‹ U.S. States

Pennsylvania   Pennsylvania Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: July 20, 2017

Overview

Pennsylvania supplies coal, natural gas, electricity, and refined petroleum products to the East Coast.

Pennsylvania, endowed with extensive fossil energy resources, is a leading East Coast supplier of coal, natural gas, electricity, and refined petroleum products to its own industries and to the nation. The Appalachian Mountains hold rich coal resources and run southwest to northeast through Pennsylvania, dividing the Ohio River valley in the west from the Susquehanna and Delaware river valleys in the east.1 The Marcellus Shale, the largest U.S. natural gas field, follows the arc of the mountains and underlies about three-fifths of the state.2,3

Although three-fourths of Pennsylvania's land is classified as rural, only one-fourth of the state's population lives in rural areas.4 Pennsylvania's largest metropolitan areas center around Philadelphia on the Delaware River and Pittsburgh on the Ohio River.5,6 The state's temperate climate varies from the southeast, where it is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean, to cooler areas near the Great Lakes in the northwest, where weather fronts often come from Canada.7,8

Pennsylvania's gross domestic product ranked sixth among the states in 2016.9 Although the state is among the top 10 consumers of coal, natural gas, petroleum products, and electricity,10 it is the third largest net supplier of energy to other states,11 and its total energy consumption per capita is in the lower half of states nationwide.12 The industrial sector leads energy consumption in Pennsylvania.13 Major energy-consuming industries include mining; steel, metals, and machinery manufacturing; chemical products; agriculture and food processing; and tourism.14,15,16

Petroleum

Pennsylvania, site of the first U.S. commercial oil well in 1859,17 has few proved crude oil reserves but continues to produce modest amounts of crude oil, mainly paraffin-based crude oil used for lubricants.18,19 Home to nearly half the East Coast's refining capacity, Pennsylvania has long been the leading petroleum-refining state in the Northeast.20 Two large refineries on the Delaware River in the Philadelphia area supply a range of products, including ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) heating oil, jet fuel, and motor gasoline. Pipelines from the refineries transport products to other parts of Pennsylvania and to western New York state.21 The refineries were built to process crude oil imported by tanker, but, in 2012, new owners added capability to receive crude oil brought in by rail from U.S. shale plays. Rail shipments declined in 2016.22,23,24,25,26 In 2011, another large refinery, at Marcus Hook, was shut down, and the facility was converted to a refined products terminal.27 Capability was added to process, store, and ship natural gas liquids from the state's Marcellus Shale.28 Two small refineries are located in northwestern Pennsylvania. One processes crude oil received by pipeline from Canada,29 and the other processes crude oil from Pennsylvania and neighboring states.30,31

In addition to petroleum products from local refineries, Pennsylvania receives refined products by the Colonial Pipeline from Texas and by tanker and rail from the Gulf of Mexico.32 Refined products are also imported from Canada, Latin America, Europe, and Africa.33

Nearly one in five Pennsylvania households rely on distillate fuel oil for home heating,34 making Pennsylvania, like much of the U.S. Northeast, potentially vulnerable to distillate fuel oil shortages and price spikes. In 2000, the federal government created the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to avert shortages in the Mid-Atlantic and New England states. In 2011, the government converted the reserve to ULSD, which has less than 15 parts per million (ppm) of sulfur, to correspond with decisions made by most northeastern states to begin requiring either low-sulfur diesel, with 15 ppm to 500 ppm sulfur, or ULSD for heating.35 In 2012, Pennsylvania delayed its low-sulfur heating oil requirements because of uncertainty about operations at state refineries that were the region's major heating oil source,36 but, in 2016, the state joined most of the Northeast in requiring low-sulfur heating oil.37,38

To reduce emissions of smog-forming pollutants, motorists in the heavily populated areas of southeastern Pennsylvania, including Philadelphia, are required to use reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol. Drivers in the Pittsburgh area must use a low-vapor-pressure motor gasoline blend in summer.39

Natural gas

The Marcellus Shale has made Pennsylvania the nation’s second-largest natural gas-producing state.

