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Montana   Montana Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)



Last Updated: January 18, 2018

Overview

Montana holds one-fourth of the nation’s demonstrated coal reserve base in addition to substantial renewable resources.

Montana, known as Big Sky Country, is the fourth largest state and a substantial supplier of energy to the rest of the nation.1,2 The state is rich in both fossil and renewable resources.3 About one-fourth of the nation's demonstrated coal reserve base is in Montana, and the northern and eastern areas of the state contain large deposits of crude oil and natural gas.4,5,6 The Continental Divide cuts through the mountains of western Montana, making Montana the only state in the nation with rivers that drain into the Pacific Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Hudson Bay.7 The Missouri River, the longest river in the United States and the fourth longest in the world, begins in the Rocky Mountains in western Montana and flows eastward across the state.8,9 The river and its tributaries offer substantial hydroelectric energy resources.10,11 Montana's western mountains also capture warm, moist air from the Pacific Ocean, creating a more moderate climate in the western third of the state than farther east, where the Rocky Mountains give way to dry, wind-swept plains that stretch to the Dakotas.12,13 The state's vast plains provide Montana with some of the best wind potential in the nation.14 Although Montana is the fourth biggest state in area,15 it is the third least densely populated.16 The state's population is clustered in and around a few towns, mainly in the valleys of the Missouri River and its tributaries.17 Much of the eastern third of Montana has, on average, less than one resident per square mile.18

Montana's early economy was built around mining, ranching, wheat farming, and timber. After World War II, spurred by such popular destinations as Glacier and Yellowstone National Parks, tourism increased. In 1970, tourism surpassed mining, becoming the second largest industry in the state after agriculture.19 In 2016, finance, insurance, real estate, rentals, and leasing were the largest contributors to the state's gross domestic product (GDP), but natural resources and mining continue to be significant economic sectors.20 Mining, crude oil and natural gas production, petroleum refining, and agricultural industries are all energy-intensive. Those industries, as well as long travel distances within the state, place Montana's per capita energy consumption among the top one-third of all states.21 The industrial and transportation sectors lead state end-use energy consumption, together accounting for three-fifths of the state's total.22 Summer days can exceed 100 degrees Fahrenheit on the plains and winter can bring Arctic blasts with subzero temperatures.23 Despite the temperature extremes, Montana's small population results in a residential sector that uses far less energy than other end-use sectors in the state.24 Montana's per capita energy consumption is among the bottom 10 states, but it is ranked among the top one-third of the states for combined energy consumption from all sectors.25

Petroleum

Montana’s four oil refineries can process about 205,000 barrels of crude a day.

Montana accounts for almost 1% of U.S. total proved crude oil reserves,26 and the state produces almost 1 in every 100 barrels of U.S. oil.27 Most of Montana's oil production operations are concentrated in the northeastern part of the state near the North Dakota border.28 Montana's Elm Coulee field was initially the most prolific oil field in the Williston Basin, a geologic basin that spreads from eastern Montana into North Dakota and Canada.29 However, the state's oil production declined from its 2006 peak as drilling activity moved to North Dakota, where the productive Bakken Shale formation is thicker.30,31

Montana has four operating oil refineries with a combined crude oil processing capacity of about 205,000 barrels per day. Three refineries are in the Billings area, and one is in Great Falls.32 Those refineries receive crude oil mainly from Canada and Wyoming and produce a wide range of refined products, including motor gasoline, ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels, aviation fuels, butane, propane, petroleum coke, and asphalt.33,34,35,36 Pipelines and railroads are used to ship crude oil to the refineries and also transport the facilities' refined products throughout Montana and to nearby states. Several pipelines carry Montana crude oil to refineries in other states as well.37

New production in the region has been constrained by the lack of pipeline takeaway capacity. A number of new pipeline projects are in development, primarily to transport crude oil to major refining centers in the Midwest, in Oklahoma, and on the Gulf Coast.38 Some of the state's oil is also transported by rail.

