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Kentucky   Kentucky Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: May 17, 2018

Overview

Bordered on the north by the Ohio River, Kentucky stretches from the Appalachian Mountains in the east to the flat plain of the Mississippi River in the west.1 In between, the rolling hills of the state's fertile Bluegrass region extend southward from the Ohio River to the Pennyroyal region, which is famous for its thousands of caverns and springs, including Mammoth Cave National Park.2,3 Major coal deposits are found both in the Central Appalachian Basin in the eastern part of the state and in the Illinois Basin in the northwest.4 Those basins also contain oil and natural gas resources.5,6 Dams on the Tennessee, Cumberland, Ohio, and Laurel rivers provide Kentucky with hydroelectric power.7,8 Although two-thirds of Kentucky's agricultural economy is livestock, primarily thoroughbred horses and beef cattle, the state's ample rainfall, temperate climate, and fertile soils provide ideal conditions for several crops, including tobacco, soybeans, corn, and wheat.9,10,11 Corn and beverage waste from Kentucky distilleries provide feedstock for the state's ethanol production.12,13

Kentucky is among the top 10 states in energy consumed per dollar of gross domestic product (GDP).14 The industrial sector is the state's largest energy consumer.15 Kentucky's low energy prices and location have helped attract manufacturing to the state. The industrial activities that make the largest contribution to Kentucky's GDP include the manufacture of motor vehicles; food, beverage, and tobacco products; and chemicals. Kentucky has other energy-intensive industries including glass manufacturing; iron, steel, and paper mills; petroleum refineries; and a large mining sector. The state is a major logistics hub. Companies that transport the state's manufactured and mined products consume significant amounts of energy.16,17,18

Coal

In 2016, Kentucky accounted for almost one-sixth of U.S. coal production east of the Mississippi River.

Coal was mined in Kentucky as early as 1790. Since then nearly 10 billion tons of coal have been mined in the state.19,20 In 2016, Kentucky ranked fifth in the nation in estimated recoverable coal reserves and fifth in coal production.21,22 For many years, Kentucky was the third-largest coal-producing state, after Wyoming and West Virginia, and typically accounted for about one-tenth of total U.S. coal production and about one-fourth of production east of the Mississippi River.23 However, Kentucky's coal production declined as coal-fired electricity generating plants that had been customers of Kentucky mines were retired. By 2016, Kentucky coal production had decreased to about 6% of U.S. production and less than one-sixth of production east of the Mississippi River.24,25 However, more than one-fifth of all operating U.S. coal mines are located in Kentucky, more coal mines than in any other state except Pennsylvania. Nearly two-thirds of Kentucky's mines are surface mines, but the underground mines produce more than three-fourths of the coal mined in the state.26 Kentucky's mines produce only bituminous coal. 27

Benchmark prices for eastern U.S. coal are determined in the Central Appalachian (CAPP) coal delivery zone, which is located around the area where the Big Sandy River flows into the Ohio River. Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia meet at the rivers' confluence, and bituminous coal arrives from mines in eastern Kentucky, southern West Virginia, Tennessee, and Virginia. The coal is delivered, typically by rail or truck, for shipment by multi-car trains and barges to customers in various states, including coal-fired electricity generating plants, industrial plants, commercial and institutional facilities, and coking plants.28

Kentucky sends about half of its coal production out of state. Coal is sent to nearly two dozen states, where it is used primarily by power plants to generate electricity.29 Kentucky also exports some of the coal it produces. In 2016, Kentucky coal fields shipped about 3% of their production overseas, the lowest amount in at least a decade.30,31 Almost all the coal consumed in Kentucky is used in electricity generation. About half of the coal consumed in the state in 2016 was brought in from other states, primarily Wyoming, Illinois, and Indiana.32

Electricity

In 2016, for the first time, natural gas supplied more than one-tenth of Kentucky’s net generation.