Pennsylvania is second only to Texas in estimated proved natural gas reserves, which quadrupled from 2010 to 2015 because of development in the Marcellus Shale.40 The Marcellus formation extends under three-fifths of Pennsylvania and parts of West Virginia, New York, Ohio, and Maryland.41 It has the largest estimated proved reserves of any U.S. natural gas field.42 Pennsylvania's natural gas production was more than nine times larger in 2016 than in 2010.43 In 2016, gross natural gas production exceeded 5.2 trillion cubic feet, nearly one-fifth of all U.S. production, keeping Pennsylvania the second largest natural gas producer in the nation, after Texas.44

Until recently, Pennsylvania depended on interstate pipelines from the Gulf Coast to supply natural gas, but, with Marcellus Shale production, the state can meet its own demand. Pipelines are being reconfigured to send natural gas from Pennsylvania to the Midwest and the Gulf Coast, and pipeline capacity is being expanded into New York and New England.45,46,47,48 New infrastructure, mainly pipelines to transport Marcellus output from wells to interstate natural gas transmission systems, is also being built.49 The state has some transmission pipeline infrastructure in the west, the legacy of an earlier era when western Pennsylvania, western New York, and West Virginia comprised the nation's largest natural gas-producing region.50 Pennsylvania has the most underground natural gas storage facilities of any state, almost all of them in depleted natural gas fields, and the state's total storage capacity is among the largest in the nation.51

Pennsylvania is experiencing parallel growth in the production of natural gas liquids (NGL), including ethane and propane.52,53 Natural gas processing in the state grew more than seven-fold from 2010 to 2015,54 and producers are building processing plants to extract NGLs and pipelines to transport them to domestic and Canadian markets and to ports on the East Coast and Gulf Coast for export.55,56,57,58 Pennsylvania's first ethane cracker, which will make feedstocks for plastics manufacturing from ethane, is in development.59

Half of all Pennsylvania households use natural gas as their primary heating fuel,60 but electric power sector consumption has grown rapidly in recent years to surpass the residential sector as the state's largest natural gas consumer. The electric power sector uses nearly half of all natural gas consumed in the state. The residential sector and the industrial sector each consume about one-fifth.61

Coal

Pennsylvania has been home to coal mining for more than 200 years and still has substantial reserves of bituminous coal, which is used to generate electricity and to produce coke for steelmaking.62,63,64 Northeast Pennsylvania also has virtually all the nation's reserves of anthracite, but anthracite accounts for a minimal share of the state's total coal production.65,66 Anthracite, which has a higher heat value than other kinds of coal and burns with little soot, is used primarily in space heating.67 Coal production in Pennsylvania, as in the rest of the nation, has declined as coal-fired electricity generating stations have shut down.68,69 But the state remains one of the five largest coal-producing states in the nation70,71 and hosts one of the two the most productive coal mines east of the Mississippi River.72

Pennsylvania is also among the nation's major coal consumers.73 Four-fifths of the coal consumed in the state is burned for electricity generation, and the rest is consumed for steelmaking and other industrial uses.74 Large volumes of coal are moved by rail, barge, and truck into and out of Pennsylvania and around the state. In 2015, three-fourths of Pennsylvania-mined coal was used domestically for electricity generation, about two-fifths in-state and three-fifths in other states throughout the East and Midwest.75 Pennsylvania electricity generators and industries brought in nearly half of the coal they consumed from nearby states.76 Pennsylvania is among the nation's leading coal-exporting states. In 2015, about one-sixth of the coal mined in Pennsylvania was exported to other nations, and, in recent years, exports have reached as much as one-fourth of state output.77,78

Electricity

Pennsylvania is one of the top three generators of electricity in the nation.

