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Texas   Texas Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: January 18, 2018

Overview

Texas leads the nation in energy production, primarily from crude oil and natural gas, providing more than one-fifth of U.S. domestically-produced energy.1 Second only to Alaska in total land area, Texas stretches about 800 miles at its widest points both east to west and north to south.2 Crude oil and natural gas fields are present across the entire state, and coal is found in bands that cut across the eastern Texas coastal plain and in other coal-producing areas in the north-central and southwestern parts of the state.3,4 Texas also has abundant renewable energy resources and has rapidly developed its wind energy, becoming first in the nation in wind generated electricity.5,6 With a significant number of sunny days across vast distances, Texas is among the leading states in solar energy potential as well.7,8 Geothermal resources suitable for power generation are present in East Texas.9 Additionally, uranium deposits are found in South Texas.10 Overall, Texas is a large state with a wealth of energy resources.

Among the states, Texas has the second-largest population and the second-largest economy after California.11,12,13 The state leads the nation in total energy consumption, accounting for more than one-eighth of the U.S. total. On a per capita basis, Texas is sixth in the nation in energy consumption.14,15 The state has many energy-intensive industries, including petroleum refining and chemical manufacturing, and the industrial sector accounts for the largest share of state energy use.16,17 The transportation sector accounts for the second-largest share of energy consumption, in part because of the distances across the state and the large number of registered motor vehicles.18,19,20 The Texas climate varies significantly from east to west. Warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico sweeps westward across the state, losing moisture as it goes. The result is a climate that ranges from humid and subtropical along the coast, where much of the state's population resides, to semi-arid on the high plains, and arid in the mountainous west.21 Temperatures average in the 90s during the summer in the most densely populated parts of Texas, and energy use for cooling is high.22 Although the residential sector accounts for just one-eighth of state energy consumption, Texas leads the nation in residential energy use. However, with the state's large population, per capita residential energy consumption in Texas is among the lowest one-fourth of states.23,24

Petroleum

West Texas Intermediate crude oil serves as a benchmark for crude oil pricing in North America.

Texas leads the nation in crude oil reserves and production. The state has more than one-third of all U.S. crude oil proved reserves.25 More than one-fourth of the nation's 100 largest oil fields by reserves are in Texas, mostly in the Permian Basin of West Texas and in the south-central part of the state.26 Texas produces more than one-third of the nation's crude oil, more than any other state and even exceeding that of all the federal offshore producing areas.27

The first major oil boom in Texas began in 1901 with the discovery of the Spindletop oil field.28 Later discoveries led to increased crude oil production in Texas until 1972, when annual state production peaked at slightly more than 1.26 billion barrels.29 In subsequent years, output fell to less than one-third of the 1972 peak. However, production began to rise in 2010. Texas had the largest increase of any state in crude oil output in 2015, when annual production reached almost 1.26 billion barrels once again.30 West Texas Intermediate (WTI), a Texas crude oil, serves as a benchmark for crude oil pricing in North America, in both the crude oil physical market and the crude oil futures market.31,32

Texas leads the nation in crude oil-refining capacity with three-tenths of the nation's total. The state's 30 petroleum refineries can process almost 5.7 million barrels of crude oil per day.33,34 The majority of the state's refineries are clustered near ports along the Gulf Coast, including the nation's largest refinery in Port Arthur. Together, they comprise the largest refining center in the United States.35,36 Many of the Texas refineries are complex facilities that use additional refining processes beyond simple distillation to yield larger quantities of lighter, higher-value products, such as motor gasoline.37 With that capability, Texas refineries can process a wide variety of crude oil types.38,39 The refined products are shipped from the state's refineries by interstate pipeline, barge, and tanker to U.S. markets, primarily in the eastern and central states but also as far west as Arizona, and to foreign markets.40,41,42 Texas also has two of the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve's four crude oil storage facilities.43

Three-tenths of the nation’s crude oil refining capacity is located in Texas.

Texas also leads the nation in total petroleum consumption, and, in 2015, it ranked fifth in per capita petroleum consumption as well.44,45 The state is the nation's largest consumer of distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). In 2015, Texas LPG use was greater than the LPG consumption of all other states combined.46 Almost all the LPG is consumed by the industrial sector, where it is used in a variety of applications but especially as a feedstock for the state's petrochemical industry.47,48 While much of Texas uses conventional motor gasoline, in the eastern half of the state as well as in El Paso County, at the state's extreme western tip, several different motor gasoline blends are required to meet the diverse air-quality requirements in those areas. In the metropolitan areas of Greater Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth, reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol is required.49 Even though the state has four ethanol plants that are capable of producing 380 million gallons of ethanol per year, Texans consume more than three times as much ethanol as is produced in the state each year.50,51

Natural gas

One-fourth of the nation's proved natural gas reserves are located in Texas.

