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Texas   Texas Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: April 15, 2021

Overview

Texas is a large state with a wealth of energy resources. It leads the nation in energy production, providing more than one-fifth of the country's domestically produced energy.1 Second only to Alaska in total land area, Texas stretches about 800 miles at its widest points, east to west and north to south, and crude oil and natural gas fields are present across much of that expanse.2,3 Coal is found in bands that cut across the eastern Texas coastal plain and in other areas in the north-central and southwestern parts of the state.4 Texas also has abundant renewable energy resources and is first in the nation in wind-generated electricity.5 With a significant number of sunny days across vast distances, Texas is also among the leading states in solar energy potential.6,7 Geothermal resources suitable for power generation are present in eastern and southern Texas.8 Uranium—the fuel for nuclear reactors—has been mined from sandstone deposits in the Texas coastal plain since the early 1960s, and that region is one of the most productive uranium areas in the nation.9,10

Texas ranks second in the nation in both population and the size of its economy, and it consumes a large share of the nation's energy.11,12 In 2018, Texas accounted for about one-seventh of U.S. energy consumption, more than any other state. However, Texas was sixth in the nation in per capita energy consumption. Texas is also the nation's third-largest net energy supplier despite its high energy use.13,14 The industrial sector in Texas includes the energy-intensive petroleum refining and chemical manufacturing industries. That sector is the state's largest energy consumer and accounts for about half of end-use energy consumption.15,16 Transportation is the second-largest energy user and accounts for one-fourth of state end-use consumption, in part because of the large number of registered motor vehicles in Texas, the great distances across the state, and the high number of vehicle miles traveled annually.17,18,19

Residential sector and commercial sector energy consumption are driven by climate, and the Texas climate varies significantly from east to west. Warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico sweeps westward across the state, losing moisture as it goes. The result is a climate that ranges from humid and subtropical along the coast, where much of the state's population resides, to semi-arid on the high plains of central and western Texas, and arid in the state's mountainous west. Frequent freezing temperatures occur in winter in the lightly populated high plains, and summer temperatures average above 90°F in the most densely populated parts of Texas where energy use for cooling is high.20,21,22 Even so, the residential sector accounts for just one-eighth of state end-use energy consumption. In part because of the state's large population, Texas leads the nation in total residential energy use, but it ranks near the lowest one-fifth of states in per capita residential energy consumption.23 The commercial sector accounts for the rest of Texas' end-use energy consumption.24

Petroleum

Texas leads all states in crude oil production as it has in every year but one since at least 1970.25 The state accounts for about two-fifths of the nation's crude oil proved reserves and crude oil production.26 Texas not only produces more crude oil than any other state but usually also more than all the federal offshore producing areas combined.27 More than one-fourth of the nation's 100 largest oil fields by reserves are in Texas. Most of those are in the Permian Basin of West Texas and in the south-central part of the state.28

The first major oil boom in Texas began in 1901 with the discovery of the Spindletop oil field. That field's production peaked at 17.5 million barrels in 1902, and it quickly declined thereafter.29 However, other later discoveries led to increased crude oil production in the state until 1972, when annual production rose to slightly more than 1.26 billion barrels. Output fell in subsequent years and, by 2007, production was less than one-third of the 1972 peak.30 Production began to rise again, most sharply after 2010, as hydraulically fractured horizontal wells drilled in both the Permian Basin and the Eagle Ford shale led to increased crude oil production.31,32,33 In 2017, Texas oil production exceeded the state's 1972 peak for the first time, and in 2019 annual output reached a new high of 1.85 billion barrels. In 2020, annual production fell slightly to almost 1.8 billion barrels in part because of lower demand during the COVID-19 global pandemic.34,35

West Texas Intermediate crude oil serves as a benchmark for crude oil pricing in North America.

