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Georgia   Georgia Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: September 20, 2018

Overview

Major interstate highways and the world’s busiest airport lead to high energy consumption by Georgia’s transportation sector.

Georgia is located at the southern end of the Blue Ridge Mountains and has the largest land area of any state east of the Mississippi River.1 Despite its location near Appalachian coalfields and oil and natural gas basins, Georgia does not have any significant fossil fuel resources.2,3,4 However, the state does have renewable energy potential. With two-thirds of the state forested, there is abundant biomass available, and Georgia has several wood-fueled power plants and wood pellet manufacturers.5,6,7,8 The state's elevations decrease from almost 5,000 feet in the mountains to sea level along Georgia's Atlantic Coast. Between the mountains and the sea are the rolling hills of the Piedmont region and Georgia's broad coastal plains.9 Onshore wind resources offer minimal wind energy potential across much of the state, but the Blue Ridge Mountains in the northwest corner of Georgia have moderate wind energy potential.10 Although the state has only about 100 miles of Atlantic Ocean shoreline, its offshore waters have large areas with moderate wind resources in shallow depths close to both land and transmission grid access.11,12 Most of the state's natural lakes are in southern Georgia. The state's larger, man-made lakes and reservoirs are concentrated in the river valleys of the north.13,14 Many of the larger reservoirs provide hydroelectric power, and there is some additional hydroelectric potential in the state.15,16 However, less than half of the primary energy produced in Georgia comes from renewable resources; the rest comes from nuclear power.17

Georgia is among the top 10 states in the nation in total energy consumption, but per capita energy consumption in the state is below the national average.18,19 Major interstate highways and the world's busiest airport in Atlanta, lead to Georgia's high transportation sector energy consumption, and the transportation sector is the state's largest energy-consuming end-use sector.20 The industrial sector is the second-largest energy-consuming sector.21 Georgia has several energy-intensive industries, including the healthcare industry and the manufacture of food, beverages, and tobacco products; chemicals; transportation equipment; paper products; textiles; machinery; fabricated metal products; and plastics.22 With the state's warm and humid climate, air conditioning is widely used, and the residential sector's per capita energy consumption is above the national average.23,24,25,26

Petroleum

Georgia does not have any crude oil production or proved petroleum reserves.27,28 More than 160 exploration wells were drilled during the 20th century, none of which were successful.29 No crude oil pipelines cross the state, but two interstate petroleum product pipelines and an interstate hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL) pipeline serve Georgia.30,31,32,33,34 The Port of Savannah also receives petroleum product imports from around the world.35 Georgia has no petroleum refineries. The state's last crude oil refinery, which produced asphalt, was idled in 2012 and closed permanently at the end of 2014.36,37

Petroleum accounts for the largest share of energy consumed in Georgia, and the state is among the top 10 petroleum-consuming states in the nation. However, per capita consumption is well below the national average.38,39 The transportation sector accounts for nine-tenths of the state's petroleum consumption, most of it as motor gasoline. Much of the rest is consumed as distillate fuel oil or jet fuel, which are also used by the transportation sector.40,41 To minimize formation of ozone, motor gasoline sold during the summer months in 13 counties in northwestern Georgia, including the metropolitan Atlanta area, must have a lower volatility than motor gasoline sold in the rest of the state.42 The industrial sector, the second-largest petroleum consumer in Georgia, uses only about one-tenth as much petroleum as the transportation sector. Only a small amount of petroleum is used by the residential sector, where fewer than 5% of households heat with petroleum products, primarily propane.43,44

Natural gas

Georgia’s Elba Island LNG import terminal is adding LNG export capability.

Georgia does not have any natural gas reserves or production.45,46 However, there has been some recent interest in exploring for natural gas in shale formations in northern Georgia.47,48 The state receives its natural gas supply from other states by pipeline and from other countries through the Elba Island liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal.49,50 LNG imports have arrived from a variety of countries this decade, including Trinidad and Tobago, Qatar, and Egypt. Import volumes have decreased since 2012, and LNG has come primarily from Trinidad and Tobago since 2014.51 Elba Island liquefaction and terminal facilities that will enable the export of LNG are under construction and are scheduled to be in service by the end of 2018.52,53