Texas holds one-fourth of the nation's proved natural gas reserves and almost one-third of the 100 largest natural gas fields are located, in whole or in part, in the state.52,53 Texas also leads the nation in natural gas production, accounting for one-fourth of U.S. production in 2016.54 Like crude oil production, the state's natural gas production reached its peak in 1972. From that peak of more than 9.5 trillion cubic feet, yearly production declined to about 5.5 trillion cubic feet in the late 1990s. Since then, natural gas production levels have rebounded, and, in 2016, the state produced more than 8 trillion cubic feet.55 Much of the last decade's rise in production is the result of advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies that increased production from shale formations.56,57

The development of pipeline systems in the mid-20th century to move natural gas to distant markets resulted in today's expansive network of interstate natural gas pipelines. Texas has more than 45,000 miles of interstate natural gas pipelines within its borders, and there are more natural gas market hubs in Texas than in any other state.58,59 Because of its natural gas infrastructure, the state is well connected to markets throughout the country.60 Natural gas is shipped from Texas across the nation and into Mexico, and is received from other states by pipeline and from overseas at liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals. The state's largest net receipts are from Oklahoma and the federal offshore producing areas.61 Two LNG import terminals are located along the state's Gulf Coast.62 The state's first LNG terminal at Freeport became operational in April 2008.63 Another LNG terminal, Golden Pass, at Sabine Pass, Texas, started up in 2010.64 Owners of both terminals are developing capability to export LNG, and construction has begun at the Freeport facility. A third export terminal at Corpus Christi, Texas, is also under construction.65 Texas has about one-tenth of the nation's natural gas storage capacity.66 Just over half of the state's 36 active storage facilities—more than two-thirds of the state's natural gas storage capacity—are in depleted oil and gas fields converted for storage use, and the rest of the state's storage capacity is in salt caverns.67

Texas leads the nation in natural gas consumption, accounting for about one-seventh of the U.S. total.68 The industrial and electric power sectors dominate Texas natural gas use, and more natural gas is consumed in the recovery, processing, and distribution of natural gas than is consumed by the state's residential and commercial sectors combined. The Texas industrial sector is responsible for about two-fifths of the state's consumption and about one-fifth of the nation's total industrial sector consumption of natural gas.69,70 The amount of natural gas used for electricity generation in Texas is greater than in any other state and accounts for almost one-sixth of the total used by the nation's electric power sector.71 More than one-third of state households rely on natural gas as their primary heating fuel, but Texas per capita residential natural gas consumption ranks among the lowest one-fifth of states.72,73,74

Coal

Texas is the largest lignite coal producer in the nation.

Texas has substantial lignite coal deposits that are found in narrow bands in the Texas Gulf Coast region, and bituminous coal deposits that are located in north-central and southwestern Texas. Overall, there are more than 9 billion tons of estimated recoverable coal reserves in the state.75,76,77 Texas is the seventh-largest coal producer and the largest lignite producer in the nation. All of the state's coal production is lignite, the lowest grade of coal, from surface mines.78 Bituminous coal was produced in the past from underground mines in Texas, but production ceased decades ago.79

Texas is the largest coal-consuming state, and its emissions of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide, mostly from electricity generation, are the highest in the nation.80,81 On a tonnage basis, Texas lignite accounts for more than two-fifths of the state's coal consumption, with nearly all of the rest of the state's needs met by subbituminous coal brought from Wyoming by rail.82,83 The lignite mined in Texas is consumed entirely within the state, almost all of it to generate electric power. Lignite-fueled power plants are typically located at a surface mine, where lignite is delivered directly to the plant by conveyor belt, slurry pipeline, truck, or rail.84,85 Competitively priced natural gas and accessible renewable generation are causing some coal-fired power plants and their associated coal mines in the state to close.86

Electricity

Texas generates more electricity than any other state, almost twice as much as the second-highest electricity-producing state.