Kentucky is among the top 10 states in the nation in coal-fired generating capacity.33 In 2017, coal-fired power plants supplied four-fifths of state generation.34 Historically, coal-fired power plants had routinely produced more than nine-tenths of Kentucky's net electricity generation, but as coal-fired generating units aged and became more costly to operate, a number of coal-fired power plants in Kentucky have been shut down or retrofitted to burn natural gas.35,36 One dozen Kentucky coal-fired power plants have retired since 2014.37,38 Total electricity generation and coal's share of generation have declined sharply since 2014, as older coal-fired units have been retired. Total generation dropped by one-fifth, from nearly 90.9 million megawatthours in 2014 to 72.1 million megawatthours in 2017. During the same period, Kentucky's coal-fired generation declined by almost one-third, from 83.6 million megawatthours in 2014 to 57.2 million megawatthours in 2017.39,40 In 2016, Kentucky still had 42 operating coal-fired generating units at 15 power plants totaling 15,600 megawatts.41

Natural gas has provided an increasing amount of Kentucky's net generation, fueling more than one-tenth for the first time in 2016. In 2017, the contribution from natural gas-fired power plants to the state's net electricity generation was almost 4 times greater than in 2014, rising from 2.5 million megawatthours to 9.4 million megawatthours.42,43 Of the more than 1,191 megawatts of new utility-scale generating capacity added in 2017, 1,100 megawatts was from natural gas-fired units.44 Although natural gas-fired generation supplied more than one-eighth of the state's net electricity generation in 2017, Kentucky still relies on coal to generate a greater share of its electricity than any other state except West Virginia, Wyoming, and Missouri. The rest of Kentucky's electricity generation, less than one-tenth, comes from hydroelectric power plants, with small contributions from biomass and solar energy.45

Kentucky has not restructured its electric utility industry. Utilities in the state remain vertically integrated generators, transmitters, and distributors of electric power.46 Electricity is supplied to end-use consumers by three investor-owned electric utilities, 26 cooperatives, and 20 municipal utilities.47 Electricity rates vary by provider, but, in 2017, Kentucky had the seventh-lowest average rates of any state and the lowest average rates east of the Mississippi River.48 About half of Kentucky households use electricity as their primary heating source.49

Petroleum

Kentucky accounts for less than 0.1% of U.S. crude oil proved reserves and production.50,51 Although half of the state's counties have producing oil wells, the biggest producers are located in far western and eastern Kentucky.52 The state's oil wells have produced fewer than 4 million barrels of crude oil annually for more than two decades, and Kentucky's annual crude oil production meets less than 3% of state demand. 53,54

Kentucky has two oil refineries that can process more than 278,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.

Crude oil is processed at Kentucky's two oil refineries.55 The larger refinery, in the city of Catlettsburg in northeastern Kentucky, can process 273,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day and produces motor gasoline, distillates, asphalt, heavy fuel oil, propane, other petroleum products, and sulfur.56 The smaller Somerset refinery in southeastern Kentucky can process about 5,500 barrels of crude oil per calendar day and produces motor fuels, including diesel fuel and motor gasoline, as well as heating oil that is marketed in the region.57 Additional refined petroleum products arrive in Kentucky via interstate pipelines and by river barges at ports along the Ohio River.58,59

The transportation sector uses nearly three-fourths of all petroleum products consumed in Kentucky.60 Motor gasoline makes up the largest share of Kentucky petroleum consumption.61 Although the use of conventional motor gasoline is not restricted in most of the state, all or part of six counties around Louisville, Kentucky, and to the south of Cincinnati, Ohio, are voluntary opt-in areas for the use of motor gasoline reformulated with ethanol to reduce air pollution.62,63 The industrial sector accounts for about one-fifth of the petroleum consumed in Kentucky. The rest is split between the commercial sector and the residential sector, where about 7% of Kentucky households heat with propane, fuel oil, or kerosene.64,65

