s total.103,104

Indiana is a top 10 natural gas-consuming state.105 The industrial sector is the largest natural gas consumer in the state and accounts for nearly half of the natural gas delivered to Indiana consumers.106 As more natural gas-fired power plants have come online, consumption of natural gas by the state’s electric power sector has increased. In 2019, natural gas use for electricity generation was almost four times greater than it was in 2010, and, since 2016, the electric power sector’s natural gas consumption has exceeded that of the residential sector.107 The residential sector, where 6 in 10 households use natural gas for space heating, receives almost one-sixth of the natural gas delivered to Indiana consumers.108,109

Endnotes

1 “Interior Lowlands Region, North America,” Encyclopaedia Britannica, accessed May 15, 2020.
2 World Atlas, Indiana Geography, accessed May 15, 2020.
3 Gray, Henry H., Nautiloids: Shelled Marauders of Indiana's Ordovician Seas, Indiana Geological and Water Survey, accessed May 15, 2020.
4 Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation, Facts about Coal in Indiana, accessed May 15, 2020.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
6 Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil and Gas, Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, updated February 20, 2020.
7 City-Data, Indiana–Topography, accessed May 16, 2020.
8 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Data Center, Climate of Indiana, accessed May 16, 2020.
9 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2019 State Agriculture Overview, Indiana.
10 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Production Capacity, January 2019 (XLS).
11 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, February 2020.
12 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Indiana, accessed May 16, 2020.
13 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed May 16, 2020.
14 NETSTATE, Indiana, The Geography of Indiana, The Land, accessed May 16, 2020.
15 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Data Center, Climate of Indiana, accessed May 16, 2020.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2017.
18 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Classification NAICS, Indiana, All statistics in the table, 2017, 2018, 2019.
19 Pete, Joseph, “Indiana Remains National Champion of Steel Production,” nwitimes.com (March 12, 2016).
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2017.
21 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
22 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2018.
23 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2018 and 2017.
24 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Coal Explained, Where Our Coal Comes From, accessed May 19, 2020.
25 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2018, p. 96.
26 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), Domestic distribution of coal by origin State, Indiana, Table OS-6, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2018.
27 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2018.
28 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2018 and 2017.
29 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2018.
30 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), Domestic distribution of coal by destination State, Indiana, Table DS-12, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2018.
31 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2018.
32 Keneally, Meghan, “Key facts about the US steel and aluminum industries,” ABC News (March 8, 2018).
33 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), Domestic distribution of coal by destination State, Indiana, Table DS-12, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2018.
34 “How does coke and coal play into steel making?,” Federal Steel Supply Inc. (June 22, 2016).
35 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates, 1960 Through 2017, DOE/EIA-0214(2017) (June 2019), Indiana Table CT6, p. 179.
36 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2018.
37 U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, House Heating Fuel, Indiana, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
38 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Indiana, All fuels (utility-scale), Coal, Annual, 2001–19.
40 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Indiana Electricity Profile 2018, Tables 2A, Ten Largest Plants by Capacity, 2018, and 2B, Ten Largest Plants by Generation, 2018.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only) (Retired & Canceled Units Only).
42 Morehouse, Catherine, “Indiana's Hoosier Energy to retire its 1,070 MW coal plant by 2023,” Utility Dive (January 22, 2020).
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Indiana, All fuels (utility-scale), Natural gas, Annual, 2001–19.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Indiana, Fuel Type, Check all, Annual, 2019.
45 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F20, Electricity Consumption Estimates, 2018.
46 U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, House Heating Fuel, Indiana, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
47 U.S. EIA, Indiana Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018.
48 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO)/Independent System Operators (ISO), updated December 20, 2019.
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Indiana, All fuels (utility-scale), Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables (total), Wind, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2019.
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
