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Kentucky   Kentucky Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: June 18, 2020

Overview

Bordered on the north by the Ohio River, Kentucky stretches from the Appalachian Mountains in the east to the flat plain of the Mississippi River in the west.1 In between, the rolling hills of the state’s fertile Bluegrass region extend southward from the Ohio River to the Pennyroyal region, which is famous for its thousands of caverns and springs, including Mammoth Cave National Park.2,3 Major coal deposits are found both in the Central Appalachian Basin in the eastern part of the state and in the Illinois Basin in the northwest.4 Those basins also contain crude oil and natural gas reserves.5,6,7 Dams on the Tennessee, Cumberland, Ohio, and Laurel rivers provide Kentucky with hydroelectric power.8 Although two-thirds of Kentucky’s agricultural economy is livestock, primarily thoroughbred horses and beef cattle, the state’s ample rainfall, temperate climate, and fertile soils provide ideal conditions for growing several crops, including tobacco, soybeans, corn, and wheat.9,10,11 Corn and beverage waste from Kentucky distilleries provide feedstock for the state’s fuel ethanol production.12,13

Kentucky has an energy-intensive economy, and is among the top 15 states in using the most energy to produce a dollar of gross domestic product (GDP).14 The industrial sector is the state’s largest energy consumer, accounting for slightly more than one-third of total energy use.15 Kentucky’s location and low energy prices have helped attract manufacturing to the state. The industrial activities that make large contributions to Kentucky’s GDP include the manufacture of motor vehicles; food and beverages; tobacco products; and chemicals, as well as agriculture and forestry. Kentucky also has a large coal mining sector and petroleum refineries, both energy-intensive industries.16,17

Coal

In 2018, Kentucky accounted for about 5% of U.S. coal production.

Kentucky ranks fifth among the states in estimated recoverable coal reserves and fifth in coal production.18 Coal was mined in Kentucky as early as 1790. Since then, about 10 billion tons of coal have been mined in the state.19,20 About 60% of Kentucky’s coal mines are surface mines, but underground mines account for more than 75% of the state’s total coal production.21 The state’s mines produce only bituminous coal, which is the most abundant type of coal found in the United States and is used for generating electricity and making iron and steel.22,23 For many years, Kentucky was the third-largest coal-producing state, after Wyoming and West Virginia, and typically accounted for about one-tenth of total U.S. coal production.24 However, Kentucky’s coal production has declined as coal-fired electricity generating plants that were customers for Kentucky coal have been retired.25,26,27,28 By the end of 2018, Kentucky’s coal production decreased to about 5% of total U.S. production.29 Still, about one-fifth of all U.S. operating coal mines are located in Kentucky, more than in any other state except West Virginia and Pennsylvania.30

Benchmark prices for eastern U.S. coal are determined in the Central Appalachian (CAPP) coal delivery zone, which is located around the area where the Big Sandy River flows into the Ohio River. Kentucky meets Ohio and West Virginia at the rivers’ confluence, and coal arrives from mines in those three states, as well as from Virginia and Tennessee. The coal is delivered, typically by rail or truck, for transport by multi-car trains and barges to customers—including coal-fired electricity generating plants, industrial plants, commercial and institutional facilities, and coking plants—throughout the country.31

Kentucky sends more than two-fifths of its coal to nearly 20 states, where it is primarily burned by power plants to generate electricity.32,33 Kentucky also exports about 15% of the coal it produces to other countries.34 Almost all the coal consumed in Kentucky is used for electricity generation, and about half of the coal used in the state is brought in from other states, primarily Wyoming, Illinois, and Indiana.35,36

Electricity

In 2019, Kentucky relied on coal to generate a bigger share of its electricity, about 73%, than all but three other states.

In 2019, coal-fired power plants supplied 73% of Kentucky’s electricity generation, the fourth-largest coal share for any state after West Virginia, Wyoming, and Missouri.37,38 Historically, coal-fired power plants produced more than nine-tenths of Kentucky’s net generation. However, as older coal-fired generating units became more costly to operate, a number of coal-fired power plants in Kentucky were shut down or were retrofitted to burn natural gas.39,40,41,42,43 The state’s coal-fired generation declined by nearly 40% during the past decade from about 84 million megawatthours in 2009 to 51.7 million megawatthours in 2019.44 Kentucky still remains among the top five states in the nation in coal-fired generating capacity—with about 11,500 megawatts.45

Natural gas provides an increasing amount of Kentucky’s net generation, fueling more than one-tenth for the first time in 2016. In 2019, the share of the state’s electricity generation from natural gas-fired power plants increased to one-fifth, reaching a record 14.8 million megawatthours. The rest of Kentucky’s electricity generation, less than one-tenth, comes mostly from hydroelectric power plants, with small contributions from biomass, petroleum, and solar energy generation.46

Electricity is supplied to Kentucky consumers by three investor-owned electric utilities, 24 cooperatives, and 20 municipal utilities.47,48 Electricity prices vary by supplier, but, in 2019, Kentucky had the ninth-lowest overall average retail power price for all sectors of any state and the second-lowest price east of the Mississippi River.49 Slightly more than half of Kentucky households use electricity as their primary heating source.50

Petroleum

Kentucky has two refineries that can process up to 283,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.