Pennsylvania is one of the top three electricity-generating states in the nation, along with Texas and Florida. Electricity generation regularly exceeds in-state consumption, making the state an important electricity supplier to the Mid-Atlantic region.79,80 Per capita electricity consumption in Pennsylvania is below the national average.81 The residential sector is the largest consumer of electricity, using more than one-third of the power consumed in the state.82,83 One in five Pennsylvania households use electricity as their primary heating source.84

The regional electricity grid serving Pennsylvania is managed by the PJM Interconnection,85 and the state's wholesale power market is supplied with electricity almost entirely by independent power producers.86 Many of the state's coal-fired generating plants are older, and, with the increased availability of economic natural gas, one-third of Pennsylvania's coal-fired generating capacity shut down between 2010 and the end of 2016. In the same period, natural gas-fired capacity grew by half.87,88 In 2005, coal provided more than half of the state's net electricity generation, and natural gas, less than 5%.89 By 2016, coal had declined to one-fourth of net generation, and natural gas generated nearly one-third.90

Pennsylvania ranks second in the nation, after Illinois, in nuclear electricity generating capacity,91 and nuclear power is the state's largest source of generation. The state's five nuclear stations have provided more than one-third of all net electricity generation in the last 25 years.92 However, the stations face economic challenges from Pennsylvania's new abundance of natural gas, and shutdown plans have been announced for at least one station unless state legislators offer assistance.93 Pennsylvania is the site of the first commercial U.S. nuclear power plant, which operated at Shippingport for 25 years, and the site of the nation's most serious nuclear power accident, a partial core meltdown at Three Mile Island Unit 2 in 1979. That accident led to sweeping changes in U.S. nuclear regulation and operating standards.94

Renewable energy

Wind generation has surpassed hydropower to become Pennsylvania’s largest source of renewable energy.

Pennsylvania obtains about 4% of its net electricity generation from renewable sources.95 Until recently, renewable electricity came mostly from hydroelectric and biomass power plants,96 but wind power has grown to provide two-fifths of renewable electricity generation, making it the state's largest renewable source.97 Appalachian Mountain crests, mainly in Pennsylvania's southwest but also in the northeast, have wind resources suitable for commercial power production.98 Pennsylvania's first commercial wind farm started generating electricity in 2000, and the state now has 24 operating wind farms with nearly 1,400 megawatts of capacity.99

Hydropower and biomass each provide about three-tenths of Pennsylvania's renewable electricity.100 The state's hydroelectric facilities average nearly 60 years old.101 Only one new hydroelectric facility has begun service in this century, but some older facilities have been modernized and upgraded for more efficient operation.102,103 Biomass generation comes mainly from municipal solid waste and landfill gas.104 Pennsylvania is among the top dozen states in using biomass for electricity generation.105

Although solar energy produces substantially less than 1% of the state's net electricity generation, the number of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations in Pennsylvania is increasing.106 In 2016, more than three-fourths of net solar generation came from distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) generating facilities, such as rooftop solar PV, with capacities of less than 1 megawatt.107 A number of large businesses have turned to rooftop solar PV for their power supplies.108 The state's largest solar PV facility is 10 megawatts.109

Pennsylvania's alternative energy portfolio standard (AEPS), being phased in from 2007 to 2021, requires 18% of electricity provided by generation and distribution companies to come from renewable sources by 2021, with at least 0.5% from solar power.110 Among the resources Pennsylvania recognizes as meeting part of its AEPS requirements are byproducts of pulping and wood manufacturing, coal mine methane, and waste coal.111 The state also requires investor-owned utilities doing business in the state to undertake energy efficiency measures to reduce peak demand and electricity consumption, which may include helping customers to install solar and geothermal technologies, as well as to insulate buildings and upgrade appliances. The Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission reviews efficiency progress and adjusts goals every five years. The current efficiency goals require that a portion of each utility's objectives be met by specific savings in the low-income, government, and nonprofit sectors.112,113,114

