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Territory Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint Territory Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: September 21, 2017

Overview

The U.S. Virgin Islands is shifting from fuel oil to propane to generate electricity and produce public drinking water.

The U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), part of the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles, is a U.S. territory located in the Caribbean Sea, about 600 miles southeast of Miami, Florida.1 Like most Caribbean islands, the USVI has no fossil energy resources2 but does have some renewable resources, particularly solar energy.3 The USVI imports petroleum products to meet most of its energy needs, including electricity and desalination of ocean water for its public water supply.4,5

The USVI has a total area of 134 square miles, about twice the size of Washington, DC. The islands are hilly and forested, with limited arable areas, and most food is imported.6 The largest island is St. Croix. It lies about 40 miles south of the three other inhabited islands: St. John, St. Thomas, and Water Island. Located between the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico on the west and the British Virgin Islands on the east,7 the USVI has a subtropical climate with easterly trade winds and little seasonal variation in its warm temperatures. The Caribbean hurricane season, from June to November, sometimes brings destructive storms.8 The territory has a population estimated at about 103,000 in 2016.9 Most of the USVI population is evenly divided between St. Thomas and St. Croix; fewer than 5,000 people live on St. John and Water Island.10

Tourism, trade, and service industries account for about three-fifths of the USVI's gross domestic product (GDP), and government accounts for about one-fifth. In the industrial sector, manufacturing was second only to tourism in economic importance until the February 2012 closure of the Hovensa crude oil refinery on St. Croix. Tourism remains the leading industry, and manufacturing is now focused on rum distilling, electronics, and pharmaceuticals.11 Financial and professional services and export-oriented services are growing in importance.12,13 The USVI's economy has typically been about six times more energy-intensive than the economy in the 50 U.S. states,14 and per capita energy consumption in recent years has been about seven times higher than the average in the states.15 Energy efficiency is lowered by water desalination requirements; the predominance of small, simple-cycle generators; and operational constraints and power losses on the islands' two isolated electric grids.16 The USVI's electric utility has undertaken a $150 million project to enable use of propane in addition to fuel oils in its generators, the largest such project in the Caribbean.17,18,19 The utility is also adding renewable resources, mainly solar energy.20,21 The government has set a goal of reducing fossil fuel consumption by 60% from 2008 levels in all consuming sectors by 2025.22

Petroleum

The USVI has no known crude oil reserves and does not produce crude oil,23 although a recent U.S. Geological Survey assessment identified the potential for undiscovered crude oil resources in a subsea formation south of the islands.24 The Hovensa petroleum refinery on St. Croix, once one of the 10 largest crude oil refineries in the world, was a substantial part of the USVI's economy and provided most of the islands' petroleum products until it was shut down in February 2012.25 Since the closure, refined products are imported primarily through the port of Christiansted on St. Croix. Major supply sources include nations in the Caribbean Basin.26

Until recently, about two-thirds of all petroleum products in the USVI were consumed in the form of residual fuel oil and diesel fuel for electricity and potable water production. The remaining one-third was used almost entirely in the transportation sector, as motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and aviation fuel. Diesel fuel is also consumed by USVI residents who install generators for electricity supply.27 World petroleum prices pushed USVI electricity rates above 50 cents per kilowatthour in 2008, when the average rate in the 50 states was 9.8 cents.28 The USVI government set a goal of reducing petroleum use by 60% from 2008 consumption by 2025, from nearly 2.5 million barrels per year to less than 1 million barrels per year. Through a combination of efficiency and technology upgrades in power and water production, plus introduction of renewable generation, petroleum consumption was reduced 20% from 2008 to 2013.29 The electric and water utility is converting its generators to propane.30,31,32 a byproduct of both petroleum refining and natural gas processing.33 Both fuel oil and propane were used to generate electricity in the USVI in 2017.34

Natural gas

The USVI does not produce natural gas and has no known reserves,35 although the recent U.S. Geological Survey assessment identified the potential for undiscovered natural gas resources in the same subsea formation south of the islands that is also thought to contain petroleum resources.36 To reduce dependence on petroleum fuels, island officials have considered ways to access natural gas, but the islands' small energy demand makes building an LNG terminal difficult to justify economically.37 The territory's electric utility considered converting generators to burn liquefied natural gas (LNG) but opted for less costly propane.38 However, all of the USVI utility's main generators that have been converted to burn propane can also burn LNG and petroleum fuels.39 Virgin Island authorities are looking for possible regional solutions to obtain LNG economically, working with governments of other Caribbean islands that face a similar challenge.40,41,42,43

Coal

The USVI has no known coal reserves and does not produce or consume coal.44

Electricity

The USVI has two separate island grids that must each maintain generation backup and reserves.

