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New Mexico   New Mexico Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)



Last Updated: January 18, 2018

Overview

Petroleum, natural gas, and coal production make New Mexico the seventh-largest net supplier of energy to the nation.

New Mexico is home to the forested peaks and valleys of the southern Rocky Mountains, high plateaus of the Great Plains, and many spectacular desert canyons and mesas.1 New Mexico also contains a wealth of fossil fuel, mineral, and renewable energy resources.2,3,4 The state's lowest elevation is more than half a mile above sea level and its highest, Wheeler Peak in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, rises to more than 2 miles above sea level. The climate varies widely by location and elevation, from the deserts in the south, where summer temperatures above 100 degrees Fahrenheit are common, to snowy peaks in the north, where winter temperatures have fallen to 50 degrees below zero.5,6 Although New Mexico is the fifth-largest state by area, it is the sixth-least densely populated.7,8 More than one in four residents live in the city of Albuquerque, and two-thirds of the state has fewer than 10 people per square mile.9,10

New Mexico is the seventh-largest net supplier of energy to the nation, primarily because of its petroleum, natural gas, natural gas liquids, and coal production.11,12 About one-third of New Mexico's land is federally administered, and the state is second only to Wyoming in the number of producing oil and natural gas leases on federal land.13,14

The state's largest employers are the health care, retail trade, hospitality, and educational service industries. Although not a large employer, the mining sector, especially the oil and gas industry, contributes significantly to the state's gross domestic product (GDP), and workers in the sector earn among the highest average weekly pay in the state.15,16 New Mexico's energy consumption per dollar of GDP and energy consumption per capita are both above the national average.17,18 Among the state's end-use sectors, the industrial sector is the largest consumer of energy, followed by the transportation sector.19 Despite the state's climate extremes, energy consumption per capita by the residential sector is among the lowest in the nation.20

Petroleum

New Mexico has just over 4% of U.S. total proved crude oil reserves,21 and has long held the title of the 6th largest oil-producing state, providing close to 5% of the nation's annual crude oil output.22 The Permian Basin of West Texas and southeastern New Mexico is one of the most prolific petroleum-producing areas in the nation.23 New Mexico's Permian Basin, with about 30,000 crude oil wells,24 contains 2 of the nation's 100 largest oil fields.25 Oil production in the state, which had been relatively steady for several decades, has more than doubled since 2009, with monthly output topping 500,000 barrels a day in the fourth quarter of 2017 for the first time ever.26 New production has come online as a result of advanced drilling and oil recovery technologies in low-permeability formations in both the Permian Basin in the southeastern part of the state and from the San Juan Basin in the northwest.27,28 Pipeline operators have developed ways to accommodate New Mexico's increased crude oil production, including pipelines that were built, expanded, or reversed to take Permian crude oil production to Gulf Coast refineries.29 Petroleum output is filling existing pipelines, and New Mexico producers have turned to railroads to transport crude oil.30,31

New Mexico has two operating oil refineries that can process about 123,000 barrels of crude oil a day.32 Local San Juan Basin crude oil, known as Four Corners Sweet, is the main feedstock for a small refinery in Gallup, New Mexico. It is the only active refinery in the Four Corners area—where the four states of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado meet—and supplies that region with motor gasoline, diesel, propane, butane, and heavy fuel oils. Pipelines also deliver the refinery's products to other southwestern markets, including metropolitan Albuquerque and northern Arizona.33 The state's larger Navajo Refinery that is located in Artesia can process both heavy sour and light sweet crude oils. Most of the crude oil processed at Artesia comes from the Permian Basin, but some of it is brought by pipeline from other areas, including Canada. The Navajo refinery serves markets in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico.34

New Mexico’s sole ethanol refinery is being converted to biodiesel.

New Mexico requires the use of oxygenated motor gasoline in winter to reduce carbon monoxide emissions in the Albuquerque metropolitan area.35,36 New Mexico's one commercial-scale ethanol production plant in Portales suspended operations in 2012, but its new owner plans to redevelop the facility to produce biodiesel.37,38

The transportation sector dominates petroleum consumption in New Mexico. More than 80% of all petroleum used in the state goes to that sector. The industrial sector is a distant second, and the residential sector and commercial sector use only small amounts of petroleum. Even less is used by the electric power sector.39 Only about 0.1% of New Mexico households use petroleum products for home heating.40

