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New York   New York Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)



Last Updated: August 16, 2018

Overview

Almost three-tenths of New York state’s residents commute by public transit, more than five times the national average.

New York, the largest of the northeastern states, is the fourth most populous state in the nation and has the third-largest economy.1,2,3 Dependent on supplies from out of state for more than three-fourths of its energy, New York has developed one of the most energy-efficient state economies in the nation, and the state consumes less total energy per capita than all other states except Rhode Island.4,5 The state's energy efficiency results in part from the New York City metropolitan region's widely used mass transportation systems. Two-fifths of New York City's workers use public transit. Overall, almost three-tenths of state residents use public transit, which is more than five times the U.S. average.6

Although New York produces only small amounts of natural gas and oil, the state has many renewable resources.7 New York is a leading producer of hydroelectric power. In addition to the Niagara Falls, the state includes parts of 2 Great Lakes to the north and west, 9 major rivers, and 8,000 lakes, many of which were carved out by the glaciers during the Ice Ages more than 10,000 years ago.8,9 The densely populated metropolitan areas downstate include the nation's largest city, New York, but much of the state is rolling agricultural land and rugged mountains with plentiful wind, solar, and biomass resources.10,11 The state climate ranges from humid continental upstate, where Arctic winds and lake-effect snows sweep in from Canada across the Great Lakes in winter, to the temperate, ocean-moderated southeast along the Atlantic Ocean shores of Long Island downstate.12 The Great Lakes and Atlantic Ocean shorelines have some of the state's best wind resources.13

The transportation sector leads energy demand in New York, followed by the commercial sector and the residential sector.14 Most of New York's key industries—finance and real estate; professional and business services; and government—are not energy-intensive industries, and the industrial sector consumes just one-tenth of the energy used in the state, a smaller share than in all other states except Maryland.15,16,17

Electricity

New York depends on natural gas, nuclear, and hydroelectric generators for most of its electricity generation.

Natural gas, nuclear power, and hydroelectricity typically provide more than nine-tenths of New York State's net electricity generation; other renewable resources provide most of the rest.18 In 2017, almost two-fifths of the state's net electricity generation came from natural gas, about one-third from nuclear power, and almost one-fourth from hydropower.19 More than half of New York's generating capacity is at natural gas-fired power plants, and more than one-third of state capacity is at units with dual-fuel capability that can use either natural gas or fuel oil.20 To increase reliability, especially during the winter months when natural gas pipelines are highly congested, New York regulators require the electricity generating units with dual-fuel capability to be ready to switch to fuel oil in the event of a natural gas supply disruption.21

New York's statewide grid is managed by a single independent system operator called the NYISO. The NYISO manages state wholesale electricity markets and transmission. Electricity usually flows east and south because two-thirds of the state's power demand is in the New York City and Long Island region, but only about half of net electricity generation originates there.22,23 New York has long imported some electricity from neighboring states and Canada, with amounts peaking at almost 20 million megawatthours in 2004. Maintaining the capability to exchange electricity with neighboring grids remains vital to power reliability and system efficiency.24

The commercial sector leads consumption of electricity in New York, using more than half of all retail electricity sold in the state. The residential sector accounts for more than one-third of retail electricity sales, and the industrial and transportation sectors use the rest.25 About one in nine New York households use electricity for heating, and, in terms of electricity consumption per capita, New York ranks among the lowest in the nation.26,27,28

Renewable energy

New York's 2.4-gigawatt Robert Moses Niagara power plant is the third-largest conventional hydroelectric power plant in the United States.

New York obtains almost three-tenths of its net electricity generation from renewable sources, including hydroelectric, wind, biomass, and solar photovoltaic (PV) generation. Most of that renewable generation comes from hydroelectricity, but increasing amounts come from wind, biomass, and solar sources.29 The state is home to the 2.4-gigawatt Robert Moses Niagara hydroelectric power plant at Lewiston, New York, near Niagara Falls. It was the largest hydroelectric power plant in the Western hemisphere when it began operating in 1961. The Robert Moses Niagara plant is now the third-largest conventional hydroelectric power plant in the United States and, when hydroelectric pumped storage facilities are included, it is the nation's fourth-largest hydropower facility.30,31,32 New York produces more hydroelectric power than any other state east of the Rocky Mountains, and in 2017, hydroelectricity provided almost one-fourth of in-state power generation.33