The USVI has two separate electricity grids, each with its own generation, managed by the Water and Power Authority (WAPA), an independent governmental agency. Generating units include combustion and steam turbines powered with fuel oil or propane, as well as some solar photovoltaic (PV) resources owned by independent power producers (IPPs) and residents. The St. Thomas system, with about 138 megawatts of generating capacity, supplies electricity to nearby St. John and Water Island by underwater cable. The St. Croix system, with about 100 megawatts of capacity, is separated from the St. Thomas system by 40 miles of ocean, so each system serves its own grid. Average loads are less than half of the systems' capacities since both isolated systems must maintain their own generation backup and reserves.45,46,47 Seabed depth makes connecting the St. Thomas and St. Croix systems difficult.48 The feasibility of using cables to connect each system with Puerto Rico's larger system is being explored. Connections could lower reserve requirements and increase reliability in both the U.S. island territories.49,50

Historically, all electricity generation was fueled with imported petroleum. In recent years, fuel surcharges for diesel and residual fuel oil resulted in USVI electricity rates up to five times higher than the average U.S. states' price for electricity.51,52,53 Despite falling world petroleum prices, the electricity rate in early 2017 was about three times higher in the USVI than the average rate in the 50 states.54,55 Generators at both the Richmond power plant on St. Croix and the Randolph E. Harley power plant on St. Thomas were older and needed increasingly costly maintenance and upgrading,56,57 and both plants are under federal consent decrees to reduce emissions.58 After petroleum prices increased in 2008, WAPA explored conversion to LNG59 but, in 2013, opted to build the less expensive shipping and storage facilities needed to fuel its generators with propane.60 The turbine conversions for the project have given WAPA's generators fuel flexibility, allowing them to burn propane, fuel oil, or LNG.61 In late 2016, WAPA completed conversion of the main generating units on St. Croix62,63 but decided some generators in the St. Thomas plant needed replacement, so the project there is taking longer.64,65 Propane is predicted to cut generating plant emissions up to 20% and enable WAPA to cut future fuel surcharges by 30%.66,67,68

In the past, nearly one-tenth of all electricity WAPA generated was used for desalination of sea water to make public drinking water.69,70 In 2013, WAPA transitioned to more energy-efficient reverse osmosis technology to provide potable water.71,72,73 About one-fourth of the islands' population is served by the public water supply.74 Homes not connected to public water are required to have cisterns to catch rainwater; a cistern may represent almost one-sixth of the cost of building a private home.75 WAPA service rates are overseen by the Virgin Islands Public Utility Commission.76

About one-third of WAPA's electricity is typically consumed by the residential sector, and another one-third is consumed by large commercial power users like hotels. Nearly one-sixth of electricity goes to large industrial users such as distilleries and ports.77 Average household consumption is about 450 kilowatthours monthly, roughly half that of the 50 states. WAPA plans to achieve nearly two-fifths of its share of fossil fuel reductions, needed to meet the USVI government's 60% petroleum reduction target, through improved efficiency in electricity generation and consumption.78,79 Wwaste heat recovery and other efficiency improvements have been installed in WAPA generators,80 government buildings have been retrofitted to save energy, street light bulbs are being switched to energy-saving light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs, and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) has been installed throughout the electricity distribution system.81,82 WAPA is developing an Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) to identify future system options, including the generation portfolio, consumers' needs, and potential regional interconnections.83

Renewable energy

Distributed solar generation on consumer rooftops can provide up to 15 megawatts of capacity.