Texas produces more electricity than any other state, generating almost twice as much as Florida, the second-highest electricity-producing state. Half of the electricity generated in Texas came from natural gas-fired power plants in 2016. Coal-fired power plants supplied about one-fourth of the state's net generation, down from more than one-third of generation before 2015.87,88 Wind-powered generation has rapidly increased in the state and, in 2016, it provided one-eighth of Texas generation. The state's two nuclear power plants supply about one-tenth of the state's net electricity generation.89 Most new generation is fueled by natural gas, wind, or solar.90

There are four electricity grids that serve the state, but the main Texas electricity grid is operated by the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The ERCOT grid serves about three-fourths of the state and is largely isolated from the interconnected power systems serving the eastern and western United States.91 This isolation means the ERCOT grid is not subject to federal oversight and is, for the most part, dependent on its own resources to meet the state's electricity needs.92 Among the contiguous 48 states, Texas is the only one with a stand-alone electricity grid.93

Texas is the largest electricity consumer among the states, and both electricity demand and power supply have been increasing.94,95 It was the first state to establish an energy efficiency resource standard, and investor owned utilities in Texas are required to meet certain goals to reduce energy use and demand. The initial goal is for savings to equal 30% of a utility system's annual growth in peak demand. After that target is met, the state requires a reduction in usage equal to up to 0.4 % of peak demand.96

The largest share of retail electricity sales in Texas is sold to the residential sector.97 About three out of five households in the state use electricity as their primary heating fuel, and demand for air conditioning is high during the hot summer months.98,99

Renewable energy

Texas leads the nation in wind-powered generation, with one-fourth of the U.S. total in 2016.

In 1999, the Public Utility Commission of Texas first adopted rules for the state's renewable energy mandate. In 2005, the state legislature amended the mandate to require that 5,880 megawatts, or about 5% of the state's electricity generating capacity, come from renewable sources by 2015. Lawmakers also set a goal of 10,000 megawatts of renewable capacity by 2025, including 500 megawatts from resources other than wind. Texas surpassed the 2015 goal in 2005 and the 2025 goal in 2009, almost entirely with wind power.100 Renewable energy sources contributed almost one-seventh of the state's net electricity generation in 2016 and provided more than one-sixth of the total U.S. electricity generation from all nonhydroelectric renewable sources. Texas produced more nonhydroelectric renewable generation than any other state in the nation.101

Wind accounts for nearly all of the electricity generated from renewable resources in Texas.102 The state encouraged construction of wind farms on its wide plains by authorizing Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZ), a $7-billion project in which transmission lines were built to connect to future wind farms.103 Texas leads the nation in wind-powered electricity generation, producing one-fourth of the U.S. total in 2016, and the state is on track to exceed that level in 2017.104 In 2011, Texas was the first state to reach 10,000 megawatts of installed wind generating capacity.105 At the end of 2016, Texas had 21,450 megawatts of wind capacity installed.106 Utility-scale wind facilities represented nearly one-sixth of the state's total generating capacity and produced more than one-eighth of state net generation.107,108 More than 5,000 megawatts of additional wind generation capacity are under construction.109

Texas is also rich in other renewable energy resources. The size of the state and the high levels of direct solar radiation in West Texas give the state some of the largest solar power potential in the nation.110 Decreasing costs for solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and improved transmission access from the CREZ projects have resulted in rapid increases in solar PV capacity in Texas. By 2016, installed utility-scale solar capacity in Texas was more than 10 times what it had been in 2011, reaching more than 580 megawatts.111 In 2016, nearly one-third of Texas solar generation came from distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) facilities, and distributed capacity is increasing.112,113

The agricultural and forestry sectors can provide Texas with abundant biomass and biofuel resources.114,115 Currently, less than 1% of the state's electricity is generated using biomass. Texas is expanding its use of biomass in the production of electricity.116 Texas has four biofuels plants in the agriculturally rich high plains region in the Texas Panhandle. The plants have the capacity to produce about 500 million gallons of ethanol per year from corn and sorghum feedstocks.117

Hydroelectric power contributes less than 1% to Texas in-state electricity generation from fewer than two dozen generating units.118,119 The relatively gentle terrain and low rainfall throughout much of the state are not conducive to hydroelectric power development. Reservoirs are primarily used for water storage, with electricity generation as a secondary purpose, and water is usually not released from reservoirs solely to generate power, except in periods of peak demand.120 Despite the large number of non-powered dams in Texas, the potential for further hydroelectric development is limited by lack of precipitation.121,122

Texas has a unique untapped geothermal resource: its large network of crude oil and natural gas wells. Existing wells connect to deeper geothermal resources, many with water as hot as 200 degrees Celsius. More than 12 billion barrels of non-potable water are produced annually as a byproduct from the state's crude oil and natural gas wells, and heat from that water could be used to generate electricity. On a smaller scale, geothermal resources have been tapped to heat and cool homes and schools around the state.123