Natural gas

Kentucky holds less than 1% of U.S. proved natural gas reserves, but organic-rich shales that underlie eastern Kentucky may hold substantial additional natural gas resources.66,67 The state accounts for less than 1% of the nation's natural gas production.68 Most of the state's natural gas is produced from wells located in eastern Kentucky.69 Annual natural gas production rose in the early 2000s, peaking in 2010, but dropped back to its early 2000s level when natural gas prices declined.70,71

Consumption of natural gas in Kentucky is greater than the state's production, and several interstate natural gas pipelines bring natural gas supplies to Kentucky consumers.72,73,74 Most of the natural gas entering Kentucky originates in the U.S. Gulf Coast region and comes by pipeline through Tennessee. However, in 2014, Kentucky also began receiving natural gas from production from the Marcellus and Utica shale formations in West Virginia and Ohio. More than nine-tenths of the natural gas entering Kentucky is sent on to other states, primarily Tennessee, Indiana, and Illinois.75 Some natural gas that enters the state is placed in storage. Kentucky has 23 underground natural gas storage facilities that comprise 2.4% of total U.S. storage capacity.76,77

Kentucky's industrial sector uses more than two-fifths of the natural gas consumed in the state. Natural gas consumption in the electric power sector was almost six times greater in 2017 than in 2013, and electric power is now the second-largest consuming sector. The residential sector, where more than one in three Kentucky households use natural gas for home heating, receives about one-sixth of the natural gas delivered to end users.78,79 In part because of the state's relatively mild winters, residential natural gas use per capita in Kentucky is lower than in about two-thirds of the states.80,81,82

Renewable energy

Renewable resources are a relatively small part of Kentucky's energy mix, and the state has no renewable energy standard.83 The largest source of renewable energy in Kentucky is hydroelectric power, which provides almost all of the state's renewable electricity generation. In 2017, more than 6% of the state's electricity generation was produced at nine dams, two of which began operating in 2016.84,85 More than one-third of all new U.S. hydroelectric generating capacity brought into service in 2017 is located in Kentucky, all of it at one 76-megawatt facility.86,87 About one-tenth of the renewable generation in Kentucky, 0.6% of the state's total net generation, comes from biomass.88 Most of the biomass-fueled electricity generating facilities in Kentucky use landfill gas, but the state's largest facility, accounting for three-fourths of biomass capacity, uses wood waste.89

Kentucky has both utility-scale and distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) solar power generation facilities.90 The state's first utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) generating facility, the 2-megawatt Bowling Green Solar Farm, came online in 2011.91 A second utility-scale solar farm, a 10-megawatt facility located at the E.W. Brown coal-fired generating station in Mercer County, Kentucky, began operating in 2016.92,93 There are several other planned large projects in the state, and a 2.7-megawatt solar project was completed in late 2017.94,95 A group of 16 Kentucky cooperatives built an 8.5-megawatt community solar project and are selling leases on the panels to coop members. The leases give members credit for solar generation just as though they had the panels on their own rooftops.96,97,98 Increasing amounts of distributed solar PV capacity, in locations ranging from home rooftops to commercial and industrial complexes, have been installed across the state.99 Solar facilities are by far the largest component of distributed generation in Kentucky, with more than 18 megawatts of distributed solar PV installed. Although there is substantial utility-scale installed capacity in Kentucky, nearly three-fifths of solar PV electricity generation in the state came from distributed facilities in 2017.100 Kentucky has few wind resources suitable for developing utility-scale power projects and no commercial wind power facilities have been built.101,102

Kentucky has ethanol and biodiesel manufacturing facilities. The state has two ethanol plants with a combined capacity of about 36 million gallons per year.103 Most of the ethanol is produced at a plant owned by a farmers' cooperative that uses corn as its primary feedstock.104 The smaller ethanol facility is a recycling operation in an abandoned bourbon distillery that produces ethanol from waste non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages; sugars; industrial alcohols; health and beauty alcohols; and pharmaceutical manufacturing by-products.105 Kentucky also has three biodiesel production plants with a combined capacity of about 47 million gallons per year. The biodiesel plants use multiple feedstocks, including soy oil, used cooking oil, and waste vegetable oil.106