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, Pennsylvania, The Geography of Pennsylvania, updated February 25, 2016.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 4.
3 Pennsylvania Independent Oil & Gas Association, The Marcellus Shale: Pennsylvania's Home-Grown Energy Source, accessed June 4, 2017.
4 The Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Rural Pennsylvania and the 2010 Census (September 2011), p. 2.
5 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Table: PEPANNRES, State: Pennsylvania, Population Estimate by Counties, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016, 2016 Population Estimates.
6 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Pennsylvania Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
7 City-data.com, Pennsylvania Climate, accessed June 4, 2017.
8 Knight, Paul, "Pennsylvania: Where It Can Rain on Everyone's Parade..." Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed June 4, 2017.
9 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Begin using the data, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, All industries total, Alabama to Wyoming, 2014, 2015, 2016.
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2015.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2015.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates Per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
14 Byrne, Dennis, "Top 5 Industries in Pennsylvania: Which Parts of the Economy Are Strongest?" Newsmax (April 10, 2015).
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Begin using the data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, NAICS, All Industries, Pennsylvania, 2014, 2015, 2016.
16 Pennsylvania Department of Community & Economic Development, Key Industries, accessed June 4, 2017.
17 American Oil & Gas Historical Society, First American Oil Well, accessed June 4, 2017.
18 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Pennsylvania, Annual, 2010–15.
19 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2011–16.
20 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2016 (June 2016), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2016.
21 U.S. EIA, Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets, updated May 11, 2012.
22 Fraser, Katherine, "U.S. East Coast Oil Refineries Enjoy a Stirring Comeback," The Barrel (May 17, 2013).
23 Maykuth, Andrew, "More Oil Moves by Rail and It Moves Here," Philadelphia Inquirer (April 12, 2015).
24 Loyd, Linda, "Delta reaffirms its commitment to the Trainer oil refinery: 'We're not selling it'" Philly.com (March 15, 2017).
25 Renshaw, Jarrett, "Once thriving Philadelphia-area rail terminal now a symbol of oil bust," Reuters (May 27, 2016).
26 U.S. EIA, Movements of Crude Oil and Selected Products by Rail between PAD Districts, Crude Oil, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2011–16.
27 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2016, Table 13, Refineries Permanently Shutdown By PAD District Between January 1, 1990 and January 1, 2016.
28 Sunoco Logistics, Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Segment, accessed June 6, 2017.
29 United Refining Company, About United Refining–Our History, accessed June 6, 2017.
30 American Refining Group, Inc., Refinery History, accessed June 6, 2017.
31 AgMap, American Refining Group, Inc., accessed June 6, 2017.
32 U.S. EIA, Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets, updated May 11, 2012, p. 6, 7.
33 U.S. EIA, Petroleum & Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, all months, 2016, 2015, 2014.
34 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Pennsylvania, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
35 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve History, accessed June 6, 2017.
36 Kerr, Jeffrey, "CME to Change Heating Oil Futures Specs to Reflect Sulfur Change," Reuters (March 23, 2012).
37 Brown, Beth, and David Henry, "Colonial Pipeline to Stop Shipping High Sulfur Heating Oil in June," Platts (April 23, 2015).
38 New England Fuel Institute, State Sulfur & Bioheat Requirements for No. 2 Heating Oil in the Northeast & Mid-Atlantic States, updated June 30, 2015.
39 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Programs, Reformulated gasoline and Reid Vapor Pressure, accessed June 6, 2017.
40 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-End 2015 (December 2016), Table 10, Natural gas proved reserves, reserve changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2010–15.
41 Pennsylvania Independent Oil & Gas Association, The Marcellus Shale: Pennsylvania's Home-Grown Energy Source, accessed June 6, 2017.
42 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 4.
43 U.S. EIA, Pennsylvania Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967–2016.
44 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2011–16.
45 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Pennsylvania, 2010–15.
46 U.S. EIA, "32% of Natural Gas Pipeline Capacity into the Northeast Could Be Bidirectional by 2017," Today in Energy (December 2, 2014).
47 U.S. EIA, "New Pipeline Projects Increase Northeast Natural Gas Takeaway Capacity," Today in Energy (January 28, 2016).
48 U.S. EIA, "New England natural gas pipeline capacity increases for the first time since 2010," Today in Energy (December 6, 2016).
49 State Impact, Pennsylvania, "Your Guide to Pipelines," NPR, accessed June 7, 2017.
50 U.S. EIA, About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines, Natural Gas Pipelines in the Northeast Region, accessed June 7, 2017.
51 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, and Number of Depleted Fields, Annual, 2010–15.
52 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Plant Field Production, PADD 1, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2011–16.
53 Malawsky, Nick, "Sunoco Logistics Plans Marcellus, Utica Pipeline Through Susquehanna Valley," Penn Live (November 21, 2013).
54 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Plant Processing, Natural Gas Processed, Annual, 2010–15.
55 Stell, Jeannie, "Gas Processing in the Mighty Marcellus and Uber Utica," Gas Processing (2013).
56 Maykuth, Andrew, "Shell Gives Green Light to Giant Pennsylvania Ethane Cracker Plant," Philly.com (June 8, 2016).