The USVI government's goal of reducing fossil fuel use led the government to work with U.S. federal agencies and local industry to take advantage of the islands' substantial renewable energy potential, including solar, wind, and biomass technologies such as waste-to-energy and landfill gas.84,85 In 2009, the USVI legislature voted to require that 30% of WAPA's "peak demanded generating capacity" be from renewable sources by 2025, increasing thereafter until a majority of capacity is renewables-sourced.86,87 The USVI was the United States' pilot project for the international Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN) partnership, aimed at demonstrating economic ways for islands worldwide to reduce energy costs by using efficiency and renewable technologies.88 The USVI government and WAPA took EDIN recommendations forward under a plan called VIenergize.89,90

The USVI has strong solar power potential on all its islands.91 The USVI's first large solar facility was a 450-kilowatt array at King Airport on St. Thomas.92 By 2017, WAPA was regularly obtaining 1% to 2% of its electricity on St. Thomas from solar power.93 The largest solar facilities are Estate Donoe on St. Thomas, inaugurated in 2015,94,95 and Estate Spanish Town, which opened on St. Croix in 2014. Both have more than 4 megawatts of capacity.96,97 Those projects are run by independent power producers (IPPs). Two more IPP solar PV facilities, each 3 megawatts, are under construction, and more solar is planned.98,99 The University of the Virgin Islands has contracted for a 3.3-megawatt solar PV system for its two campuses.100,101,102 In addition, distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) solar generation on consumer rooftops is providing about 15 megawatts of generating capability.103,104 Because of concerns about grid stability with variable renewables, the USVI's net metering law currently caps total net metered connections at 10 megawatts on the St. Thomas grid and 5 megawatts on the St. Croix system.105,106,107 Since 1990, the government has provided rebates for consumer-sited renewable facilities like solar PV panels, solar water heaters, and small wind turbines.108 Solar water heaters are required in all new construction and in major renovations. The USVI legislature directed American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds to rebates for solar water heating systems,109 and nearly 1,500 systems were installed on the islands.110

The USVI has commercial wind energy potential,111,112 but finding sites large enough for utility-scale projects has been challenging. In addition, the fluctuating output of wind generators complicates their integration into the islands' small grids, and the risk of damage from hurricanes has made financing wind projects difficult.113 The most promising locations for utility-scale wind projects are on high ridges and exposed capes.114 Wind speeds were found suitable for commercial-scale turbines at sites around Longford on St. Croix and the Bovoni Peninsula on St. Thomas.115 The USVI's largest wind project is a 100-kilowatt turbine installed on St. Croix in 2013.116

The USVI also has renewable potential in waste-to-energy, landfill gas, and biomass energy.117 In 2013, WAPA agreed to purchase the power from a proposed 7-megawatt generating plant on St. Croix, fed by biogas from a dedicated grass crop, but the plant's developer could not arrange financing and cancelled the project.118,119 Studies estimate that combustion of landfill waste could provide up to 8 megawatts of generating capacity while reducing waste volumes,120,121 but proposals for waste-to-energy plants at landfills on St. Thomas and St. Croix were deemed too costly by the government.122 A small landfill gas project was constructed at St. Thomas' Bovoni landfill.123 That landfill is operating under an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) consent decree that currently requires closure in 2019.124