About half of the natural gas received in Georgia is consumed in the state. The rest of the natural gas entering Georgia moves on to other states, primarily through South Carolina.54 Since 2009, the electric power sector has consistently used the largest share of natural gas consumed in Georgia. Deliveries to that sector have almost tripled since 2009, while consumption in the industrial, commercial, and residential sectors has remained relatively stable.55,56,57 Two of five Georgia households use natural gas for home heating.58 Because the state's climate is warm and humid during most of the year, per capita natural gas use by Georgia's residential sector is below the national average.59,60,61 A small amount of natural gas is used by the transportation sector as vehicle fuel.62

Coal

Georgia has no active coal mines and only minor estimated recoverable coal reserves. However, the state has a coal mining history. Coal was mined on a small scale in Georgia as early as the 1830s, but production ended in the mid-1980s.63,64 Almost 20 million tons of coal are consumed in Georgia annually, and almost all of it is used for electricity generation.65 Coal used in the state arrives by rail, primarily from Wyoming, Illinois, and Pennsylvania.66 Georgia's Savannah Customs District handles some coal exports. No coal imports have arrived at the Savannah ports since 2015.67,68,69

Electricity

Natural gas, nuclear power, and coal fuel almost all of Georgia's electricity generation. A small amount of the state's net generation is provided from renewable resources.70 Coal-fired power plants historically fueled more than three-fifths of net electricity generation in Georgia. The share of the state's net electricity generation fueled by natural gas has risen in the past decade as natural gas prices declined and coal-fired power plants were retired. In 2012, for the first time, natural gas-fired power plants were the largest source of electricity generation in Georgia. Natural gas fueled the largest share of state electricity generation for four of the five years between 2012 and 2017. Coal-fired power plants fueled the largest share in 2014.71,72 In 2017, natural gas supplied more than two-fifths of Georgia's net electricity generation, and coal supplied one-fourth.73

Two new nuclear reactors under construction in Georgia were the first to be approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 30 years.

Georgia's two nuclear power plants, both located in the eastern part of the state, typically provide about one-fourth of the state's net electricity generation.74,75,76 Two new reactors are under construction at the existing Vogtle nuclear plant in Waynesboro, Georgia. Those reactors are the first new reactors approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 30 years and will almost double that plant's generating capacity.77,78,79 The state's remaining net electricity generation is provided primarily by biomass and hydroelectric power. A small but increasing amount of electricity is provided by solar photovoltaic (PV) generation.80

Although Georgia is among the top 10 electricity-producing states, it typically imports 10% to 15% of the electricity it needs from other states.81,82 The residential sector accounts for the largest share of retail electricity sales in Georgia, and more than half of the state's households use electricity for heating.83,84 Almost all Georgia households have air conditioning.85

Renewable energy

Georgia is a leader in electricity generation from wood and wood waste.

Renewable resources fuel almost one-tenth of Georgia's net electricity generation; about half of that generation comes from biomass.86 In 2016, the state led the nation in the use of wood and wood-derived fuels for electricity generation, and, in 2017, Georgia was third in the nation, after California and Florida, in the amount of generation from all biomass resources.87,88 More than 24 million acres of Georgia's almost 25 million acres of forest are available for commercial use, and there are more than 150 wood processing plants in the state, including 8 wood pellet plants.89 Georgia has the nation's largest wood pellet plant and is a leading wood pellet exporter.90,91 Most of the wood pellets are sent to Europe where they are used for electricity generation.92

The rest of Georgia's net generation from renewable resources is provided by hydroelectricity or solar photovoltaics (PV). The state is one of the 10 largest hydroelectric power producers east of the Rocky Mountains, and is the 15th largest hydropower producer in the nation.93 Georgia has 14 river basins and thousands of dams, some of which provide hydroelectric power.94,95 The Chattahoochee River has 13 hydroelectric generating plants along its 443-mile length.96 In total, there are 30 conventional hydroelectric power plants in Georgia and 4 hydroelectric pumped storage facilities.97 During periods of low demand for electricity, pumped storage facilities use relatively inexpensive power from the electric power grid to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. In periods of high demand, the water is released, and electricity is generated as the water flows through turbines that are located between the reservoirs. Although the plants use more power than they generate, they can supply power in periods of peak demand, thereby assuring supply and lowering electricity costs.98

Georgia has both utility-scale solar PV facilities—those with greater than 1-megawatt capacity—and distributed (small-scale, customer-sited) solar PV facilities. In 2017, total utility-scale and distributed solar PV capacity rose to 1,553 megawatts.99 Three of the largest solar facilities in the state have capacities greater than 100 megawatts.100 Net electricity generation from solar PV more than doubled from 2016 to the end of 2017, and solar generation at utility-scale facilities was more than nine times the amount at small-scale distributed ones.101