Kentucky does not have a renewable portfolio standard, but state law provides for net metering of distributed renewable generation from solar, wind, hydro, biomass, and biogas facilities of 30 kilowatts or less. Each power provider's obligation to connect eligible customer generators is limited to 1% of the provider's peak load in the previous year.107 Kentucky does not have an energy efficiency resource standard, but the state is home to the nation's first net-zero energy-use public school building. The school design combines energy efficient systems, geothermal heat pumps, daylight harvesting, insulated concrete walls with high heat retention values, and a thin film rooftop solar PV system.108

Endnotes

1 World Atlas, Kentucky, Kentucky Geography, accessed April 16, 2018.
2 Kentucky Geological Survey, Physiographic Map of Kentucky and The Mississippian Plateau or Pennyroyal Region, updated August 1, 2012.
3 Kentucky Geological Survey, The Bluegrass Region, updated December 16, 2016.
4 U.S. Geological Survey, USGS Coalfields of the Conterminous United States, accessed April 16, 2018.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Kentucky Profile Overview, All Coal Fields Map Layer and Oil and Gas Wells Map Layer, accessed April 16, 2018.
6 U.S. EIA, Kentucky, Profile Data, Reserves, accessed April 16, 2018.
7 Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet, Department for Energy Development and Independence, Division of Renewable Energy, Hydroelectric Power, accessed April 16, 2018.
8 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Profile Overview, Hydroelectric Power Plant Map Layer, accessed April 16, 2018.
9 Kentucky Geological Survey, The Bluegrass Region, updated December 16, 2016.
10 Kentucky Climate Center, Narrative, Climatography of Kentucky, Climate, accessed April 16, 2018.
11 NETSTATE, Kentucky, Kentucky Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
12 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Platforms, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated January 24, 2018.
13 Parallel Products, Beverage Destruction and Recycling, accessed April 16, 2018.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2015.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
16 Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet, Department for Energy Development and Independence, Kentucky Energy Profile (2017), Executive Summary, p. 2.
17 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, All Industries, Kentucky, 2015.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
19 Kentucky Geological Survey, Kentucky Coal Production, updated November 1, 2011.
20 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), Total, Annual, Kentucky, 2001-16, accessed April 18, 2018.
21 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2016.
22 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2016.
23 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), Total, Annual, U.S., Wyoming, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Kentucky, Middle Atlantic, East North Central, East South Central, and South Atlantic, 2001-16, accessed April 18, 2018.
24 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Retired & Canceled Units Only).
25 Kentucky Business and Finance Review, Kentucky Energy Production and Consumption, Kentucky Coal Production and Consumption, accessed April 18, 2018.
26 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2016 and 2015.
27 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2016.
28 U.S. EIA, "Trading Point: Central Appalachian (CAPP) Is the Nation's Benchmark Price for Eastern Coal," Today in Energy (September 19, 2012).
29 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kentucky, Table OS-9, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2016.
30 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2016.
31 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report, Archive, Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2007-15.
32 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Kentucky, Table DS-16, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2016.
33 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 6.2.C.
34 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
36 U.S. EIA, "Scheduled 2015 Capacity Additions Mostly Wind and Natural Gas; Retirements Mostly Coal," Today in Energy (March 10, 2015).
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Retired & Canceled Units Only).
38 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 6.4.
39 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
40 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
42 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.7.B.
43 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Electricity Profile 2016, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2016.
44 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 6.3.
45 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B, 1.10.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
46 Legislative Research Commission, Restructuring Kentucky's Electric Utility Industry: An Assessment of and Recommendation for Future Action in Kentucky, Final Report, Special Task Force on Electricity Restructuring, Research Report No. 299 (September 2000), p. xiii.
47 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Energy Efficiency and Electric Infrastructure in the State of Kentucky, updated December 21, 2015.
48 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 5.6.B.