Endnotes

1 U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Virgin Islands, accessed July 27, 2017.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves & Supply, accessed July 27, 2017.
3 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), p. vi.
4 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Petroleum, Consumption, Quadrillion Btu, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2013–14.
5 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Total Primary Energy Consumption, Quadrillion Btu, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2011–14.
6 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Geography and Economy, updated July 11, 2017.
7 VI Now, Where is the Virgin Islands: Geography, accessed July 27, 2017.
8 VI Now, Weather in the Virgin Islands, accessed July 27, 2017.
9 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Geography, People and Society, updated July 27, 2017.
10 VI Now, Where is the Virgin Islands: Geography, accessed July 27, 2017.
11 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands, Economy, updated February 25, 2016.
12 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, "Gross Domestic Product for U.S. Virgin Islands Increases in 2015," Press Release (December 14, 2016).
13 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), p. 4.
14 KNOEMA, International Energy Statistics Monthly Update, Energy Intensity–Total Primary Energy Consumption per Dollar of GDP, United States and USVI, accessed July 31, 2017.
15 U.S. EIA, International Energy Statistics, Indicators, Total Energy, Total Primary Energy Consumption, Population, U.S. and U.S. Virgin Islands, 2011–14.
16 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), Utility Sector Overview, p. 4–9.
17 Overton, Thomas, "Propane Power Is Grabbing Growing Share of Gas-Fired Market," Power Magazine (November 10, 2015).
18 "Quick Note: Propane Conversion Goes Live in St. Croix on April 4, July in St. Thomas," The Virgin Islands Consortium (March 24, 2016).
19 Gilbert, Ernice, "Unable to Pay Propane Supplier, WAPA Extends Oil Contract for Up to a Year," The Virgin Islands Consortium (May 31, 2017).
20 Government of the Virgin Islands, Public Services Commission, In the Matter of the Approval of Solar Energy Projects of the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (June 29, 2012).
21 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, WAPA Projects, accessed July 27, 2017.
22 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), Executive Summary.
23 U.S. EIA, U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves & Supply, accessed July 31, 2017.
24 Schenk, Christopher J., et al., "Assessment of Undiscovered Technically Recoverable Oil and Gas Resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone," U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2013-3101 (November 2013).
25 "Hovensa Shutdown Leads to Significant Drop in US Virgin Islands' GDP," Caribbean Journal (August 19, 2013).
26 U.S. EIA, Petroleum & Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, monthly reports for 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017 through April 2017.
27 Virgin Islands Energy Office, Office of the Governor, U.S. Virgin Islands Comprehensive Energy Strategy (May 5, 2009), p. 1–3.
28 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly, Back Issues (March 2009), Table 5.6.B.
29 VIenergize, "USVI Makes Headway Toward Goal to Reduce Fossil Fuel 60% by 2025," accessed July 31, 2017.
30 Duff & Phelps, LLC, Highest and Best Use of the HOVENSA Refinery (August 3, 2012), p. 45–49.
31 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Vitol/PoweringVI, accessed July 31, 2017.
32 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Receives First Shipment of Propane Fuel as Completion of Fuel Conversion Project on St. Croix Nears," Press Release (October 21, 2015).
33 U.S. EIA, Propane Prices, What Consumers Should Know (DOE/EIA-X046), (April 2007).
34 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, WAPA Monthly Megawatt Hours Production (St. Thomas only), accessed August 1, 2017.
35 U.S. EIA, U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves & Supply, accessed July 31, 2017.
36 Schenk, Christopher J., et al., "Assessment of Undiscovered Technically Recoverable Oil and Gas Resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone," U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2013-3101 (November 2013).
37 Duff & Phelps, LLC, Highest and Best Use of the HOVENSA Refinery (August 3, 2012), p. 45, 47.
38 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Vitol/PoweringVI, accessed July 31, 2017.
39 Jean Greaux Jr., Director of Corporate Communications, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, personal communications, March 27 and May 3, 2017.
40 "Caribbean ripe for LNG bunkering as 2020 emissions cap looms: speakers," Platts (June 21, 2017).
41 "Dominican Republic energy group signs LNG supply agreement with Barbados," Caribbean News Now! (May 13, 2017).