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2015, Table P2, Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2015.
2 Texas State Historical Association, Texas Almanac, Environment, The Physical State of Texas, accessed December 4, 2017.
3 University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Oil and Gas Map of Texas (2005).
4 Railroad Commission of Texas, Surface Mining and Reclamation Division, Historical Coal Mining, Coal Regions/Fields in Texas (February 11, 2015).
5 American Wind Energy Association, Texas Wind Energy, accessed December 4, 2017.
6 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.14.B.
7 Current Results, Days of Sunshine Per Year in Texas, accessed December 4, 2017.
8 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, updated March 11, 2010.
9 Geothermal Energy Association, Map of Geothermal Resources in Texas, accessed December 4, 2017.
10 Chapa, Sergio, "New deposits of uranium found in South Texas but low prices remain a challenge," San Antonio Business Journal (December 7, 2015).
11 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016, Population Estimates, Population Change, and Components of Change, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01).
12 U.S. EIA, Texas, Profile Data, Energy Indicators, accessed December 4, 2017.
13 U.S. EIA, California, Profile Data, Energy Indicators, accessed December 4, 2017.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C4, Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2015.
15 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016, Population Estimates, Population Change, and Components of Change, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01).
16 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Energy Use in Industry, accessed December 5, 2017.
17 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, All industries, Texas, 2015.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
19 U.S. EIA, Texas, Profile Data, Energy Indicators, accessed December 5, 2017.
20 Texas Department of Motor Vehicles, About TxDMV, About Us, accessed December 5, 2017.
21 Johnson, Ann, "About the Climate of Texas," Sciencing, updated April 24, 2017.
22 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Texas Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
23 U.S. Climate Data, Texas, accessed December 15, 2017.
24 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
25 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016, Population Estimates, Population Change, and Components of Change, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01).
26 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2010-15.
27 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 5-7, 11.
28 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2011-16.
29 Wooster, Robert, and Christine Moor Sanders, "Spindletop Oilfield," The Handbook of Texas Online, Texas State Historical Association, accessed December 5, 2017.
30 Kim, Eugene M., and Stephen C. Ruppel, Oil and Gas Production in Texas, Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas at Austin, p. 2, accessed December 7, 2017.
31 U.S. EIA, Texas Field Production of Crude Oil (Annual Thousand Barrels), 1981-2016.
32 U.S. EIA, "Crude oils have different quality characteristics," Today in Energy (July 16, 2012).
33 U.S. EIA, Petroleum & Other Liquids, Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes, West Texas Intermediate (WTI-Cushing), accessed December 5, 2017.
34 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, Annual (as of January 1), 2012-17.
35 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, Annual (as of January 1), 2012-17.
36 U.S. EIA, Texas Profile Overview, Petroleum Refinery map layer, accessed December 7, 2017.
37 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2017), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2017, p. 4-26.
38 U.S. EIA, Refinery Net Production, Texas Gulf Coast, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2011-16.
39 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Input Qualities, API Gravity, Annual, 2011-16.
40 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Input Qualities, Sulfur Content, Annual, 2011-16.
41 U.S. EIA, Movements by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail between PAD Districts, Petroleum Products, Annual Thousand Barrels, 2011-16, PADD 3.
42 U.S. EIA, East Coast and Gulf Coast Transportation Fuels Markets (February 2016), p. 85-90.
43 Pipelines 101, Where Are Liquids Pipelines Located?, Refined, accessed December 8, 2017.
44 U.S. Department of Energy, Fossil Energy, SPR Storage Sites, accessed December 8, 2017.
45 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2015.
46 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016, Population Estimates, Population Change, and Components of Change, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01).
47 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2015.
48 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F12, Liquefied Petroleum Gases Consumption Estimates, 2015.
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50 Gardner, K.S., "U.S. Gasoline Requirements," ExxonMobil (June 2015).
51 Ethanol Producer Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Platforms, Operational, updated September 23, 2017.
52 U.S. EIA, Texas Profile Data, Environment, accessed December 8, 2017.
53 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2010-15.
54 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 8-10.
55 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2011-16.
56 U.S. EIA, Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 1967-2016.
57 U.S. EIA, Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas, 2007-16.
58 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Natural Gas Explained, Where Our Natural Gas Comes From, accessed December 13, 2017.
59 Texas Railroad Commission, Pipeline Safety, accessed December 13, 2017.
60 U.S. EIA, Texas Profile Overview, Natural Gas Market Hub Map Layer, accessed December 14, 2017.
61 Pipeline 101, Natural Gas Pipelines Map, U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines, accessed December 14, 2017.
62 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Texas, Annual 2011-16.
63 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Import/Export Terminals, Existing, updated May 1, 2017.
64 Macquarie, "Macquarie Energy and Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., to Jointly Develop U.S. LNG Export Project," Press Release (November 22, 2010).