57 Sunoco Logistics, Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Segment, accessed June 8, 2017.
58 The Williams Companies, Ohio Valley Ethane Pipeline, Overview, accessed June 8, 2017.
59 Litvak, Anya, "Shell ethane-cracker plant moves forward with local approval," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (January 11, 2017).
60 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Pennsylvania, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
61 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Pennsylvania, Annual, 2011–16.
62 Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Pennsylvania Mining History, accessed June 8, 2017.
63 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2015.
64 Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Distribution of Pennsylvania Coals (1992).
65 U.S. EIA, U.S. Coal Reserves (November 4, 2016), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2015 and 2014.
66 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2015.
67 U.S. EIA, Glossary, Anthracite, accessed June 8, 2017.
68 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2015 and 2014; also see Annual Coal Reports for 2014, 2013, 2012.
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, Existing Nameplate and Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source, Producer Type and State (EIA-860), 1990–2015.
70 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October–December 2016 (April 2017), Table 2, Coal Production by State, Year to Date 2016 and 2015.
71 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2015 and 2014.
72 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 9, Major U.S. Coal Mines, 2015.
73 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F17, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2015.
74 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End-Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2015 and 2014.
75 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 2016), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Pennsylvania.
76 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 2016), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Pennsylvania.
77 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 2016), Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by origin state.
78 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report, Archive, Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by State of origin, 2011–14.
79 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 5.4.B.
80 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Pennsylvania Electricity Profile 2015, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2015.
81 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01), 2016 Population Estimates.
82 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Pennsylvania Electricity Profile 2015, Table 8, Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2015.
83 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.4.B.
84 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Pennsylvania, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
85 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Electric Power Markets: PJM, updated May 26, 2016.
86 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.3.B.
87 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 6.2.C.
88 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990–2015 Existing Nameplate and Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source, Producer Type and State (EIA-860).
89 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990–2015 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923).
90 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B.
91 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990–2015 Existing Nameplate and Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source, Producer Type and State (EIA-860).
92 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B.
93 Leger, Laura, and Anya Litvak, "Planned Three Mile Island closure raises stakes for saving nukes in Pa.," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (May 31, 2017).
94 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Backgrounder on the Three Mile Island Accident, updated December 12, 2014.
95 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
96 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990–2015 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923).
97 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
98 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Pennsylvania Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, updated September 24, 2015.
99 American Wind Energy Association, Pennsylvania Wind Energy, accessed June 9, 2017.
100 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.15.B.
101 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2015 Data, Table 3_1_GeneratorY2015.
102 "PPL Holtwood Doubles Capacity of Hydroelectric Facility," PPL Generation, Press Release (December 2, 2013).
103 Johnson, Kristina, et al., "Adding Power to a Non-Powered Dam: Mahoning Creek," Hydro Review, November 19, 2014.
104 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2015 Data, Table 3_1_GeneratorY2015.
105 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.15.B.
106 Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, 2015 Annual Report, Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards Act of 2004 (September 2016), p. 12.
107 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.17.B.
108 Solar Energy Industries Association, Pennsylvania Solar, accessed June 9, 2017.
109 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2015 Data, Table 3_1_GeneratorY2015.
110 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard, Pennsylvania, updated January 24, 2017.
111 Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, 2015 Annual Report, Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards Act of 2004 (September 2016), p. i, footnote 2.
112 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Requirements for Utilities, Pennsylvania, updated June 12, 2015.
113 Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, Energy Efficiency and Conservation (EE&C) Program, accessed June 9, 2017.
114 U.S. EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2016, Legislation and Regulations, LR6, State RPS Program, Pennsylvania.