West Texas Intermediate (WTI), a light (low density), sweet (low sulfur content) crude oil produced in Texas and elsewhere, is the benchmark for crude oil pricing in North America in both the physical and futures markets. WTI is used as a standard in part because of its ample supply and proximity to a major market trading hub at Cushing, Oklahoma.36 Some of the nation's crude oil supplies are stored in the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to reduce the impacts of supply disruptions. The Reserve, controlled by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), can hold a combined total of up to 714 million barrels of crude oil at four storage facilities, two of which are in Texas. The Texas sites have a combined capacity of 417 million barrels and are located in salt caverns in the state's Gulf Coast region.37 In 2021, the SPR sold a total of 6.8 million barrels of crude oil from the two Texas sites, as mandated by Congress.38

Almost one-third of the nation’s crude oil refining capacity is in Texas.

Texas also leads the nation in crude oil refining. The majority of the Texas refineries are clustered near ports along the Gulf Coast, and that region has the largest concentration of oil refineries in the United States.39 Texas has almost one-fourth of the nation's operable refineries and nearly one-third of the U.S. total refining capacity. The state's 31 petroleum refineries can process a combined total of almost 5.9 million barrels of crude oil per calendar day.40,41 The nation's largest refinery is in Port Arthur, Texas, and it can process about 607,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.42 Many of the Texas refineries are complex facilities that can process a wide variety of crude oil types into high-value products, such as motor gasoline, and into feedstocks for the chemical industry.43,44,45 In February 2021, an extreme winter weather event temporarily shut down refineries along the Gulf Coast. Texas refinery infrastructure also is vulnerable to shutdowns during hurricanes.46,47 Texas petroleum products are shipped from the state's refineries by interstate pipeline, barge, and tanker to U.S. markets, primarily in the eastern and central states, but also as far west as Arizona. Some refined products are shipped to foreign markets.48,49

Texas consumes more petroleum than any other state and was ranked second in per capita petroleum use by volume in 2018.50 Unlike all other states except Louisiana, the industrial sector is the largest petroleum consumer in Texas. The transportation sector uses almost all the rest.51 Texas is also the nation's largest consumer of hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGLs), distillate fuel oil including diesel fuel for highway use, and residual fuel oil. In 2018, the state used more HGLs, including propane and ethane, than all other states combined.52 Almost all the HGLs consumed in Texas are used by the industrial sector, mostly as feedstock for the state's petrochemical industry.53,54

Much of Texas can use conventional motor gasoline without ethanol, but the eastern half of the state and El Paso County at the state's extreme western tip require several different motor gasoline blends to meet diverse clean air-quality requirements. The metropolitan areas of Greater Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth require reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol.55 Texas has four fuel ethanol plants that can produce almost 10 million barrels of ethanol per year, but Texans consume more than four times that much. Additional supplies come from out of state.56,57,58 In 2020, fuel ethanol producers significantly reduced production in part because of reduced demand during the COVID-19 pandemic. In February 2021, an extreme winter weather event also sharply reduced fuel ethanol production in Texas.59 The commercial sector uses twice as much petroleum as the residential sector, where fewer than 3% of households use petroleum products, primarily propane, for space heating.60 The commercial and residential sectors together use less than 1% of the petroleum consumed in Texas.61

Natural gas

About one-fourth of the nation's proved natural gas reserves are in Texas.

About one-fourth of the nation's proved dry natural gas reserves and about three-tenths of the 100 largest natural gas fields are located, in whole or in part, in Texas.62,63 In 2020, the state produced one-fourth of the nation's natural gas, and annual production reached a high of more than 10 trillion cubic feet for the second year in a row.64,65 Most of the last decade's increase in production was from the Eagle Ford shale and the Permian Basin, where advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies have increased production from shales and other low permeability formations.66,67,68,69 However, in February 2021, an extreme winter weather event temporarily reduced the state's natural gas production by almost half.70