49 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Kentucky, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
50 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2012-17.
51 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2011-16.
52 Kentucky Geological Survey, Oil & Natural Gas in Kentucky, Fact Sheet No. 7 (July 2016).
53 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, Thousand Barrels, 1981-2017.
54 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2016.
55 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2017 (June 2017), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2017.
56 Marathon Petroleum Corporation, Catlettsburg Refining LLC, accessed April 17, 2018.
57 Continental Refining Company, About Continental Refining Company, accessed April 17, 2018.
58 World Port Source, Jefferson Riverport, Port Commerce, accessed April 17, 2018.
59 U.S. Department of Energy, State of Kentucky Energy Sector Risk Profile, p. 4, accessed April 17, 2018.
60 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
61 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2015.
62 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, "Opt-In" Areas, updated December 5, 2016.
63 Larson, B.K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, Map, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
64 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
65 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Kentucky, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
66 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet Natural Gas, Annual, 2011-16.
67 Peterson, Erica, "Is Fracking Coming to the Cumberlands?" WFPL.org (January 6, 2015).
68 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2012-17.
69 Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet, Department for Natural Resources, Division of Oil and Gas, Oil and Gas History, accessed April 17, 2018.
70 U.S. EIA, Kentucky Natural Gas Marketed Production, Annual, 1967-2016.
71 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Price, 1922-2012.
72 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2012-17.
73 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Kentucky, Annual, 2012-17.
74 U.S. Department of Energy, State of Kentucky Energy Sector Risk Profile, p. 6, accessed April 17, 2018.
75 U.S. EIA, International & Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Kentucky, Annual, 2011-16.
76 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2011-16.
77 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2011-16.
78 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Kentucky, Annual, 2012-17.
79 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Kentucky, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-16 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
80 Kentucky Climate Center, Narrative, Climatography of Kentucky, Climate, accessed April 16, 2018.
81 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Residential, Annual, 2012-17.
82 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-01) Population Estimates.
83 Durkay, Jocelyn, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals, National Conference of State Legislatures (August 1, 2017).
84 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
85 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
86 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Table 6.3.
87 American Municipal Power, Inc., Hydro Project Smithland, accessed April 29, 2018.
88 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.3.B, 1.15.B.
89 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
90 Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet, Department for Energy Development and Independence, Kentucky Energy Profile (2017), p. 65.
91 Solar Energy Industries Association, Kentucky Solar, accessed April 22, 2018.
92 Solar Energy Industries Association, Solar Spotlight Kentucky (December 14, 2016).
93 Kocher, Greg, "Utilities unveil Ky.'s largest solar power plant in Mercer County," Lexington Herald Leader (April 20, 2016).
94 Duke Energy, "Duke Energy unveils plans for its first solar power plants in Kentucky," Press Release (July 14, 2017).
95 Duke Energy, "B-roll: Crittenden (Ky.) Solar," Press Release (April 20, 2018).
96 Solar Energy Industries Association, Solar Spotlight Kentucky (March 12, 2018).
97 Kentucky Public Service Commission, "PSC OKs East Kentucky Power Community Solar Project," Press Release (November 23, 2016).
98 Jackson Energy Cooperative, Cooperative Solar Farm One Is Up And Running, accessed April 22, 2018.
99 Solar Energy Industries Association, Kentucky Solar, accessed April 22, 2018.
100 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2018), Tables 1.17.B, 6.2.B.
101 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Kentucky, accessed April 21, 2018.
102 American Wind Energy Association, U.S. Wind Energy State Facts, accessed April 21, 2018.
103 Nebraska Government, Ethanol Facilities Capacity by State and Plant, updated April 20, 2018.
104 Commonwealth Agri-Energy, About Us, accessed April 22, 2018.
105 Parallel Products, Louisville, KY, accessed April 22, 2018.
106 "U.S. Biodiesel Plants, operational," Biodiesel Magazine, updated December 13, 2017.
107 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Kentucky Net Metering, updated November 30, 2015.
108 Kelly-Detwiler, Peter, "Net Zero Schools in Kentucky: Models for the Future Come from Surprising Places," Forbes Magazine (December 10, 2012).