More than three-fifths of New York's nonhydroelectric utility-scale renewable generation was provided by wind in 2017.34 Wind first contributed to the state's utility-scale electricity generation in 2000.35 Currently, more than two dozen wind farms operate around the state, and more are in development.36 In early 2018, New York committed funding for three new wind farms.37 New York has an estimated potential for nearly 140,000 megawatts of onshore wind energy, primarily to the east of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, along the Long Island shoreline, and on peaks of the Adirondack Mountains and the Catskill Mountains. However, the state's highest peaks are in state parks.38,39 Some areas off the Long Island coast are also considered suitable for large-scale offshore wind farms, and one is under development.40,41

Biomass fuels more than one-third of New York's nonhydroelectric renewable generation and the state is among the top one-fourth of states in the amount of electricity generated from biomass.42 Municipal solid waste facilities account for the largest share of the state's biomass electricity generation capacity, followed by New York's four utility-scale wood- and wood waste-fueled generating facilities.43 Wood contributes more than one-fourth of state biomass-fueled generation.44 New York has many smaller landfill gas electricity generating facilities at locations across the state.45

In 2014, as part of the state's NY-Sun initiative, New York set as a target the installation of 3,000 megawatts of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems by 2023, including community, school, and lower-income housing solar projects. By the end of 2017, 972 megawatts of solar PV capacity were installed in New York under NY-Sun, and 1,119 megawatts more were in development.46 New York also encourages distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) solar installations, such as rooftop solar, through net metering and a variety of financial support programs. The state had nearly 1,400 megawatts of installed solar capacity by the end of 2017, ranking it 12th in the nation. By early 2018, the state's rank had risen to 11th.47 In 2017, solar PV systems provided more than 1% of New York's net electricity generation, most of which was distributed generation.48 The 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm is currently the largest solar PV generator in the state, but most solar installations in New York are small.49 Five-sixths of the state's 2017 solar generation came from distributed installations of less than 1-megawatt each, and New York was fifth nationally in the amount of generation from distributed solar facilities.50 In 2018, New York committed $1.4 billion to the development of 26 renewable projects chosen by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Twenty-two of those projects are solar farms that range in size from 1.53 to 100 megawatts.51

New York recognizes some nuclear electricity generation as emissions-free under its Clean Energy Standard.

New York adopted its first renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2004. The 2004 RPS was modified in 2010, and the state set a renewable energy target of 29% of electricity sales by 2015.52 New York reached the target, and, when its RPS expired in 2016, it was superseded by the state's Clean Energy Standard (CES), which requires utilities and other retail electricity suppliers to acquire 50% of the electricity sold in the state from clean energy resources by 2030. In addition to renewable resources, the CES identifies existing nuclear power plants in the state as zero emission resources that will contribute to New York's additional goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40% from 1990 levels by 2030.53 State emissions from electricity generation have declined since 2000 because of increased use of renewable resources and natural gas, retirements of petroleum- and coal-fired power plants, and compliance with the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, a program to reduce power plant emissions in nine northeastern states.54,55,56 In 2015, New York's per capita carbon dioxide emissions were lower than any other state in the nation.57,58 The CES is part of a larger program called Reforming the Energy Vision (REV) that offers electric utilities increased financial incentives for renewable and distributed energy resources as well as consumer incentives for efficiency and distributed generation. In addition to New York's CES goals for 2030, the REV also has a goal to reduce energy consumption in buildings by 23% from 2012 levels by 2030.59

Petroleum

New York is one of the nation’s largest petroleum consumers, but the state consumes less petroleum per capita than any other state.

New York is one of the nation's five largest consumers of petroleum, but the state consumes less petroleum per capita than any other state.60,61 New York has few proved crude oil reserves and produces only small amounts of crude oil from wells in the southwestern part of the state.62,63,64 In the 19th century, New York was an important center for crude oil production and processing with more than 50 oil refineries, including one of the world's largest. By the end of the 20th century, all the refineries in the state were closed, and now the small amount of crude oil produced in New York is shipped to out-of-state refineries.65

Petroleum products consumed in New York are supplied by refineries in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, by pipelines from the Gulf Coast and the Midwest, and by imports, mostly from Canada. New York Harbor, which includes terminals on both the New York and New Jersey shorelines, is the largest petroleum products hub in the Northeast, with bulk storage capacity exceeding 75 million barrels. Petroleum products delivered to the harbor are redistributed by truck or by barge to smaller ports on Long Island and upstate along the Hudson River, as well as to western New England. Western New York receives refined products from Pennsylvania through pipelines and from Canada through the Port of Buffalo.66,67