Natural gas

New Mexico holds about 5% of U.S. total proved natural gas reserves,41 and it is among the top 10 natural gas-producing states, accounting for about 4% of the nation's total natural gas output.42 The San Juan Basin area that stretches across both New Mexico and Colorado is among the top 10 U.S. natural gas-producing fields.43 The share of New Mexico's production from shale gas wells has increased, as shale gas output has more than quadrupled since 2010.44 New Mexico is the second largest coalbed methane producing state, after Colorado, even though New Mexico's output has fallen to less than half its 2007 peak production.45

New Mexico produces more natural gas than it uses and sends natural gas through interstate pipelines, primarily to Arizona and Texas.46 The Blanco Hub, located in the San Juan Basin, is a major connection and trading point for interstate pipelines carrying Rocky Mountain natural gas.47 New Mexico has only two underground storage fields with a combined storage capacity of 89 billion cubic feet of natural gas, which is equal to about 1% of the nation's total.48,49

About one-fifth of the natural gas produced in New Mexico is consumed in the state. The electric power sector is the largest natural gas consumer in New Mexico, followed by the residential sector.50,51 Two-thirds of the state's households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating.52 New Mexico is among the top 10 states in the nation in per capita natural gas consumption.53,54

Coal

New Mexico contains almost 3% of the nation's estimated recoverable coal reserves.55 Most of the state's known reserves are located in the San Juan and Raton Basins in northern New Mexico. Coal has been mined in New Mexico since the 1850s, and although the state's coal production has trended downward in the past decade, the state's three mines continue to account for about 2% of U.S. total coal output.56,57,58 New Mexico has coal deposits around the state, but the San Juan Basin in the state's northwest is the largest coal-bearing region and the only area currently being mined.59 There are three active coal mines in the basin, one underground and two surface operations.60 Two of those mines are dedicated suppliers to neighboring coal-fired power plants.61 Almost all the coal mined in New Mexico is either burned in the state or shipped by rail to Arizona for power generation.62

Electricity

Plans are under way to connect all three U.S. electric grids in New Mexico.

Coal-fired power plants make up almost three-fifths of New Mexico's net electricity generation. Natural gas-fired power plants account for most of the remaining generation, with renewable resources, primarily wind, providing the rest of the power supplies generated.63 Although the state has no nuclear power plants, it has the second-largest uranium reserves in the nation.64,65 Coal-fired generation in New Mexico is declining in response to tougher air quality regulations, more competitively priced natural gas supplies, and California's decision in 2014 to stop purchasing electricity generated from coal.66 Two of the four coal-fired generating units at New Mexico's largest San Juan power plant were shut down in late 2017, and three of the five coal-fired electricity generating units at the state's second-largest coal-fired Four Corners power plant were retired in 2013.67,68,69

All of New Mexico's planned new electricity generating capacity will use renewable energy or natural gas.70 The state has recognized an economic interest in selling more electricity to other states, particularly electricity generated from its renewable resources.71 Projects under way to move those electricity supplies include new transmission that takes advantage of the state's location at the edge of the three U.S. electrical grids—the Eastern, Western and Texas Interconnections—and of the Four Corners power trading hub, located at the Four Corners coal complex in northwestern New Mexico.72,73

New Mexico uses less electricity per capita than about two-thirds of the states and less electricity than it produces.74,75 The state is a net supplier of electricity to neighboring states.76 New Mexico's commercial sector uses the most electricity, followed closely by the industrial and residential sectors.77 About one in six New Mexico households use electricity as the primary source for home heating. 78

Renewable energy

New Mexico possesses substantial renewable resources, particularly from wind and solar, but also from hydroelectric, biomass, and geothermal energy.79,80 The greatest wind potential is on the high plains in the eastern half of the state.81 In 2016, wind energy contributed 11% of New Mexico's electricity generation from almost 900 wind turbines. The state has about 1,400 megawatts of installed electricity generating capacity from wind.82,83 New Mexico's climate is typified by abundant sunshine, giving the state some of the nation's best solar energy potential.84,85 Solar power provided about 3% of the state's generation in 2016.86 The number of utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities in New Mexico is increasing, and so is the use of distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) solar generation, including corporate PV installations.87 State regulatory policies and incentives encourage the use of distributed solar technologies.88 In 2016, New Mexico ranked 15th in the nation in installed solar capacity with about 700 megawatts.89

New Mexico has the sixth-largest geothermal resource in the nation. Most of those resources are located in the southwestern and north-central parts of the state.90,91 Geothermal energy has been used for greenhouse agriculture in New Mexico, much of it for the state's famed green chilies, as well as for aquaculture. Geothermal energy also has been used for space heating, district heating, and spas. In December 2013, New Mexico's first utility-scale geothermal power plant came online.92,93 The power plant, located in the Animas Valley in southwestern New Mexico, had an initial electricity generating capacity of 4 megawatts. A planned expansion of the facility is in development and will provide another 6 megawatts of geothermal generating capacity.94