With more than 17,000 miles of interstate natural gas pipelines within its borders, Texas is well connected to markets throughout the country and has more natural gas market hubs than any other state.71,72,73 Natural gas is transported by pipeline from Texas across the nation and into Mexico. Large volumes of natural gas also enter the state, primarily through Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Louisiana, but more natural gas leaves the state than enters. In 2020, Texas sent out three times more natural gas than entered the state. Most of the natural gas that leaves the state continues on to Mexico or Louisiana.74 Texas also has two operating liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminals along its Gulf Coast, one each at Freeport and Sabine Pass.75 As natural gas production has increased, several LNG terminals have converted to export terminals or added export facilities. There are two operational LNG export terminals in Texas, two more are under construction, and a half dozen more are approved but not yet built.76

Texas produces more natural gas than it consumes or sends out of state. Some of its natural gas is placed in underground storage.77,78,79 The state has more than one-tenth of the nation's total underground natural gas storage capacity.80 More than half of the state's 35 active storage reservoirs—about 70% of the state's natural gas working gas storage capacity—are in depleted oil and gas fields converted for storage use. The rest are in salt caverns.81

Texas is the nation's largest natural gas consumer, accounting for almost 15% of the U.S. total.82 The industrial and electric power sectors each account for almost two-fifths of the state's natural gas use.83 The industrial sector in Texas alone was responsible for nearly one-fourth of the nation's total industrial sector natural gas consumption in 2020.84 The amount of natural gas used for electricity generation in Texas is greater than in any other state and accounted for more than 15% of the U.S. electric power sector's total in 2020.85 Less than one-tenth of all the natural gas consumed in Texas goes to the residential and commercial end-use sectors together. Typically, more natural gas is used in the production and distribution of natural gas in the state than is consumed by those two end-use sectors combined.86 More than one-third of Texas households rely on natural gas as their primary heating fuel, but the state's per capita residential natural gas use ranks among the lowest one-fourth of states.87,88,89 In February 2021, an extreme winter weather event significantly affected energy supply and demand in Texas, including natural gas for electricity generation and home heating, causing health and safety concerns.90

Coal

Texas is the second-largest lignite producer in the nation.

Texas has about 9 billion tons of estimated recoverable coal reserves, almost 4% of the nation's total.91 The state is the second-largest lignite producer in the United States, after North Dakota, and is among the nation's top 10 coal producers overall.92 Lignite is the coal with the lowest heat value. It is used almost exclusively for power generation, usually at power plants near producing mines.93 Substantial lignite deposits are found in a broad band across the Texas Gulf Coast region from the Rio Grande to the Arkansas border.94 Higher-grade bituminous coal occurs in deposits that trend from north-central Texas to the state's southern border.95 Although underground mines produced most of the coal in Texas before the mid-1950s, those mines closed decades ago, and now surface mines produce all of the state's coal.96 Currently, seven mines produce lignite, and one produces bituminous coal.97

Texas is also the nation's largest coal consumer.98 On a tonnage basis, Texas lignite accounts for almost one-third of the state's coal consumption, with nearly all the rest of the state's needs met by subbituminous coal brought from Wyoming by rail. Texas consumes all of the lignite mined within the state and uses all of it to generate electricity. Conveyor belts, trucks, or railroads deliver the lignite to Texas power plants. Industrial facilities in the state receive a small amount of coal from Colorado.99,100

Electricity

Texas generates more electricity than any other state, almost twice as much as second-place Florida.