About four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in New York is used in the transportation sector, and much of the rest is used for heating.68,69 About one-fourth of New York households are heated with petroleum products, primarily fuel oil.70 In 2000, the federal government created the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to avert shortages of home heating oil in the Northeast. In 2011, the federal government converted the reserve to ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), in part because of New York's decision to require consumers heating with petroleum to use ULSD starting in 2012.71 New York's decision led to a substantial increase in demand for ULSD, and almost all the other northeastern states phased in ULSD as of July 2018.72

To reduce ozone formation, reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol is required year-round in New York City and the surrounding metropolitan area. The rest of the state is required to use a low volatility blend in the summer.73 New York Harbor is the primary Northeast distribution hub for ethanol supplies. Although some ethanol is produced in New York, ethanol produced in the Midwest and marine imports from overseas arrive through New York Harbor for distribution throughout the Northeast. A large storage facility at Albany, New York, also receives ethanol for distribution throughout the Northeast.74,75

Natural gas

Natural gas has been produced in western New York for almost 200 years, but annual production has never exceeded the 2006 peak of nearly 56 billion cubic feet.76,77 The state holds less than 0.05% of the nation's total natural gas reserves.78 Most of the natural gas consumed in the state is supplied by pipelines from other states and Canada. An increasing share of New York's natural gas comes from Pennsylvania.79 The Marcellus Shale, named for a town in central New York where the shale is visible at the surface, is a natural gas-bearing formation extending under parts of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland. It is currently the most prolific natural gas area in the United States.80 Because of environmental concerns, New York has banned hydraulic fracturing, a technique used to produce natural gas from shales.81 There has been no recent development of the Marcellus Shale natural gas resources in New York, and the total amount of retrievable natural gas under the state is unclear.82,83

New York was the sixth-largest natural gas consumer among the states in 2016.

New York was the sixth-largest natural gas consumer among the states in 2016.84 The residential sector, the electric power sector, and the commercial sector consume almost all the natural gas used in New York. The industrial sector consumes less than 7% of the natural gas used in the state.85 Natural gas fuels two-fifths of the state's net electricity generation, and nearly three-fifths of state households heat with natural gas.86,87 New York has 26 natural gas underground storage facilities.88 Along with storage in other nearby states, those facilities are key to meeting northeastern winter heating demand.89 Virtually all major interstate pipelines from the Gulf Coast and Canada reach New York, both to supply in-state customers and to ship supplies onward to New England.90 Several pipeline companies are expanding their systems to increase natural gas deliveries to customers in New York.91

Coal

New York has no coal reserves or coal mining.92 About three-fifths of the domestically-mined coal consumed in New York is used by industrial plants and coking facilities. Since 2000, coal has been providing progressively less of New York's net electricity generation.93 The coal that is used to fuel the small amount of in-state power generation, less than 1% in 2017, is transported to New York electricity generating plants from nearby states.94,95 U.S. coal exports that travel through New York primarily leave the state through the Port of Buffalo, although some coal also leaves the state through the ports at New York City and at Ogdensburg in northern New York. Small amounts of imported coal also enter the state at those three ports.96