65 Moore, Sarah, "Sabine Pass Terminal Gets its First Shipment of LNG," FuelFix (October 22, 2010).
66 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Import/Export Terminals, Approved, updated May 1, 2017.
67 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2011-16.
68 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Texas, Annual, 2011-16.
69 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2011-16.
70 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Texas, Annual, 2011-16.
71 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Industrial Consumers, Annual, 2011-16.
72 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Electric Power Consumers, Annual, 2011-16.
73 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Texas, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-16 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
74 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Residential, Annual, 2011-16.
75 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016, Population Estimates, Population Change, and Components of Change, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01).
76 Kaiser, W. R., W. B. Ayers, Jr., and L. W. LaBrie, Lignite Resources in Texas, Report of Investigations No. 104, Bureau of Economic Geology and Texas Energy and Natural Resources Advisory Council (1980), p. 3.
77 Mapel, W. J., Bituminous Coal Resources of Texas, U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey Bulletin 1242-D (1967), p. D-3.
78 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2016.
79 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2016 (November 2017), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2016.
80 Texas State Historical Association, Minerals Resources and Mining, Coal, accessed December 15, 2017.
81 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2015.
82 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual 2016 (December 2017), Table 9.5. Emissions from Energy Consumption at Conventional Power Plants and Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants, by State, 2015 and 2016 (Thousand Metric Tons).
83 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (November 2017), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2016.
84 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Texas, Table DS-41, Domestic Coal Distribution by Destination State, 2016.
85 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2016 (November 2017), Texas, Table OS-25, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2016.
86 U.S. EIA, Texas Profile Overview, All Coal Mines and Coal Power Plant Map Layers, accessed December 15, 2017.
87 "Luminant makes job cuts official with filings," Longview News-Journal (November 20, 2017).
88 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B.
89 U.S. EIA, Texas Electricity Profile 2015, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2015.
90 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B, 1.14.B.
91 U.S. EIA, Texas Electricity Profile 2015, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2015.
92 Texas State Historical Association, Texas Almanac, Texas Electric Grids: Demand and Supply, accessed December 17, 2017.
93 Galbraith, Kate, "Proudly Independent Texas Power Grid Reaches Out a Bit," The Texas Tribune (March 29, 2012).
94 Electricity Reliability Council of Texas, Your Power, Our Promise, 2015 State of the Grid Report (February 2016), p. 7.
95 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.4.B.
96 U.S. EIA, Texas Electricity Profile 2015, Table 8, Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2015.
97 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Texas, Required Energy Efficiency Goals, updated April 29, 2016.
98 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.4.B.
99 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Texas, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2012-16 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
100 Electricity Reliability Council of Texas, Quick Facts (November 2017).
101 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Texas, Renewable Generation Requirement, updated April 29, 2016.
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103 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
104 Malewitz, Jim, "$7 Billion CREZ Project Nears Finish, Aiding Wind Power," The Texas Tribune (October 14, 2013).
105 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017 and November 2017), Table 1.14.B.
106 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, Existing Nameplate and Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source, Producer Type and State (EIA-860), 1990-2016.
107 American Wind Energy Association, Texas Wind Energy, accessed December 18, 2017.
108 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, Existing Nameplate and Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source, Producer Type and State (EIA-860), 1990-2016.
109 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
110 American Wind Energy Association, Texas Wind Energy, accessed December 18, 2017.
111 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, updated March 11, 2010.
112 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, Existing Nameplate and Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source, Producer Type and State (EIA-860), 1990-2016.
113 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.17.B.
114 Solar Energy Industries Association, Solar Spotlight Texas (December 14, 2017).
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116 Texas A&M Forest Service, Data & Analysis, Forest Economics and Resource Analysis: Economic Development FAQS, How much woody biomass is in East Texas?, accessed December 18, 2017.
117 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.15.B.
118 Ethanol Producers Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, Operational, updated September 23, 2017.
119 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B.
120 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form 860 detailed data, 2016 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), Texas.
121 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, The Energy Report (May 2008), p. 126, 266.
122 Hadjerioua, Boualem, et.al, An Assessment of Energy Potential at Non-Powered Dams in the United States, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (April 2012), p. 8.
123 State Energy Conservation Office, Texas Renewable Energy Resource Assessment (December 2008), p. xiv.
124 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program, Texas, DOE/GO-102006-2213 (April 2006).