With a relatively small state population and low electricity demand, New Mexico's solar, wind, and geothermal projects need more transmission capacity to take the electricity that renewable projects generate to power markets in the Southwest.95,96 In 2007, New Mexico created a Renewable Energy Transmission Authority (RETA) to encourage the development of the state's renewable energy resources by helping to connect renewable projects to the electric grid. RETA's goal is to enable New Mexico to send up to 5,200 megawatts of renewable energy to other states.97,98 Transmission projects that are under development include the Lucky Corridor, the Western Spirit Clean Line, and the Centennial West Clean Line, all of which are designed to allow delivery of renewable-generated electricity within New Mexico and to other western states.99,100,101,102 New Mexico is also home to a major portion of the SunZia Project, a 515-mile transmission corridor designed to transport electricity to western power markets. It is expected to be in service by 2020.103 Developers of another project, the Southline Transmission Project, plan upgrades to current lines and use of existing corridors for new transmission across southern New Mexico and Arizona that also will be in service by 2020.104

The New Mexico renewable portfolio standard requires investor-owned electric utilities to acquire 20% of electricity sold in-state from renewable energy sources by 2020. Of that 20%, at least half must come from solar and wind energy, and the balance must include shares from several other renewable sources, including distributed generation. Rural electric cooperatives are required to obtain 10% of their sales from renewable sources by 2020.105 New Mexico has regulatory policies that include net metering, solar easements, and interconnection standards, as well as a number of financial incentives that encourage renewable generation.106

Energy on tribal lands

Tribal lands cover more than one-tenth of New Mexico, giving the state the third largest tribal acreage—after Alaska and Arizona—among all states.107 Two of New Mexico's largest reservations—the Navajo Reservation and the Jicarilla Apache Reservation—are in the oil and gas-rich Four Corners region of northwestern New Mexico.108 The Jicarilla Apache Reservation, on the east flank of the San Juan Basin—a prolific hydrocarbon-producing area within the Four Corners region—is the largest mineral rights owner in the basin after the federal government. The reservation has within its boundaries several oil and gas fields.109 The Navajo Nation, whose reservation is in three states, has a company that owns and runs oil and gas operations on its reservation lands in the San Juan Basin in New Mexico and several fields in southeast Utah. The company also operates a pipeline between New Mexico and Utah.110 In 2013, the Navajo Nation also purchased the Navajo Mine, a coal mine located on reservation land in New Mexico. The mine is the source of the coal used by the Four Corners Generating Station, one of the largest power plants in New Mexico, which is also on the reservation. Some of the proceeds from the Navajo Nation's coal mine are dedicated to developing renewable and alternative energy projects both on and off the Navajo Nation reservation.111,112

New Mexico's reservations have abundant renewable energy potential, including solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass resources.113 All tribes in the state have potential geothermal resources on their lands.114 Although New Mexico's greatest wind energy resources are in the east, outside of tribal lands, several ridges on the state's reservations also have some wind energy potential.115,116 New Mexico's solar resources are among the best in the nation.117 Several tribes have been exploring distributed generation using solar PV panels. In 2015, the Santo Domingo Tribe received a grant to install a 115-kilowatt PV system to power the tribe's community water pump and water treatment facility.118 New Mexico tribes also have biomass resources; the state is in the top 10 for the largest concentrations of tribal forests.119