Georgia has very little onshore wind energy potential, but the state does have some offshore wind resources along its Atlantic coast.102,103 Currently there is no utility-scale wind-powered electricity generation in Georgia, but several manufacturers located in the state make products for the wind industry.104,105

Georgia also has three biodiesel plants with a combined producing capacity of about 20 million gallons of biodiesel per year and one ethanol plant that can produce 120 million gallons of ethanol each year.106,107 However, ethanol production in the state is much less than ethanol consumption because of the large amount of fuel ethanol that is blended with motor gasoline for use in Georgia's transportation sector.108,109

Georgia does not have a renewable energy portfolio standard or a voluntary renewable energy target.110,111 The state does have energy standards for public buildings, interconnection guidelines, and solar easement regulations.112 Georgia allows, but does not require, utilities to offer net metering.113

Endnotes

1 U.S. Census Bureau, Geography, State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates, accessed August 2, 2018.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, Wet Natural Gas, Annual, 2011-16.
3 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2011-16.
4 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2016.
5 Georgia Forestry Commission, Georgia Forest Facts, accessed August 8, 2018.
6 Georgia Department of Economic Development, Georgia Energy Industry Overview (February 22, 2011), p. 2.
7 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
8 "U.S. Pellet Plants, operational," Biomass Magazine, updated July 19, 2018.
9 NETSTATE, Georgia, The Geography of Georgia, updated February 25, 2016.
10 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Georgia, accessed August 8, 2018.
11 U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2011, Table 360, Coastline and Shoreline of the United States by State, accessed August 8, 2018.
12 Georgia Department of Economic Development, Georgia Energy Industry Overview (February 22, 2011), p. 8.
13 Parker, Amanda K., New Georgia Encyclopedia, Geography & Environment, Conservation & Management, Reservoirs, updated June 8, 2017.
14 Geology.com, Georgia Lakes, Rivers and Water Resources, accessed August 9, 2018.
15 Georgia Power, On Georgia Power Lakes, accessed August 9, 2018.
16 Kao, Shih-Chieh, et al., New Stream-reach Development: A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (April 2014), Executive Summary, p. xxiii.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2016, Table P2, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2016.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016) (June 2018), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016) (June 2018), Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
20 Airports Council International, "ACI World releases preliminary 2017 world airport traffic rankings Passenger traffic: Indian and Chinese airports major contributors to growth Air cargo: Volumes surge at major hubs as trade wars threaten," Press Release (April 9, 2018).
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016) (June 2018), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
22 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, Interactive Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, All Industries, Georgia, 2016.
23 Knox, Pam, "Georgia's Climate Is Peachy!" CoCoRaHS, State Climate Series, accessed August 9, 2018.
24 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2009 RECS Survey Data, Housing Characteristics, Air Conditioning Table HC7.10, and 2015 RECS Survey Data, Housing Characteristics, Air Conditioning Table HC7.8.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016) (June 2018), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
26 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Table 1, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017.
27 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2012-17.
28 U.S. EIA, Proved Nonproducing Reserves, Crude Oil, Annual, 2011-16.
29 Swanson, David E., and Andrea Gernazian, Petroleum Exploration Wells in Georgia, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Geologic Survey Information Circular 51 (1979), p. 1.
30 Energy Infrastructure, State of Pipelines, accessed August 16, 2018.
31 U.S. EIA, "Pipelines, tankers, and barges convey transportation fuels from Gulf Coast to East Coast," Today in Energy (February 22, 2016).
32 Colonia Pipeline Company, System Map, accessed September 11, 2018.
33 Kinder Morgan, KMP Products Pipelines and Facilities, Plantation Pipeline, accessed September 11, 2018.
34 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Mapping System, HGL Pipeline Layer, accessed September 11, 2018.
35 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, accessed August 16, 2018.
36 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Georgia, Annual (as of January 1), 2013-18.
37 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2018, Table 13, Refineries Permanently Shutdown By PAD District Between January 1, 1990 and January 1, 2018.
38 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016) (June 2018), Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2016.
39 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Table 1, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017.
40 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2016.
41 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016) (June 2018), Tables C4, C8.
42 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, updated January 25, 2018.
43 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2016.
44 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Advanced Search, Georgia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
45 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Annual, 2012-17.
46 U.S. EIA, Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Annual, 2011-16.
47 "Natural gas drillers flock to Georgia shale fields," Processing (March 13, 2013).
48 Chapman, Dan, "North Georgia becomes a hunting ground for natural gas," Politically Georgia, myAJC (October 7, 2015).