Although Montana's total petroleum consumption is low compared with that of other states, it is among the top 10 states on a per capita basis.39,40 The transportation sector consumes almost two-thirds of the petroleum used in the state.41 During the winter months, federal air quality standards require oxygenated motor gasoline use in the Missoula area near the Idaho border.42 Montana also has its own requirement that motor gasoline sold in the state be blended with 10% ethanol.43 Montana has no ethanol refineries, although one has been proposed in Great Falls that would use wheat and barley as its feedstocks.44,45 The industrial sector is the second-largest consumer of petroleum, accounting for about one-fourth of the state's use. The residential sector—where 1 in 100 households heat with fuel oil—and the electric power sector consume almost all the rest.46,47

Natural gas

Montana accounts for only 0.2% of U.S. total natural gas reserves,48 and the state's natural gas production is less than half of what it was at its peak in 2007.49 In 2016, Montana produced less than 0.2% of the nation's natural gas.50 Production from natural gas wells and coalbed methane wells in the state has trended downward in recent years as energy companies have focused on drilling for oil rather than for natural gas.51,52 More than three-fourths of the producing natural gas wells in Montana are located in the northern part of the state, near the Canadian border. Production also comes from wells in smaller fields in the Williston Basin in northeastern Montana near the North Dakota border and from wells in south-central Montana.53

Montana has the largest underground natural gas storage facility in the nation.

Montana is crossed by natural gas pipelines from Canada and Wyoming.54 Most of the natural gas entering the state comes from Canada, crossing the border at six import points.55 Some gas shipments also come from North Dakota and Wyoming.56 In 2016, about one-fifth of U.S. natural gas imports from Canada entered the United States through Montana.57 About 90% of the natural gas that enters Montana leaves the state, most of it continuing on to North Dakota on its way to Midwestern markets.58 Some of the natural gas entering Montana is put in storage. The state has more underground natural gas storage capacity than any other state in the Rocky Mountain region, and the depleted Baker field in the Williston Basin in eastern Montana is the nation's largest single underground natural gas storage facility.59,60

More than half of Montana households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating.61 Overall, natural gas consumption is fairly evenly divided among the industrial, residential, and commercial sectors.62 Despite cold winters that can be especially harsh in eastern Montana, the state's per capita natural gas use is below the national average.63,64,65 Residents use more natural gas than the state produces, making Montana a net importer.66,67

Coal

About one-fifth of Montana’s coal output is exported, mainly to Asia

Montana has the nation's largest estimated recoverable coal reserves and holds one-fourth of the nation's demonstrated coal reserve base.68 The state produces almost 5% of the nation's coal from half a dozen mines. Most of the state's coal production comes from several large surface mines in the Powder River Basin in southeastern Montana.69,70 One of Montana's largest coal mines, the Rosebud surface mine, supplies almost all of its production to the state's largest electricity generating station, the 2,100-megawatt, coal-fired power plant located next to the mine at Colstrip, Montana.71,72,73 In 2016, more than one-fourth of the coal mined in Montana was consumed in the state, and almost all that coal was used by the electric power sector. Half of Montana's coal production was sent to other states in 2016, and most of that coal was also used for electricity generation. The remaining one-fifth of Montana's coal production was exported to western Canada, where much of it continued on to Asia.74,75,76

Montana's coal production has declined in recent years, mainly because of competition from natural gas for electricity generation.77 U.S. electricity generators have also retrofitted many coal-fired generating plants with emission controls that allow use of higher-sulfur coal, thereby reducing demand for Montana's low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal.78

Electricity

More than half of Montana's net electricity generation comes from coal, but federal environmental rules are affecting coal-fired generation.79 In 2015, one of Montana's older coal-fired power plants was shut down, with the plant's owner citing the projected costs of pollution controls required for the facility.80 Five coal-fired power plants remain in operation in the state.81 Most of the rest of Montana's electricity generation comes from hydroelectric power plants. Wind power accounts for the third-largest share, almost 8%, of the state's generation, and natural gas and petroleum coke each provide about 1.5% of generation. The state has no nuclear power plants.82

Montanans use about half of the electricity generated in the state.83 The rest is sent to other western states by high-voltage transmission lines. Generating more electricity for sale in other states is seen as an economic opportunity for Montana, but current transmission lines are congested, and new capacity must be built in order to expand sales.84 Most of Montana is part of the Western Interconnection grid serving western states and Canadian provinces.85 Several transmission projects are being developed to increase capacity to move electricity from both conventional and renewable sources out of Montana to states in the west and southwest. Construction of a line between Montana and Alberta, Canada, was completed in 2013. It is the first direct interconnection between the two areas.86 A portion of eastern Montana is part of the eastern U.S. grid.87 One of the nation's eight converter stations that connect the eastern and western grids is located at Miles City, Montana.88

Montana deregulated its electricity system starting in 1997, but the state experienced rising retail electricity costs and later re-regulated some aspects.89 In 2016, the state's average retail electricity prices were well below the national average, and the average price of electricity for all customers in Montana was less than in two-thirds of the states.90 Almost one-fifth of Montana households use electricity for heating.91 The residential and commercial sectors each consume a little more than one-third of the electricity used in Montana, and the industrial sector is close behind, consuming a little less than one-third.92

Renewable energy

Montana is the fifth largest producer of hydroelectric power in the nation.