Texas produces more electricity than any other state, generating almost twice as much as the second-highest electricity-producing state, Florida.101 Natural gas-fired power plants supplied more than half the electricity generated in Texas in 2020. Natural gas fuels more megawatts in Texas than in any other state and accounts for 15% of all U.S. natural gas-fueled power.102 In 2020, wind supplied one-fifth of Texas' in-state utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) generation, and wind provided more of Texas' in-state generation than coal for the first time.103 That was because of both the increase in wind power and the retirement of almost 6,000 megawatts of coal-fired generating capacity since 2016, including the closure of a 650-megawatt coal plant in late 2020.104,105 Coal-fired power plants supplied one-sixth of state generation in 2020, down from three-tenths in 2017.106 The state's two operating nuclear power plants usually supply almost one-tenth of the state's electricity net generation.107,108 Most of the rest of the utility-scale generation in Texas is from renewable resources other than wind and from gases that are refinery byproducts.109

There are four electricity grids that serve Texas, but the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) operates the state's main one. The ERCOT grid is a tightly controlled electricity grid that operates completely within Texas and serves about 75% of the state's territory.110,111,112 The ERCOT grid has few connections with the other interconnected power systems that serve the eastern and western contiguous United States.113 Because the ERCOT service area does not extend across the state's borders, ERCOT is not subject to federal oversight and is, for the most part, dependent on its own resources to meet the state's electricity needs.114 In February 2021, a major winter weather system, characterized by extreme cold spread across much of the central United States, disrupted energy systems and caused serious health and safety issues, particularly in Texas. The cold weather increased energy demand and also affected energy supply, causing intense and widespread energy market disruptions. Notably, electricity deliveries were disrupted in the parts of Texas served by the ERCOT.115

Texas is the nation's largest electricity consumer, but its per capita use is less than in about three-tenths of the states. Texas also leads the nation in residential sector electricity consumption, but like total use, the state's residential per capita consumption is less than almost one-third of the states.116 The largest share of the state's electricity goes to the residential sector, where three in five Texas households use electricity as their primary source for home heating. However, the state's electricity demand peaks during the hot summer months with the increased use of electricity for air conditioning.117,118 In 1999, Texas became the first state to establish an energy efficiency resource standard (EERS). The standard requires the state's investor-owned electric utilities to reduce energy usage to a level that equals 30% of the utility's annual growth in peak demand. After that target is met, the EERS requires that annual savings equal 0.4% of each utility's peak demand.119

Renewable energy

Renewable energy fueled more than one-fifth of all utility-scale net generation in Texas in 2020, and the state accounted for one-fifth of the nation's utility-scale electricity generation from nonhydroelectric renewable sources.120

Texas leads the nation in wind-powered electricity generation.

Wind accounts for nearly all of the electricity generated from renewable resources in Texas. The state leads the nation in wind-powered electricity generation, producing almost three-tenths of the U.S. total in 2020.121,122 Texas regulators designated several high-quality wind resource areas in the western part of the state as Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZ). Transmission service providers proposed and built transmission lines to bring electricity from remote wind farms in the west to urban market centers in the eastern part of the state.123 In 2011, Texas became the first, and until January 2020 the only, state to reach 10,000 megawatts of wind generating capacity.124,125 By the end of 2020, Texas had more than 30,000 megawatts of wind capacity, which was more than one-fifth of the state's total generating capacity and almost nine-tenths of the renewable capacity.126,127

Texas has substantial solar power potential, particularly in the western part of the state.128 In 2020, Texas was the country's second-largest producer, after California, of solar photovoltaic (PV)-sourced power. Solar capacity at the state's large- and small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) facilities nearly doubled between 2019 and 2020, when it rose from 3,118 to 6,023 megawatts. Customer-sited, small-scale solar facilities provided about one-sixth of the state's solar generation in 2020.129 Biomass fuels only about 0.3% of in-state electricity generation, mostly from wood or wood-derived fuels.130 Texas also has several biogas facilities, many located in the state's panhandle. Anaerobic digesters process manure and agricultural waste into methane.131 Texas produces liquid biofuels at four biofuels plants in the agriculturally rich high plains region in the Texas Panhandle. Those plants can produce about 400 million gallons of fuel ethanol per year from corn and sorghum feedstocks.132,133 The state also has 8 biodiesel plants that can produce about 380 million gallons of biodiesel per year.134 Texas also has a large wood pellet plant that has a capacity of about 550,000 tons per year.135,136 A second, smaller facility can produce more than 36,000 tons per year.137,138