Kentucky accounts for less than 0.1% of U.S. proved crude oil reserves and production.51,52 Half the state’s counties have producing oil wells, and the highest producing areas are located in eastern and western Kentucky.53,54 The state’s annual oil production has generally been less than 3 million barrels for the last two decades, although output increased in 2019 for the first time in four years, rising to 2.5 million barrels. Kentucky’s annual crude oil production meets about 2% of state demand.55,56

Crude oil is processed at Kentucky’s two oil refineries.57 The largest refinery is in the city of Catlettsburg in northeastern Kentucky. It can process 277,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day to make motor gasoline, distillates, asphalt, heavy fuel oil, and propane.58 The smaller Somerset refinery in southeastern Kentucky can process about 5,500 barrels of crude oil per calendar day and produces transportation fuels, including diesel fuel and motor gasoline, as well as heating oil that is marketed in the region.59 Additional refined petroleum products arrive in the state via interstate pipelines and by river barges at Kentucky ports along the Ohio River.60,61,62

The transportation sector accounts for three out of four barrels of petroleum consumed in Kentucky, and motor gasoline accounts for almost half the state’s total petroleum use.63,64 Conventional motor gasoline can be sold statewide, except for all or part of three counties around Louisville that have voluntarily opted to allow only reformulated gasoline blended with ethanol to reduce air pollution. In July 2018, the state withdrew three of its counties that make up the southern suburbs of Cincinnati from the federal reformulated gasoline program.65,66,67 The industrial sector accounts for about one-fifth of the petroleum consumed in Kentucky. The remaining small amount of petroleum used in the state is split between the commercial sector and the residential sector, where about 7 out of 100 of Kentucky households heat with propane, fuel oil, or kerosene.68,69

Natural gas

Kentucky holds about 0.3% of U.S. proved natural gas reserves, but organic-rich shales that underlie eastern Kentucky may hold substantial additional natural gas resources.70,71 The state also accounts for about 0.3% of the nation’s marketed natural gas production.72 Most of the state’s natural gas is produced from wells located in eastern Kentucky.73,74 The state’s annual natural gas production rose in the early 2000s, peaking in 2010 at about 135 billion cubic feet, but has declined almost 40% since then as natural gas prices decreased.75,76,77

Kentucky’s 22 underground storage facilities can hold almost 222 billion cubic feet of natural gas.

Consumption of natural gas in Kentucky is almost four times larger than the state’s production, and several interstate natural gas pipelines bring natural gas supplies to Kentucky consumers.78,79,80 For years, most of the natural gas that entered Kentucky arrived by pipeline from the U.S. Gulf Coast. However, starting in 2015, Kentucky began receiving more natural gas produced in the Utica and Marcellus shale formations in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia. The latter two states provide more than two-thirds of the natural gas transported by pipeline to Kentucky. About 90% of the natural gas that enters Kentucky is sent on to other states, primarily Tennessee and Indiana.81 Some natural gas that is produced in or enters the state is placed in underground storage. Kentucky has 22 underground natural gas storage facilities that can hold almost 222 billion cubic feet of gas—about 2.4% of U.S. total storage capacity.82,83

In 2019, Kentucky’s industrial sector accounted for nearly two-fifths of the natural gas consumed in the state, and the electric power sector was not far behind at slightly more than one-third. Natural gas consumption by the state’s electric power sector was about four times greater in 2019 than in 2014, as generation from natural gas-fired plants increased. The residential sector, where almost 4 out of 10 Kentucky households use natural gas for home heating, received about one-seventh of the natural gas delivered to end users in the state.84,85,86 Residential natural gas use per capita in Kentucky is lower than in about two-thirds of the states.87

Renewable energy

Renewable resources are a relatively small part of Kentucky’s energy mix.88 Hydropower accounts for nearly all of the state’s renewable electricity generation. In 2019, about 6% of the state’s electricity generation was produced at nine hydroelectric dams.89,90 About one-tenth of the renewable generation in Kentucky, 0.6% of the state’s total net generation, came from biomass.91 Most of the biomass-fueled electricity generating facilities in Kentucky use landfill gas, but the largest facility—accounting for nearly three-fourths of the state’s biomass generation capacity—uses wood waste.92 The state’s forests also provide feedstock to two wood pellet manufacturing plants, which have a combined production capacity of 62,000 tons a year.93