Montana has substantial renewable energy resources. Its mountainous terrain along the Continental Divide creates fast-running rivers, and the eastern two-thirds of the state is drained by the Missouri River and its tributaries.93 In 2016, Montana was the fifth-largest producer of hydroelectric power in the nation, up from 7th place the year before because of more precipitation.94,95 The state has 23 hydroelectric dams. Six of Montana's 10 largest power plants by generating capacity are hydroelectric facilities.96,97 Opportunities for hydroelectric generating capacity expansions around the state are being evaluated.98,99

With its high plains crossed by hills, wide river valleys, and occasional mountains, eastern Montana has some of the largest utility-scale wind potential in the nation.100,101 The first utility-scale wind farm in the state came online in 2005.102 By 2017, Montana had about 700 megawatts of wind-powered electricity generating capacity in operation from utility-scale wind farms with almost 500 turbines. More wind projects are in various stages of development.103,104 However, some new wind projects depend on demand for renewable energy from other states and on available transmission capacity.105 To provide a stable supply of electricity to the grid and offset the variability of wind-power, a large transmission and closed loop pumped hydro storage project with 400 megawatts of generating capacity is in development about 100 miles northwest of Billings, Montana.106,107

Montana has both geothermal and biomass energy resources.108 The state has identified more than 50 geothermal areas, and about one-third of them are high-temperature sites. Montana's most significant geothermal resources are in the mountainous southwest, but they have not been tapped for electricity generation. Low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources are found in nearly all areas of the state.109 Those geothermal resources have a variety of direct-use applications in Montana, including recreational hot springs, greenhouses, and fish farms. Several hot springs resorts and public bathing facilities in Montana take advantage of their geothermal resources by using them for space heating as well as for mineral baths.110

Although almost one-tenth of Montana's residents heat their homes with wood, very little electricity generation in the state is from biomass.111,112 Montana is looking into increasing the use of biomass from wood waste, particularly from trees culled as part of efforts to fight pine beetle infestations.113 Montana had almost 28 megawatts of installed solar generating capacity by the end of 2016, but none of it was at electric utility-scale solar facilities. Instead, it consisted of residential and commercial distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) solar generation installations.114,115 However, three utility-scale solar projects with a total of 8 megawatts of generating capacity began operating in 2017.116

Montana's renewable resource standard (RRS) requires retail electricity suppliers to get at least 15% of the electricity they sell in-state from renewable energy sources. Power must come from renewable facilities that began operating after January 1, 2005. The RRS recognizes renewable energy from wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, small hydroelectric facilities, landfill gas, anaerobic digesters, and fuel cells that use renewable fuels as qualifying renewable resources. The standard requires electricity suppliers to buy a set amount of power from smaller community-based renewable energy projects.117

Energy on tribal lands

More than 5.5 million acres of Montana, about 6% of the state's land area, is held by Native Americans.118 Of the 12 tribes in Montana, 11 are federally recognized. Montana's tribal lands sit on top of a wealth of coal, crude oil, and natural gas resources. The largest of the seven federal reservations in the state, the Crow Nation Reservation, has more than 2 million acres in south-central Montana and one of the largest coal reserves in the United States.119,120,121 In addition to an estimated 9 billion tons of low-sulfur coal, the Crow Nation Reservation has oil and natural gas resources.122 The Northern Cheyenne Reservation in southeastern Montana, adjacent to the Crow Nation Reservation, also has a large coal resource.123 The Blackfeet Reservation on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains has more than 1.5 million acres,124 on which oil and natural gas resources are being developed. Crude oil was discovered in the early 1950s on the Fort Peck Reservation, the second-largest reservation in the state at over 2 million acres. The Fort Peck Reservation is located in northeastern Montana, and it overlies the western edge of the Bakken formation.125 There are several oil and natural gas fields near the reservation's borders, but the tribe has not yet had any successful Bakken wells drilled on its lands, and interest has faded with lower oil prices.126