The relatively gentle terrain and low rainfall throughout much of Texas are not conducive to hydroelectric power development, and fewer than two dozen hydroelectric power plants contribute less than 0.5% of in-state electricity generation.139 Although there are a large number of non-powered dams in Texas, there is limited potential for further hydroelectric development.140 Additionally, thousands of crude oil and natural gas wells in Texas offer geothermal potential. As a byproduct of crude oil and natural gas production, wells produce billions of barrels of non-potable water annually. That water, as hot as 200°C, could be used to generate electricity. Direct-use applications, such as ground-source heat pumps, use low-temperature geothermal resources at locations around the state.141

The Public Utility Commission of Texas first adopted rules for the state's renewable energy mandate in 1999 and amended them in 2005. The mandate required 10,000 megawatts of renewable capacity by 2025, including 500 megawatts from resources other than wind. Texas surpassed the overall 2025 goal in 2009, mostly because of the state's wind farms. In 2020, the state had more than 6,000 megawatts of renewable capacity from sources other than wind.142,143

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P2, Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
2 Texas State Historical Association, Texas Almanac, Environment, The Physical State of Texas, accessed March 1, 2021.
3 U.S. EIA, Texas, Profile Overview, Map Layers/Legends, Oil and Gas Wells, accessed March 1, 2021.
4 Railroad Commission of Texas, Surface Mining and Reclamation Division, Historical Coal Mining Counties in Texas (February 11, 2015).
5 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, All states, Wind, Annual, 2001-20.
6 Roberts, Billy J., Direct Normal Solar Irradiance, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
7 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, updated March 11, 2010.
8 Roberts, Billy J., Geothermal Resources of the United States, Map, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
9 Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, Uranium, accessed March 1, 2021.
10 Uranium Producers of America, Uranium in America, Uranium in Texas, accessed March 25, 2021.
11 U.S. Census Bureau, Vintage 2020 Population Estimates, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the Nation and States, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and the District of Columbia: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2020 (NST-EST2020).
12 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product by State, Current Dollars, All Areas, All Industry Total, 2019.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
15 U.S. EIA, Use of Energy Explained, Energy Use in Industry, updated June 28, 2020.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, Texas, All statistics in table, 2019.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
18 Federal Highway Administration, Policy and Governmental Affairs, Office of Highway Policy Information, Highway Statistics 2016, Table MV-1, State Motor-Vehicle Registrations, 2019 (November 2020).
19 Federal Highway Administration, Policy and Governmental Affairs, Office of Highway Policy Information, Highway Statistics 2018, Table VM-2, Functional System Travel, 2019, Annual Vehicle Miles (September 30, 2020).
20 Bomar, George W., Weather, The Handbook of Texas Online, accessed March 2, 2021.
21 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Texas Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
22 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2009 RECS Survey Data, Air conditioning, Table HC7.10, Air Conditioning in Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009.
23 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
24 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
25 U.S. EIA, "U.S. crude oil production grew 17% in 2018, surpassing the previous record in 1970," Today in Energy (April 9, 2019).
26 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31 and Estimated Production, 2019.
27 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2019.
28 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 5-7, 11.
29 Wooster, Robert, and Christine Moor Sanders, "Spindletop Oilfield," Texas State Historical Association, accessed March 2, 2021.
30 The Railroad Commission of Texas, Historical Crude Oil Production and Well Counts, History of Texas Initial Crude Oil, Annual Production and Producing Wells Since 1935, accessed March 3, 2021.
31 U.S. EIA, U.S. tight oil production—selected plays, accessed March 3, 2021.
32 U.S. EIA, "Horizontally drilled wells dominate U.S. tight formation production," Today in Energy (June 6, 2019).
33 U.S. EIA, "Hydraulically fractured horizontal wells account for most new oil and natural gas wells," Today in Energy (December 20, 2018).
34 U.S. EIA, Texas Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, Thousand Barrels (1981-2020).
35 U.S. EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly (February 2021), Table 26, Production of Crude Oil by PAD District and State, December 2020.
36 U.S. EIA, "Benchmarks play an important role in pricing crude oil," Today in Energy (October 28, 2014).
37 U.S. Department of Energy, Fossil Energy, SPR Storage Sites, accessed March 3, 2021.