Endnotes

1 U.S. Geological Survey, The USGS Water Science School, How much of your state is wet?, updated March 29, 2018.
2 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-01).
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016), June 2018, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2016.
4 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2016, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2016.
5 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016), Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
6 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, B08124 Means of Transportation to Work by Occupation, Workers 16 years and over, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Geographies: United States, New York State, and New York City Metro Area.
7 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2016, Table PT2, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, New York, 1960-2016.
8 Campbell, Alan K., and Paul Joseph Scudiere, "New York," Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed July 19, 2018.
9 Geography of New York State, Physical Geography of New York, accessed July 31, 2018.
10 World Population Review, US City Populations 2018, accessed July 19, 2018.
11 Campbell, Alan K., and Paul Joseph Scudiere, "New York," Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed July 19, 2018.
12 "Climate of New York facts," Kiddle Encyclopedia, accessed July 19, 2018.
13 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in New York, accessed July 15, 2018.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016), June 2018, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
15 NETSTATE, New York Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, NAICS, All Industries, New York, 2017.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016) (June 2018), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2016.
18 U.S. EIA, New York Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
19 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.7.B, 1.9.B, 1.10.B.
20 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Early Release, Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
21 New York Independent System Operator, Power Trends 2017, p. 35.
22 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Electric Power Markets: New York (NYISO), accessed July 31, 2018.
23 New York Independent System Operator, Power Trends 2017, p. 11.
24 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, New York Electricity Profile 2016, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2016.
25 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 5.4.B.
26 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New York, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
27 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 5.4.B.
28 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-01).
29 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
30 "A Powerful 50 Years at Niagara," International Water Power & Dam Construction (April 15, 2011).
31 New York State, NY Power Authority, Niagara Power Project, accessed July 14, 2018.
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Early Release, Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
33 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B.
34 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
35 U.S. EIA, New York Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
36 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in New York, accessed July 15, 2018.
37 Geuss, Megan, "New York commits $1.4 billion to renewable energy projects," Ars Technica (March 12, 2018).
38 American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy in New York, accessed July 15, 2018.
39 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in New York, accessed July 15, 2018.
40 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Offshore Wind in New York State (May 2018).
41 Deepwater Wind, Southfork Wind Farm, accessed July 15, 2018.
42 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.11.B, 1.15.B.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Early Release, Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, Annual Data, 1990-2016 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923).
45 U.S. EIA, New York Profile Overview, Biomass Power Plant Map Layer, accessed July 14, 2018.
46 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, NY-Sun Annual Performance Report Through December 31, 2017, Final Report (March 2018), p. 1.
47 Solar Energy Industries Association, Solar Spotlight-New York (June 2018).
48 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.17.B.
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Early Release, Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
50 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.17.B.
51 Geuss, Megan, "New York commits $1.4 billion to renewable energy projects," Ars Technica (March 12, 2018).
52 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, New York, Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated June 26, 2018.
53 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, New York, Clean Energy Standard, updated June 26, 2018.
54 New York Independent System Operator (NYISO), Power Trends 2016, p. 2-4.
55 Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Welcome, accessed July 17, 2018.
56 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2017 Early Release, Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Retired & Canceled Units Only).
57 U.S. EIA, U.S. States, Rankings: Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2015.
58 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-01).
59 New York State, Department of Public Service, Reforming the Energy Vision, About the Initiative, updated May 9, 2018.
60 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2016.
61 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-01).
62 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2016 (February 2018), Table 7, Crude oil proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2016.
63 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2012-17.
64 New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, New York State Oil, Gas and Mineral Resources, 2015, Oil and Gas Production by Town in Each County.
65 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, New York's Natural Gas and Oil Resource Endowment: Past, Present and Potential, New York's Oil and Natural Gas History, A Long Story, But Not The Final Chapter, p. 10, accessed July 3, 2018.
66 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Energy Infrastructure Reports, New York State Transportation Fuels Infrastructure Study (September 2012) p. 87-91.
67 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Energy Infrastructure Reports, New York State Energy Assurance Plan (September 14, 2012) p. IV-6.
68 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2016.
69 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2016, DOE/EIA-0214(2016) (June 2018), Table C4, Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2016.
70 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New York, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
71 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) History, accessed July 4, 2018.
72 Brown, Elizabeth, "Feature: Six US states ready for July transition to ultra-low sulfur heating oil," Platts S&P Global (June 27, 2018).
73 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Gasoline Programs, Reformulated gasoline, Reid vapor pressure, accessed July 4, 2018.
74 Ethanol Producer Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, All Plants, updated July 1, 2018.
75 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Energy Infrastructure Reports, New York State Energy Assurance Plan (September 14, 2012), p. IV-7.
76 New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, New York's Oil and Natural Gas History, accessed July 5, 2018, p. 8, 9.
77 U.S. EIA, New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2016.
78 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2016.
79 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, New York, Annual, 2011-16.
80 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 4, 8.
81 Kaplan, Thomas, "Citing Health Risks, Cuomo Bans Fracking in New York State," New York Times (December 17, 2014).
82 U.S. EIA, Marcellus Shale Play Geology review, Updates to the Marcellus Shale Play Maps (January 2017), p. 3.
83 Berman, Arthur, and Lyndon Pittinger, Resource Assessment of Potentially Producible Natural Gas Volumes from the Marcellus Shale, State of New York, Labyrinth Consulting (April 10, 2014), p. 3-4.
84 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2012-17.
85 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, New York, Annual, 2012-17.
86 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.7.B.
87 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, New York, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2016 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
88 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, New York, Annual, 2011-16.
89 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2011-16.
90 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Pipelines in the Northeast Region, accessed July 6, 2018.
91 Northeast Gas Association, Planned Enhancements, Northeast Natural Gas Pipeline Systems (as of April 23, 2018).
92 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2016 and 2015, and Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2016 and 2015.
93 U.S. EIA, New York Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
94 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), New York, Table DS-31, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2016.
95 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
96 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2017 (April 2018), Table 13, Coal Exports by Customs District, and Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.