Much of Montana's tribal land has abundant renewable resource potential, and several tribes are focusing their energy development on those resources. The Salish and Kootenai tribes, on the Flathead reservation in western Montana, became the first tribal owners and operators of a major hydroelectric facility in the nation when they acquired sole ownership of the Kerr Dam on the boundary of their reservation in September 2015.127 The Flathead and the Northern Cheyenne reservations, with their timber resources, have significant biomass potential.128,129 The best wind potential in Montana is in the eastern three-fourths of the state, particularly in the northern and northeastern regions where the Blackfeet, Rocky Boy, Fort Belknap, and Fort Peck reservations are located.130 The Blackfeet Reservation, the third largest reservation in Montana, has pursued wind energy projects for several years. In 1996, a utility-scale wind project came online at the Blackfeet Community College in Browning, Montana, offsetting the college's electricity costs.131 In 1999, the four 10-kilowatt wind turbines installed by the tribe at a wastewater treatment plant in Browning began supplying one-fourth of the plant's electricity needs.132 In 2016, Montana's governor directed the state's Department of Environmental Quality to work with tribes to facilitate the development of solar power on tribal lands.133

Endnotes

1 World Atlas, U.S. States by Size, accessed December 20, 2017.
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3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2015, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2015.
4 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2016.
5 U.S. EIA, Lower 48 states shale plays, Map (April 13, 2015).
6 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves 2015 (December 2016), p. 22, 24.
7 NETSTATE, The Geography of Montana, updated February 25, 2016.
8 U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, The USGS Water Science School, Lengths of the major rivers, updated December 2, 2016.
9 Kammerer, J.C., Largest Rivers in the United States, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-242 (May 1990).
10 Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Hydropower, accessed December 5, 2017.
11 Northwestern Energy, Hydroelectric Facilities Acquisition, accessed December 5, 2017.
12 Potts, Donald, "Montana, Big Sky Country and the Last, Best Place," Montana's Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, accessed December 5, 2017.
13 Montana Climate Office, Mean Annual Precipitation, accessed December 5, 2017.
14 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Montana-Annual Average Wind Speed at 80 m, accessed December 5, 2017.
15 World Atlas, U.S. States by Size, accessed December 20, 2017.
16 U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012, The National Data Book, 131st Edition (2011), p. 19, Table 14, State Population—Rank, Percent Change, and Population Density: 1980 to 2010.
17 Geology.com, Montana Map Collection, accessed December 5, 2017.
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20 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Montana, GDP, updated November 21, 2017.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015 (June 2017), Table C13, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015 (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
23 Potts, Donald, "Montana, Big Sky Country and the Last, Best Place," Montana's Climate, The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates' Series, accessed December 6, 2017.
24 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015 (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015 (June 2017), Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015 and Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
26 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2015 (December 14, 2016), Table 6, Crude Oil and Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production, 2015.
27 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, Thousand Barrels, 2010-16, accessed December 7, 2017.
28 Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Oil and Gas Conservation Division, Annual Review 2016, Volume 60, p. 3-1.
29 Montana Department of Transportation, The Elm Coulee Oil Field, Birthplace of the Bakken Oil Boom, accessed December 7, 2017.
30 U.S. EIA, Montana Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, Thousand Barrels per Day, 1981-2016.
31 U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Assessment of Undiscovered Oil Resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 2013, Fact Sheet (April 2013).
32 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2017 (June 21, 2017), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2017, p. 14.
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38 U.S. EIA, "In Rocky Mountain region, increased crude production is being shipped by pipeline, rail," Today in Energy (July 15, 2015).
39 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C11, Energy Consumption by Source, Ranked by State, 2015.
40 U.S. Census Bureau, Montana, 2017 Population Estimates.
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42 Gardner, K. W., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, Map, ExxonMobil (June 2015).
43 Edelstein, Stephen, "State Laws On Ethanol In Gasoline: Only Seven States Require E10 Blend," Green Car Reports (July 17, 2015).
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46 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data 2015: Updates by Energy Source, Table F15: Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
47 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Montana, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
48 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2015 (December 14, 2017), Table 10, Total natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2015.
49 U.S. EIA, Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2016.
50 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2016.
51 U.S. EIA, Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2016.
52 U.S. EIA, Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, 2002-16.
53 Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Oil and Gas Conservation Division, Annual Review 2016, volume 60, p. 3-1, 5-1, 6-1.
54 Pipeline 101, Natural Gas Pipelines Map, accessed December 15, 2017.
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56 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Montana, Annual, 2010-16.
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58 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Montana, Annual, 2010-16.