38 U.S. Department of Energy, "DOE Announces Contract Awards for Sale of Crude Oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve," Press Release (March 5, 2021).
39 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2020), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2020, p. 17, 20.
40 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, Annual (as of January 1), 2020.
41 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, Annual (as of January 1), 2020.
42 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2020), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2020, p. 17, 20.
43 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Input Qualities, API Gravity, Annual, 2015-20.
44 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Input Qualities, Sulfur Content, Annual, 2015-20.
45 U.S. EIA, Refinery Net Production, Texas Gulf Coast, and Texas Inland, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2015-20.
46 U.S. EIA, "Cold weather led to refinery shutdowns in U.S. Gulf Coast region," Today in Energy (March 1, 2021).
47 U.S. EIA, "Gulf Coast refinery runs are approaching levels seen prior to Hurricane Harvey," Today in Energy (October 26, 2017).
48 U.S. EIA, Movements by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail between PAD Districts, Petroleum Products, Annual Thousand Barrels, 2015-20, From PADD 3.
49 U.S. EIA, East Coast and Gulf Coast Transportation Fuels Markets (February 2016), p. 87.
50 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
51 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
52 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2018.
53 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F11, Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Consumption Estimates, 2018.
54 U.S. EIA, Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Explained, updated September 18, 2020.
55 Larson, B.K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements as of January 2018, ExxonMobil, accessed March 3, 2021.
56 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 1, 2020, Excel File.
57 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2018.
58 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
59 U.S. EIA, "Extreme winter weather event in Texas reduced fuel ethanol production in February," Today in Energy (March 31, 2021).
60 U.S. Census Bureau, Texas, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
61 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
62 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, 2019, Dry Natural Gas, Annual.
63 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 8-10.
64 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross withdrawals and Marketed Production, Annual, 2020.
65 U.S. EIA, Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 1967-2020.
66 U.S. EIA, Permian Region Drilling Productivity Report (February 2021).
67 U.S. EIA, Eagle Ford Region Drilling Productivity Report (March 2021).
68 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Texas, 2015-20.
69 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Natural Gas Explained, Where Our Natural Gas Comes From, updated February 19, 2021.
70 U.S. EIA, "Texas natural gas production fell by almost half during recent cold snap," Today in Energy (February 25, 2021).
71 Texas Railroad Commission, Texas Pipeline System Mileage, accessed March 14, 2021.
72 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Mapping System, Natural Gas Market Hub Map Layer, accessed March 14, 2021.
73 U.S. EIA, U.S. Energy Mapping System, Natural Gas Interstate Pipeline Map Layer, accessed March 14, 2021.
74 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Texas, Annual 2014-19.
75 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Import Terminals: Existing, Approved not Yet Built, and Proposed, updated March 8, 2021.
76 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Export Terminals: Existing, Approved not Yet Built, and Proposed, updated March 8, 2021.
77 U.S. EIA, Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 1967-2020.
78 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Annual, Texas, 2015-20.
79 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Texas, Annual 2014-19.
80 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Working Gas Capacity, Annual, 2019.
81 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Texas, Annual, 2019.
82 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2019.
83 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Texas, Annual, 2019.
84 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Industrial Consumers, Annual, 2020.
85 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Electric Power Consumers, Annual, 2020.
86 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Texas, Annual, 2019.
87 U.S. Census Bureau, Texas, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
88 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Residential, Annual, 2018.
89 U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau, Vintage 2020 Population Estimates, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the Nation and States, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and the District of Columbia: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2020 (NST-EST2020).
90 U.S. EIA, "Texas uses natural gas for electricity generation and home heating," Today in Energy (March 12, 2021).