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, The Geography of New Mexico, updated February 25, 2016.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), New Mexico Profile Data, Reserves and Supply, accessed December 20, 2017.
3 NETSTATE, New Mexico Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
4 New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, Renewable Energy Overview, accessed December 20, 2017.
5 Wolfe, Jack A., An Analysis of Present-day Terrestrial Lapse Rates in the Western Conterminous United States and Their Significance to Paleoaltitudinal Estimates, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1964 (1992), p. 5.
6 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of New Mexico, accessed December 20, 2017.
7 U.S. Census Bureau, Geography, State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates, accessed December 20, 2017.
8 U.S. Census Bureau, Resident Population Data (Text Version), Population Density, 2010 Census.
9 U.S. Census Bureau, State and County Quick Facts, New Mexico and Albuquerque (city), New Mexico, accessed December 20, 2017.
10 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: New Mexico Profile.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2015, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2015.
12 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Profile Data, Supply & Distribution, accessed December 20, 2017.
13 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Public Land Statistics, 2016 (May 2017), Table 1-3, Mineral and Surface Acres Administered by the Bureau of Land Management, Fiscal Year 2016, p. 15.
14 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Oil and Gas Statistics, Table 6, Acreage of Producing Leases, FY 2016, accessed December 22, 2017.
15 New Mexico Economic Development Department, Employment and Wages, accessed December 20, 2017.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product by State, Current Dollars, All Industries, New Mexico, 2014.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by
State, 2015.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
21 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2015, Table 6, Crude Oil and Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, 2015.
22 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2016, accessed December 20, 2017.
23 U.S. EIA, "Permian Basin oil production and resource assessments continue to increase," Today in Energy (April 26, 2017).
24 New Mexico Oil Conservation Division, OCD Well Statistics, Number of Wells, Well Type, updated November 2, 2017.
25 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 1, Top 100 U.S. oil fields as of December 31, 2013, p. 6.
26 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual and Monthly, Thousand Barrels per Day, accessed December 20, 2017.
27 NGI's Shale Daily, Information on the Permian Basin, accessed December 20, 2017.
28 NGI's Shale Daily, Information on the San Juan Basin, accessed December 20, 2017.
29 U.S. EIA, "Rail helps make Midwest a net shipper of crude oil," Today in Energy (August 10, 2015).
30 Rangeland Energy, The RIO System, accessed December 20, 2017.
31 Grubs, M., "State Says Volatile Crude Oil Shipments Bypass New Mexico," KRQE News 13 (July 30, 2015).
32 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2017), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2017, p. 14.
33 Andeavor, Gallup Refinery, accessed December 20, 2017.
34 HollyFrontier, Navajo Refinery, accessed December 20, 2017.
35 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, State Winter Oxygenated Fuel Program Requirements for Attainment or Maintenance of CO NAAQS, EPA420-B-08-006 (January 2008), p. 3.
36 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements (June 2015).
37 "Natural Chem Acquires Abenogoa Plant in Portales, New Mexico," Ethanol Producer Magazine (November 15, 2016).
38 Natural Chem, Southwest Eco-Fuels New Mexico, accessed December 20, 2017.
39 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
40 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New Mexico, Table B25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
41 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2015, Table 10, Total natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2015.
42 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2011-2016.
43 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2, Top 100 U.S. gas fields as of December 31, 2013.
44 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas Wells, Annual, 2011-2016.
45 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, 2000-2016
46 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, New Mexico, 2011-2016.-
47 New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, New Mexico Energy Policy and Implementation Plan - Energy Background, Energy Infrastructure, Pipelines, Refineries, Hubs, and Nuclear Infrastructure, accessed December 20, 2017.
48 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2011-2016.
49 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, 2011-2016.
50 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, New Mexico, 2011-2016.
51 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, New Mexico, 2011-2016.
52 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New Mexico, Table B25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
53 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C11, Energy Consumption by Source, Ranked by State, 2015.
54 U.S. Census Bureau, Geography, State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates, accessed December 20, 2017.
55 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2016.
56 New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Importance of Coal Production in New Mexico, accessed December 21, 2017.
57 New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, Seizing our Energy Potential: Creating a More Diverse Economy in New Mexico, New Mexico Energy Policy & Implementation Plan (2015), p. 10.
58 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 2, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2016.
59 New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, New Mexico Mines and Minerals Division, Active Mines in New Mexico, November 2014.
60 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 2, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2016.
61 APS, Generation, Coal-fueled power plants, accessed December 21, 2017.
62 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), New Mexico Table OS-17, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2015.