49 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Georgia, Annual, 2011-16.
50 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Import/Export Terminals, Existing, updated July 2, 2018.
51 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Imports by Point of Entry, Liquefied Natural Gas Volumes, Annual, 2012-17.
52 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Import/Export Terminals, Approved, updated July 2, 2018.
53 "US Elba Island LNG export project pushed back," LNG World News (July 19, 2018).
54 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Georgia, Annual, 2011-16.
55 U.S. EIA, Georgia Natural Gas Industrial Consumption, 1997-2017.
56 U.S. EIA, Georgia Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2017.
57 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Georgia, Annual, 2012-17.
58 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Advanced Search, Georgia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
59 Knox, Pam, "Georgia's Climate is Peachy!," CoCoRaHS State Climates Series, accessed August 16, 2018.
60 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Residential, Annual, 2011-16.
61 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Table 1, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017.
62 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Georgia, Annual, 2012-17.
63 U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Appalachian Region, Georgia, updated March 17, 2017.
64 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2016.
65 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2016 and 2015.
66 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), By Coal Destination State, Georgia, Table DS-10, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2016.
67 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2017 (April 2018), Table 13, Coal Exports by Customs District.
68 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2016 (April 2017), Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.
69 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, January-March 2018 (July 2018), Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.
70 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B, 1.9.B.
71 U.S. EIA, Georgia Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
72 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Retired & Canceled Units Only).
73 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B.
74 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Georgia, updated October 5, 2016.
75 U.S. EIA, Georgia Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
76 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B.
77 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Combined License Holders for New Reactors, updated July 24, 2018.
78 Georgia Power, "Significant progress made on Vogtle 3 & 4 construction," Press Release (August 8, 2018).
79 U.S. EIA, "Nuclear Regulatory Commission Approves Construction of First Nuclear Units in 30 Years," Today in Energy (March 5, 2012).
80 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
81 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.3.B.
82 U.S. EIA, Georgia Electricity Profile 2016, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2016.
83 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 5.4.B.
84 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Advanced Search, Georgia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
85 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), Table HC7.8, Air conditioning in homes in the South and West regions, 2015.
86 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
87 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Generation and thermal output, Detailed preliminary EIA-923 monthly and annual survey data (back to 1990), State-level generation and fuel consumption data, Annual (back to 1990).
88 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.15.B.
89 "U.S. Pellet Plants, Operational," Biomass Magazine, updated July 19, 2018.
90 Georgia Biomass LLC, The Plant, accessed August 18, 2018.
91 Georgia Department of Economic Development, Industries in Georgia, Energy Solutions and Environment Business, accessed August 14, 2018.
92 Georgia Forestry Commission, Georgia Forest Facts, accessed August 13, 2018.
93 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
94 Meyer, Judith L., and Gretchen Loeffler, "River Basins," New Georgia Encyclopedia, Geography & Environment, updated June 8, 2017.
95 Parker, Amanda K., "Reservoirs," New Georgia Encyclopedia, Geography & Environment, updated June 8, 2017.
96 Georgia River Network, Chattahoochee River, accessed August 13, 2018.
97 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
98 U.S. EIA, "Pumped storage provides grid reliability even with net generation loss," Today in Energy (July 8, 2013).
99 Solar Energy Industries Association, Georgia Solar, accessed August 15, 2018.
100 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
101 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.17.B.
102 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Georgia, accessed August 15, 2018.
103 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Georgia, accessed August 15, 2018.
104 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.14.B.
105 American Wind Energy Association, Georgia Wind Energy, accessed August 15, 2018.
106 U.S. Ethanol Plants, Operational, Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated August 13, 2018.
107 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report With data for May 2018 (June 2018), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, May 2018.
108 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F4, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2016.
109 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2016, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2016.
110 U.S. EIA, Renewable Energy Explained, Portfolio Standards, accessed August 15, 2018.
111 Ballotpedia, Energy policy in Georgia, accessed August 15, 2018.
112 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Georgia, Regulatory Policy, accessed August 15, 2018.
113 National Conference of State Legislatures, State Net Metering Policies (November 20, 2017).