51 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed May 21, 2020.
52 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (April 2020), Table 6.2.B.
53 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.14.B.
54 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Solar Power Plant and Solar Resources Map Layers, accessed May 21, 2020.
55 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Indiana, All fuels (utility-scale), Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables (total), Wind, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Utility-scale photovoltaic, Biomass (total), Annual, 2019.
56 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
57 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Biomass Power Plant Map Layer, accessed May 21, 2020.
58 Human, Dan, “Biomass could power 1/3 of Hoosier homes, report says,” Indianapolis Business Journal (November 16, 2013).
59 “U.S. Pellet Plants,” Biomass Magazine, updated January 14, 2020.
60 NETSTATE, Indiana, The Geography of Indiana, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
61 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Hydroelectric Power Plant Map Layer, accessed May 21, 2020.
62 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operating Units Only).
63 NETSTATE, Indiana Economy, accessed May 21, 2020.
64 “U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational,” Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated February 24, 2020.
65 “U.S. Biodiesel Plants, operational,” Biodiesel Magazine, updated December 8, 2019.
66 Louis Dreyfus Company, Home, accessed May 21, 2020.
67 Integrity Biofuels LLC, Brochure, accessed May 21, 2020.
68 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2019 (Excel File).
69 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2017.
70 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2018.
71 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, February 2020.
72 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2018.
73 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operating Units Only).
74 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Geothermal Resources Map Layer, accessed May 21, 2020.
75 Ball State University, Geothermal Energy System, accessed May 21, 2020.
76 Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission, 2019 Annual Report, p. 35.
77 DSIRE, NC Clean Energy Technology Center, Indiana, Clean Energy Portfolio Standard, updated June 18, 2018.
78 Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission, 2019 Annual Report, p. 34–35.
79 U.S. EIA, Indiana Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Annual, 1977–2017.
80 Indiana Geological and Water Survey, Indiana Geology, A Brief Overview of the History of the Petroleum Industry in Indiana, Trenton Field, accessed May 21, 2020.
81 McDivitt, Herschel, Hydraulic Fracturing 101, Indiana Division of Oil and Gas, slide 13, Indiana Hydraulic Fracturing Trends, updated October 15, 2014.
82 U.S. EIA, Indiana Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 1981–2019.
83 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2014–19.
84 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Petroleum Refinery Map Layer, accessed May 22, 2020.
85 U.S. EIA, Oil: Crude and Petroleum Products Explained, Refining Crude Oil, Top 10 U.S. refineries operable capacity, as of January 1, 2019.
86 BP, United States, Whiting Refinery, accessed May 22, 2020.
87 CountryMark, About Us, Refinery, accessed May 22, 2020.
88 Bowman, Sarah, “New Indiana plant could have your trucks and tractors running on plastic bottles, bags and toys,” Indy Star (May 23, 2019).
89 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2017.
90 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, State by State RVP Table, accessed May 23, 2020.
91 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
92 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
93 U.S. EIA, Indiana Total Distillate Sales/Deliveries to Residential Consumers, 1984–2018.
94 U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, House Heating Fuel, Indiana, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
95 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, Indiana, All fuels (utility-scale), Petroleum liquids, Petroleum coke, Annual, 2019.
96 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, Wet NG, Annual, 2013–18.
97 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2013–18.
98 Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas Division, Annual Well Completions and Hydraulic Fracturing Data, 2005 to 2012.
99 U.S. EIA, Indiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967–2018.
100 Rupp, John A., A Brief Overview of the History of the Petroleum Industry in Indiana, Oil and Gas, Indiana Petroleum History, Current Activity and Future Prospects, Indiana Geological and Water Survey, accessed May 23, 2020.
101 U.S. EIA, Indiana Profile Overview, Natural Gas Interstate Pipeline Map Layer, accessed May 23, 2020.
102 U.S. EIA, International & Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Indiana, Annual, 2013–18.
103 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2013–18.
104 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2013–18.
105 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2013–18.
106 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Indiana, Annual, 2014–19.
107 U.S. EIA, Indiana Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997–2019.
108 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Indiana, Annual, 2014–19.
109 U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, House Heating Fuel, Indiana, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.