63 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
64 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Profile Data, Supply and Distribution, accessed December 20, 2017.
65 New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, New Mexico Energy Policy and Implementation Plan - Energy Background, New Mexico's Energy, accessed December 20, 2017.
66 New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, Seizing our Energy Potential: Creating a More Diverse Economy in New Mexico, New Mexico Energy Policy & Implementation Plan (2015), p. 21.
67 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2015.
68 PNM Resources Inc., "PNM Completes Shut Down of Units 2 and 3 at San Juan Generating Station," Press Release (December 20, 2017.
69 Randazzo, Ryan, "APS Closes 3 Units at 4 Corners Power Plant," azcentral.com (December 30, 2013).
70 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory, Inventory of Planned Generators as of September 2017.
71 New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, Seizing our Energy Potential: Creating a More Diverse Economy in New Mexico, New Mexico Energy Policy & Implementation Plan (2015), p. 28.
72 Tres Amigas LLC, Location, accessed December 21, 2017.
73 Energy and Infrastructure, Lucky Corridor, LLC, accessed December 21, 2017.
74 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2015.
75 U.S. Census Bureau, State and County Quick Facts, New Mexico and Albuquerque (city), New Mexico, accessed December 27, 2017.
76 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Electricity Profile 2015, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2015.
77 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F21, Electricity Consumption Estimates 2015.
78 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New Mexico, Table B25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
79 New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, New Mexico Energy Policy and Implementation Plan - Energy Background, New Mexico's Energy, accessed December 21, 2017.
80 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.10.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.16.B, 1.17.B.
81 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, New Mexico Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, New Mexico Annual Average Wind Speed at 80 m (September 24, 2010).
82 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
83 American Wind Energy Association, New Mexico Wind Energy, accessed December 22, 2017.
84 Western Regional Climate Center, Climate of New Mexico, Sunshine, accessed December 22, 2017.
85 U.S. Department of Energy, Solar Energy Potential, accessed December 22, 2017.
86 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.17.B, 1.18.B.
87 Solar Energy Industries Association, New Mexico Solar, accessed December 22, 2017.
88 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Programs, New Mexico, Solar, accessed December 22, 2017.
89 Solar Energy Industries Association, New Mexico Solar, accessed December 22, 2017.
90 New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, New Mexico Energy Policy and Implementation Plan - Energy Background, New Mexico's Energy, accessed December 22, 2017.
91 U.S. Department of Energy, New Mexico Geothermal Resources, INEEL/MISC-2002-395 Rev. 1 (November 2003).
92 Witcher, James C., "Geothermal Energy in New Mexico," GHC Bulletin (December 2002), p. 2.
93 New Mexico Energy Conservation and Management Division, New Mexico's Geothermal Energy Resource, 2009.
94 D'Ammassa, Algernon, "Geothermal Plant Expanding in Animas," The Deming Headlight (September 26, 2017).
95 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2015.
96 Toole, G., New Mexico Renewable Development Study, Los Alamos National Laboratory LA-UR-10-6319 (October 18, 2010), p. 1.
97 New Mexico Renewable Energy Transmission Authority, About Us, accessed December 22, 2017.
98 U.S. Department of Energy, New Mexico Renewable Energy Transmission Authority, accessed December 22, 2017.
99 New Mexico Renewable Energy Transmission Authority, RETA Sponsored Projects, December 22, 2017.
100 Lucky Corridor, New Mexico Transmission Projects, accessed December 22, 2017.
101 Clean Line Energy Partners, Western Spirit Clean Line, Project Description, accessed December 22, 2017.
102 Clean Line Energy Partners, Centennial West Clean Line, Project Description, accessed December 22, 2017.
103 SunZia, Welcome to the SunZia Southwest Transmission Project, accessed December 22, 2017.
104 Southline Transmission Project, What is the Southline Transmission Project?, accessed December 22, 2017.
105 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Renewable Portfolio Standard, New Mexico, updated November 2, 2016.
106 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Programs, New Mexico, accessed December 22, 2017.
107 U.S. Forest Service, Forest Service National Resource Guide to American Indian and Alaska Native Relations, Appendix D: Indian Nations, The American Indian Digest (April 1997), p. D-3.
108 Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico, Native Nation Lands, New Mexico (June 1, 2011).
109 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Atlas of Oil and Gas Plays on American Indian Lands, Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico, Reservation Overview, Introduction, p. 1, accessed December 22, 2017.
110 Navajo Nation Oil and Gas Company, About NNOGC, accessed December 22, 2017.
111 Navajo Transitional Energy Company, accessed December 22, 2017.
112 U.S. EIA, New Mexico Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2015.
113 New Mexico Tribal Economic Development Task Force, 2009 Report and Recommendations (December 18, 2009), p. 20.
114 U.S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geothermal Resource Potential, accessed December 22, 2017.
115 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, New Mexico Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, accessed December 22, 2017.
116 Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico, Native Nation Lands, New Mexico (June 1, 2011).
117 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Dynamic Maps, GIS Data, and Analysis Tools, Solar Maps, accessed December 22, 2017.
118 U.S. Department of Energy, "Energy Department Selects 11 Tribal Communities to Deploy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies," Press Release (March 18, 2015).
119 Chaney, Rob, "CSKT Foresters Earn Accolades as Tribal Timber Operations Face Budget Shortfalls," Missoulian (June 29, 2013).