Kentucky has both utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) and small-scale, customer-sited solar power generation facilities, which together accounted for 0.1% of the state’s electricity generation in 2019.94 The state’s first utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) generating facility, the 2-megawatt Bowling Green Solar Farm, came online in 2011.95 Kentucky has few wind resources suitable for developing utility-scale power projects, and no commercial wind power facilities have been built in the state.96,97

Kentucky has two fuel ethanol production plants with a combined capacity of about 50 million gallons per year.98 Most of the ethanol is produced at a plant owned by a farmers’ cooperative that uses corn as its primary feedstock.99 The smaller ethanol facility is a recycling operation in an abandoned bourbon distillery that produces ethanol from waste non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages; sugars; industrial alcohols; health and beauty alcohols; and pharmaceutical manufacturing by-products.100 Kentucky also has one biodiesel production plant with a capacity of about 54 million gallons per year. The biodiesel plant uses several feedstocks, including soy oil, used cooking oil, and waste vegetable oil.101,102

Kentucky does not have a renewable portfolio standard, but state law provides for net metering of small-scale renewable generation from solar, wind, hydro, biomass, and biogas facilities of 45 kilowatts or less. Each investor-owned utility and rural electric cooperative’s obligation to connect eligible small-scale generators is limited to 1% of the power provider’s peak single-hour electricity load during the previous year.103 Kentucky is home to the nation’s first net-zero energy-use public elementary school building. The school design combines energy efficient systems, geothermal heat pumps, insulated concrete walls with high heat retention values, and a thin film rooftop solar PV system.104,105