42 Hines, Horace, "LNG terminal will be a hub for Caribbean–Shirley," Jamaica Observer (November 15, 2016).
43 Crowley Maritime Corp., "Crowley Awarded New Contract to Supply Commercial LNG to Molinos de Puerto Rico," Press Release (August 4, 2016).
44 U.S. EIA, U.S. Virgin Islands Territory Energy Profile, Reserves & Supply, accessed July 31, 2017.
45 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), p. 5, 6.
46 "USVI Water and Power Authority," Business View Caribbean (January 19, 2016).
47 Jean Greaux Jr., Director of Corporate Communications, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, personal communications, March 27 and May 3, 2017.
48 Virgin Islands Energy Office, Office of the Governor, U.S. Virgin Islands Comprehensive Energy Strategy (May 5, 2009), p. 63.
49 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), p. 18.
50 Archibald, Wayne, et al., "Islands in the Sun," IEEE Electrification Magazine (March 2015), p. 59.
51 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), p. 4.
52 U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of the Inspector General, Energy Production in the Virgin Islands, Report No. VI-EV-VIS-0002-2009 (December 2009), p. 1, 2.
53 Hodge, Hugo V., Jr., Report to the Public Service Commission on WAPA'S LPG Project Status (November 2014), slide 5.
54 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "What's My Rate per Kilowatt Hour?" effective February 1, 2017, accessed July 31, 2017.
55 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (April 2017), Table 5.6.B.
56 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), p. 5.
57 McCoy, Sean, "Generator Failure at WAPA Plant Leads to Islandwide Outage," The Triboro Banner (May 12, 2011).
58 "WAPA To Sign New Fuel Supply Contract, $840,000 Approved for EPA Consent Decree Obligations," The Virgin Islands Consortium (January 23, 2015).
59 Duff & Phelps, LLC, Highest and Best Use of the HOVENSA Refinery (August 3, 2012), p. 47.
60 Overton, Thomas, "Propane Power Is Grabbing Growing Share of Gas-Fired Market," Power Magazine (November 10, 2015).
61 "USVI Water and Power Authority," Business View Caribbean (January 19, 2016).
62 "After multiple delays, St. Croix is now powered by propane," The Virgin Islands Consortium (October 27, 2016).
63 Jean Greaux Jr., Director of Corporate Communications, Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, personal communications, March 27 and May 3, 2017.
64 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Board Approves Acquisition of New Generators for RHPP," Press Release (November 16, 2016).
65 "WAPA Has the Solution, But Can It Get the Financing?" St. Thomas Source (May 18, 2017).
66 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, Propane Project, Project Fact Sheets, accessed August 1, 2017.
67 Needham, John, "Clean, Affordable Power Arrives on U.S. Virgin Islands," Butane-Propane News (September 14, 2016).
68 Gilbert, Ernice, "USVI Power Bills to Go Up as WAPA Readies Base Rate Increases for Residential and Commercial Customers," The Virgin Islands Consortium (January 12, 2017).
69 Virgin Islands Energy Office, Office of the Governor, U.S. Virgin Islands Comprehensive Energy Strategy (May 5, 2009), p. 4.
70 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), p. 32.
71 Beamguard, Miles, "Transitioning from Thermal Desalination to Reverse Osmosis–The Benefits and Process Hurdles," Seven Seas Water Corp. (June 2012), slides 17, 21.
72 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "Randolph E. Harley Power Plant Seawater Reverse Osmosis Facility Dedication Ceremony," Press Release (August 10, 2013).
73 Seven Seas Water, "Seven Seas Water's New SWRO Plant Pumps 1.1 MGD to VI Water & Power Authority Tank on St. Croix," Press Release (September 4, 2013).
74 "USVI Water and Power Authority," Business View Caribbean (January 19, 2016).
75 Solomon, Hossana, "Sustainable Water Supply and Demand in the U.S. Virgin Islands," University of the Virgin Islands (2008), slides 2, 3, 18.
76 Virgin Islands Public Service Commission, Our Mission, accessed August 3, 2017.
77 Virgin Islands Energy Office, Office of the Governor, U.S. Virgin Islands Comprehensive Energy Strategy (May 5, 2009), p. 3, 13,14.
78 Scanlon, Bill, "NREL Helping Virgin Islands Cut Fuel Use with Renewables," Renewable Energy World (January 13, 2012).
79 Rhymer, Gregory, "Virgin Islands Water & Power Authority," Presentation, 2013 Economic Development Summit, slide 10.
80 DeCesaro, Jennifer, "U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye Toward a Sustainable Future," U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (April 3, 2015).
81 "USVI Water and Power Authority," Business View Caribbean (January 19, 2016).
82 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Energy Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands, accessed August 1, 2017.
83 "WAPA to Hold Final Round of Public Meetings on Integrated Resource Plan Next Week," The Virgin Islands Consortium (October 22, 2016).
84 Scanlon, Bill, "NREL Helping Virgin Islands Cut Fuel Use with Renewables," Renewable Energy World (January 13, 2012).