59 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Annual, 2010-16.
60 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Annual Respondent Query System, 191 Field Level Storage Data, Annual, 2016.
61 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Montana, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
62 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Montana, Annual, 2016.
63 City-Data, Montana Climate, accessed December 15, 2017.
64 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Montana, Annual, 2016.
65 U.S. Census Bureau, Montana, 2017 Population Estimates.
66 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2016.
67 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2016.
68 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve by Mining Method, 2016.
69 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 2, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2016.
70 U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Energy Resources Program, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, accessed December 15, 2017.
71 Westmoreland Coal Company, Rosebud Mine, Montana, accessed December 15, 2017.
72 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 9, Major U.S. Coal Mines, 2016.
73 U.S. EIA, Montana Electricity Profile, 2015, Table 2, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2015.
74 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State.
75 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin States, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation.
76 Brown, Matthew, "Coal company shifts to Canadian port to reach Asia markets," Associated Press (October 13, 2016).
77 U.S. EIA, Monthly Energy Review (November 2017) Table 6.2 Coal Consumption by Sector.
78 U.S. EIA, "2012 Brief: Coal prices and production in most basins down in 2012," Today in Energy (January 14, 2013).
79 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
80 Brown, Matthew, "Montana coal-fired power plant is latest to shut down," Associated Press (February 10, 2015).
81 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 3_1_Generator_Y2016, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Coal Units Only).
82 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.7.B, 1.10.B, 1.14.B.
83 U.S. EIA, Montana Electricity Profile 2015, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990-2015.
84 Nowakowski, Sonja, Montana's Energy Policy Review Senate Bill No. 290: A look at existing policy, A report to the 62nd Legislature of the State of Montana (October 2010), p. 11-15.
85 NERC Interconnections Map, accessed December 18, 2017.
86 Montana Department of Environmental Quality, Understanding Energy in Montana, updated for 2013-2014 Energy and Telecommunications Interim Committee, p. 36, accessed December 18, 2017.
87 NERC Interconnections Map, accessed December 18, 2017.
88 Western Area Power Administration, "Miles City Bridges Interconnections for 30 Years," Press Release (September 10, 2015).
89 Legislative Services Division, A Citizen's Guide to Montana Energy Law, Montana Legislature, Energy and Telecommunications Interim Committee (2011), p. 8-11.
90 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.6.B.
91 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Montana, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
92 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data 2015: Updates by Energy Source, Table F21, Electricity Consumption Estimates, 2015.
93 New World Encyclopedia, Missouri River, updated November 11, 2014.
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95 Montana State Library, Geographic Information, Montana County Drought Status Maps, accessed December 18, 2017.
96 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 Detailed Data, 3_1_Generator_Y2016, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
97 U.S. EIA, Montana Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2, Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2015.
98 Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Water Resources Division, Report on Survey of Power Generation Capacity (June 2016).
99 Absarko Energy, "Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Issues License for Major Montana Energy Project," Press Release (December 22, 2016)
100 NETSTATE, Montana, The Geography of Montana, updated February 25, 2016.
101 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, U.S. Potential Wind Capacity in Megawatts (MW) at 80 Meters, accessed December 18, 2017.
102 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, "Energy Department recognizes the first utility-scale wind project in Montana," Press Release (October 7, 2005).
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111 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Montana, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
112 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.15.B.
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116 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Mapping System, Montana, Solar Power Plant layer, accessed December 27, 2017.
117 North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Montana Renewable Resource Standard, updated August 8, 2017.
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119 Montana Governor's Office of Indian Affairs, Crow Nation, accessed December 19, 2017.
120 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, "Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs," Federal Register, Vol. 81 No. 86 (May 4, 2016), p. 26826-26832.
121 Regan, S., "Unlocking the Wealth of Indian Nations: Overcoming Obstacles to Tribal Energy Development," Property and Environment Research Center (February 18, 2014).
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123 The Montana Legislature, Montana 64th Session, The Tribal Nations of Montana, Economic Development (March 1995).
124 Montana Governor's Office of Indian Affairs, Blackfeet Nation, accessed December 19, 2017.
125 Montana Governor's Office of Indian Affairs, Fort Beck Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes, accessed December 19, 2017.
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128 The Montana Legislature, Montana 64th Session, The Tribal Nations of Montana, Economic Development (March 1995).
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131 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Tribal Energy Program, Blackfeet Tribe, 1995 Project, accessed December 19, 2017.
132 Official Site for the Town of Browning, Montana, Wind Power for the Wastewater Treatment Plant, accessed December 19, 2017.
133 State of Montana Governor's Office, Montana Energy Future, The Future of Montana Electricity (2016), p. 12.