Endnotes

1 World Atlas, Kentucky, Kentucky Geography, accessed May 4, 2020.
2 Kentucky Geological Survey, Physiographic Map of Kentucky and The Mississippian Plateau or Pennyroyal Region, updated August 1, 2012.
3 Kentucky Geological Survey, The Bluegrass Region, updated December 16, 2016.
4 U.S. Geological Survey, USGS Coalfields of the Conterminous United States, accessed May 4, 2020.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Kentucky Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells, Coal Field, and Tight Oil/Shale Gas Play, accessed May 4, 2020.
6 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet NG, Kentucky, 2018.
7 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Kentucky, 2018.
8 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Hydroelectric Power Plant and Pumped Storage Power Plant, accessed May 4, 2020.
9 Kentucky Geological Survey, The Bluegrass Region, updated December 16, 2016.
10 Kentucky Climate Center, Narrative, Climatography of Kentucky, Climate, accessed May 4, 2020.
11 NETSTATE, Kentucky, Kentucky Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
12 U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Plants, Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated February 24, 2020.
13 Parallel Products, Beverage Destruction and Recycling, accessed May 4, 2020.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2017.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2017.
16 Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet, Office of Energy Policy, Final Report on Kentucky’s Participation in NGA Policy Academy on Power Sector Modernization (2018), Key Demographic and Economic Considerations, p. 4.
17 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Kentucky, All statistics in table, 2017.
18 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018, and Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2018.
19 Kentucky Geological Survey, Kentucky Coal Production, Search the Kentucky Geological Survey's coal production database, accessed May 5, 2020.
20 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), Total, Annual, Kentucky, 2001–18, accessed May 5, 2020.
21 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2018 and 2017.
22 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2018.
23 U.S. EIA, Coal Explained, Types of coal, Bituminous, accessed May 19, 2020.
24 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), Total, Annual, U.S., Wyoming, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Kentucky, Middle Atlantic, East North Central, East South Central, and South Atlantic, 2001–18.
25 U.S. EIA, “More than 60% of electric generating capacity installed in 2018 was fueled by natural gas,” Today in Energy (March 11, 2019).
26 U.S. EIA, “U.S. natural gas-fired combined-cycle capacity surpasses coal-fired capacity,” Today in Energy (April 10, 2019).
27 U.S. EIA, “U.S. coal-fired electricity generation in 2019 falls to 42-year low,” Today in Energy (May 11, 2020).
28 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Kentucky, Inventory of Retired Generators as of February 2020.
29 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2018.
30 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2018 and 2017.
31 U.S. EIA, “Trading Point: Central Appalachian (CAPP) Is the Nation’s Benchmark Price for Eastern Coal,” Today in Energy (September 19, 2012).
32 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kentucky, Table OS-7, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2018.
33 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2018.
34 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2018.
35 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 26, Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2018 and 2017.
36 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kentucky, Table DS-15, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2018.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kentucky, Annual, 2001–19.
38 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B and 1.4.B.
39 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Kentucky, Inventory of Retired Generators as of February 2020.
40 U.S. EIA, “U.S. coal plant retirements linked to plants with higher operating costs,” Today in Energy (December 3, 2019).
41 U.S. EIA, “More U.S. coal-fired power plants are decommissioning as retirements continue,” Today in Energy (July 26, 2019).
42 U.S. EIA, “Wind and natural gas-fired generators led U.S. power sector capacity additions in 2019,” Today in Energy (April 21, 2020).
43 Estep, Bill, “Paradise no more. TVA votes to close iconic coal-burning power plant in Kentucky,” Lexington Herald Leader (February 14, 2019).
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kentucky, Annual, 2001–19.
45 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 6.2.C.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kentucky, Annual, 2001–19.
47 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Energy Efficiency and Electric Infrastructure in the State of Kentucky, updated December 21, 2015.
48 Kentucky Electric Cooperative, Cooperative FAQ, What is a distribution cooperative?, accessed May 7, 2020.
49 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.6.B.
50 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Kentucky.
51 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2014–19.
52 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2013–18.
53 Kentucky Geological Survey, Oil and Natural Gas in Kentucky (June 2019), Leading Producing Zones, p. 1.
54 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells, accessed May 19, 2020.
55 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, Thousand Barrels, 1981–2019.
56 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
57 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2019 (June 21, 2019), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2019.
58 Marathon Petroleum, Catlettsburg Refinery, accessed May 7, 2020.
59 Continental Refining Company, About Continental Refining Company, accessed May 7, 2020.
60 World Port Source, Jefferson Riverport, Port Commerce, accessed May 7, 2019.
61 U.S. Department of Energy, State of Kentucky Energy Sector Risk Profile, p. 4, accessed May 7, 2019.
62 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Petroleum Port, accessed May 19, 2020.
63 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
64 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2017.
65 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, “Opt-In” Areas, accessed May 7, 2020.
66 Larson, B.K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, Map, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
67 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Removal of the RFG Program from the Northern Kentucky Area of the Cincinnati-Hamilton Ozone Maintenance Area, accessed May 7, 2020.
68 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
69 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Kentucky.
70 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet Natural Gas, Annual, 2013–18.
71 Peterson, Erica, “Is Fracking Coming to the Cumberlands?” WFPL.org (January 6, 2015).
72 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2014–19.
73 Kentucky Geological Survey, Oil and Natural Gas in Kentucky (June 2019), Leading Producing Zones, p. 1.
74 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Oil and Gas Wells, accessed May 8, 2020.
75 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Natural Gas Marketed Production, Annual, 1967–2018.
76 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Spot and Futures Prices (NYMEX), Futures Prices, Monthly, 1994–2020.
77 U.S. EIA, “Natural gas prices fall to lowest level since 2016, the lowest February prices in 20 years,” Today in Energy (February 14, 2020).
78 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2014–19.
79 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Kentucky, Annual, 2014–19.
80 U.S. Department of Energy, State of Kentucky Energy Sector Risk Profile, p. 6, accessed May 8, 2020.
81 U.S. EIA, International & Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Kentucky, Annual, 2013–18.
82 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2013–18.
83 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2013–18.
84 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Kentucky, Annual, 2014–19.
85 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Kentucky.
86 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kentucky, Annual, 2001–19.
87 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2017.
88 Durkay, Jocelyn, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals, National Conference of State Legislatures (April 17, 2020).
89 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kentucky, Annual, 2016–19.
90 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2018 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric.
91 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kentucky, Annual, 2016–19.
92 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Kentucky, Inventory of Retired Generators as of February 2020, Technology: Wood/Wood Waste Biomass, Landfill Gas.
93 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, (April 15, 2020), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, January 2020.
94 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Kentucky, Annual, 2016–19.
95 Solar Energy Industries Association, Kentucky Solar, accessed May 10, 2020.
96 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Kentucky, Maps & Data, accessed May 10, 2020.
97 American Wind Energy Association, AWEA State Wind Energy Facts, Kentucky, accessed May 10, 2020.
98 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (August 26, 2019), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD District) are available in XLS.
99 Commonwealth Agri-Energy, About Us, accessed May 10, 2020.
100 Parallel Products, Louisville, KY, accessed May 10, 2020.
101 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (April 30, 2020), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, February 2020.
102 Owensboro Grain, About Owensboro Grain, accessed May 10, 2020.
103 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Kentucky Net Metering, updated June 21, 2019.
104 Kelly-Detwiler, Peter, “Net Zero Schools in Kentucky: Models for the Future Come from Surprising Places,” Forbes Magazine (December 10, 2012).
105 Chenoweth, Hannah, “The Nation’s First Net-Zero Energy School,” K12 Facilities Forum (May 1, 2018).