85 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), Executive Summary, Renewable Energy Opportunities, p. vi.
86 U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Virgin Islands–Renewables Portfolio Targets, accessed August 1, 2017.
87 28th Legislature of the Virgin Islands, Act No. 7075 (2009), Section 1152, p. 14, 15.
88 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), Executive Summary, p. vi.
89 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Energy Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands, accessed August 1, 2017.
90 VIenergize, accessed August 1, 2017.
91 Archibald, Wayne, et al., "Islands in the Sun," IEEE Electrification Magazine (March 2015), p. 60.
92 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Transition Initiatives, Islands, "U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy" (January 2015), p. 2.
93 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, WAPA Monthly Megawatt Hours Production (St. Thomas only), accessed August 1, 2017.
94 "WAPA, Main Street Power Dedicate Solar Power Plant on St. Thomas," The Virgin Islands Consortium (February 26, 2015).
95 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "St. Thomas Solar Power Generation Plant Ribbon Cutting Ceremony," Press Release (February 25, 2015).
96 Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Dedicates St. Croix's Estate Spanish Town Solar Facility and Gregory E. Willocks Substation," Press Release (October 27, 2014).
97 NRG, "NRG Energy Celebrates the Spanish Town Estate Solar Development in the U.S. Virgin Islands," Press Release (October 29, 2014).
98 "USVI Water and Power Authority," Business View Caribbean (January 19, 2016).
99 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Energy Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands, accessed August 1, 2017.
100 Archibald, Wayne, et al., "Islands in the Sun," IEEE Electrification Magazine (March 2015), p. 63.
101 University of the Virgin Islands, "$3M USDA Grant to Support Solar Development at UVI," Press Release (May 13, 2014).
102 Buchanan, Don, "UVI Solar Project Stagnant, but Maybe Not Dead," St. Thomas Source (March 11, 2017).
103 "USVI Water and Power Authority," Business View Caribbean (January 19, 2016).
104 DeCesaro, Jennifer, "U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye Toward a Sustainable Future," U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (April 3, 2015).
105 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, U.S. Virgin Islands–Net Metering, updated March 25, 2015.
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107 VIenergize, "USVI Makes Headway Toward Goal to Reduce Fossil Fuel 60% by 2025," accessed August 1, 2017.
108 Virgin Islands Energy Office, Office of the Governor, U.S. Virgin Islands Comprehensive Energy Strategy (May 5, 2009), p. 16.
109 28th Legislature of the Virgin Islands, Act No. 7075 (2009), Section 1152, p. 7.
110 DeCesaro, Jennifer, "U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye Toward a Sustainable Future," U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (April 3, 2015).
111 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), Executive Summary, p. vi.
112 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Transition Initiative, Islands, Energy Snapshot, U.S. Virgin Islands (March 2015), p. 3.
113 Virgin Islands Energy Office, Office of the Governor, U.S. Virgin Islands Comprehensive Energy Strategy (May 5, 2009), p. 45, 46.
114 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands 50-Meter Wind Resource Map, updated February 21, 2014.
115 Roberts, Joseph Owen and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014, NREL/TP-7A40-63094 (December 2014), Executive Summary.
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117 Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren, U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Roadmap: Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-7A20-52360 (September 2011), Executive Summary, p. vi.
118 "WAPA Terminates 25-Year Agreement with Tibbar Energy," The Virgin Islands Consortium (October 21, 2016).
119 Tibbar Energy and Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, "WAPA Board Approves Biogas Power Purchase Agreement with Tibbar Energy USVI," Press Release (July 2013).
120 Virgin Islands Energy Office, Office of the Governor, U.S. Virgin Islands Comprehensive Energy Strategy (May 5, 2009), p. 40, 41.
121 Scanlon, Bill, "NREL Helping Virgin Islands Cut Fuel Use with Renewables," Renewable Energy World (January 13, 2012).
122 Nowakowski, Kelsey, "Growing Pains: Large-Scale Composting in the Virgin Islands," St. Thomas Source (May 22, 2016).
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124 United States of America v. Government of the U.S. Virgin Islands et al., Partial Consent Decree with Government of the U.S. Virgin Islands and Virgin Islands Waste Management Authority Regarding Bovoni Landfill, U.S. District Court for the District of the USVI, Civil No. 3:10-cv-00048 (February 14, 2012).