91 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
92 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
93 U.S. EIA, Glossary, Lignite, accessed March 15, 2021.
94 Henderson, Dwight F., and Diana J. Kleiner, "Coal and Lignite Mining," Texas State Historical Association, Handbook of Texas, accessed March 15, 2021.
95 Mapel, W. J., Bituminous Coal Resources of Texas, U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey Bulletin 1242-D (1967), p. D-2.
96 Garner, L. Edwin, Mineral Resources and Mining, Coal, Texas State Historical Association, Handbook of Texas, accessed March 15, 2021.
97 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019, and Table 2, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2019.
98 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2018.
99 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
100 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), Texas, Table OS-23, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2019, and Table DS-40, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
101 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 1.3.B.
102 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 1.7.B.
103 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Texas, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2010-20.
104 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only) (Retired & Canceled Units Only).
105 American Electric Power, Oklaunion Plant—Archived, accessed March 16, 2021.
106 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, Coal, Texas, Annual, 2010-20.
107 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Texas, Operating Nuclear Power Reactors, updated March 19, 2020.
108 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Texas, All fuels, Nuclear, Annual, 2001-20.
109 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Texas, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2010-20.
110 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, United States Electricity Industry Primer, DOE/OE-0017 (July 2015), p. 11.
111 ERCOT, Company Profile, accessed March 17, 2021.
112 Texas State Historical Association, Texas Almanac, Texas Electric Grids: Demand and Supply, accessed March 16, 2021.
113 Texas State Historical Association, Texas Almanac, Texas Electric Grids: Demand and Supply, accessed March 16, 2021.
114 Galbraith, Kate, "Proudly Independent Texas Power Grid Reaches Out a Bit," The Texas Tribune (March 29, 2012).
115 U.S. EIA, "Extreme winter weather is disrupting energy supply and demand, particularly in Texas," Today in Energy (February 21, 2021).
116 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
117 U.S. Census Bureau, Texas, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
118 ERCOT, Fact Sheet March 2021 (March 16, 2021).
119 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Texas, Required Energy Efficiency Goals, updated April 29, 2016.
120 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, United States, Texas, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables (total), Annual, 2020.
121 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Texas, All fuels, Wind, Annual, 2020.
122 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 1.14.B.
123 Lasher, Warren, The Competitive Renewable Energy Zones Process, ERCOT (August 11, 2014).
124 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, Existing Nameplate and Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source, Producer Type and State (EIA-860), 1990-2019, Excel File.
125 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (March 2020), Table 6.2.B.
126 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
127 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 6.2.B.
128 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, updated March 11, 2010.
129 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.17.B, 6.2.B.
130 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Texas, All fuels, Biomass (total), Wood and wood-derived fuel, Other biomass, Annual, 2020.
131 Texas Department of Agriculture, Texas Bioenergy, 2010 Status Report (September 2010) p. 38-40.
132 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Excel File, U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Production Capacity, January 2020.
133 Ethanol Producers Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational, updated December 15, 2020.
134 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
135 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, December 2020.
136 Woodville Pellets, About Woodville Pellets, accessed March 18, 2021.
137 "U.S. Pellet Plants, operational," Biomass Magazine (January 4, 2021).
138 Patterson Wood Products, Welcome to Patterson Wood Products, accessed March 18, 2021.
139 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Texas, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2001-20.
140 Hadjerioua, Boualem, et.al, An Assessment of Energy Potential at Non-Powered Dams in the United States, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (April 2012), p. 8.
141 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program, Texas, DOE/GO-102006-2213 (April 2006).
142 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Texas, Renewable Generation Requirement, updated June 26, 2018.
143 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 6.2.B.