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Utah   Utah Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: November 16, 2017

Overview

Utah has both fossil and renewable energy resources and is a net energy supplier to neighboring states.

Utah is a state of contrasts, from flat salt desert to rugged canyons, and from mountains soaring above 13,000 feet in the northeast to the desert floor 9,000 feet lower in the southwest.1 The state has a wide variety of energy assets, including crude oil, natural gas, coal, and many renewable resources.2 An arid state with abundant sunshine, Utah is among the states with the most solar resources.3,4 Wind, hydropower, and geothermal resources are all major contributors to the state's renewable generation.5 More than two-thirds of the state's population lives along the Wasatch Front at the base of the Wasatch Mountains on the western edge of the Rockies. Landfills in that area provide the state with a biomass resource.6 Although Utah was the fourth fastest-growing state by population in 2016, most of the state is lightly populated.7,8

The energy industry is an important component of Utah's economy, and the state is a net energy supplier to the nation.9,10 Royalties from energy development on extensive state trust lands are the largest source of income for Utah's public-school trust fund.11 Two-thirds of Utah's land is owned by the federal government.12 Among the 50 states, Utah has the fourth highest number of producing oil and natural gas leases on federal lands.13

Energy consumption in Utah is led by the transportation sector, followed closely by the industrial sector. Each of those sectors uses about three-tenths of the energy consumed in Utah. The residential sector and the commercial sector each account for about one-fifth of the state's energy consumption.14 Despite temperatures that vary greatly with season and altitude, ranging from well above 100°F in the south in the summer to well below zero in the north in winter, energy consumption per capita in Utah is below the national average.15,16 The state's economy is largely service-oriented and its energy intensity—the amount of energy consumed to produce one dollar of gross domestic product—is near the national average.17,18

Petroleum

Utah has slightly more than 1% of the nation's proved petroleum reserves.19 In addition to conventional crude oil reservoirs, northeastern Utah overlays part of the Green River oil shale, a potential petroleum resource. Eastern Utah also hosts the largest U.S. oil sand resources. However, only a few companies are pursuing the price-sensitive and water-intensive development of the state's oil shale and oil sand resources.20 Utah accounts for about 1 in every 100 barrels of crude oil produced in the United States, and 1 of every 8 barrels produced in the Rocky Mountain states.21 Oil-drilling operations and producing wells are concentrated in the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah and the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah.22,23 Oil production tripled from 2003 to 2014, but has since declined as crude oil prices and the number of new wells drilled have decreased. In 2016, Utah's crude oil production was still more than twice the 2003 level.24,25,26 In 2015, nearly one-third of the state's crude oil production came from tribal lands.27

Utah's five refineries, all located in the Salt Lake City area, process crude oil brought in by pipeline from Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, and Canada.28,29 The refineries, which have almost three-tenths of the refining capacity in the Rocky Mountain region, produce motor gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, other fuel oils, and wax.30,31 Pipelines carry refined products from Salt Lake City's refineries to markets in Utah, Idaho, Nevada, Wyoming, and eastern Washington and Oregon. Refined petroleum products also enter Utah by pipeline from refineries in Wyoming and Montana.32,33,34

Utah’s crude oil production tripled from 2003 to 2014, and, although it has since declined, it is still more than twice the 2003 level.

Utah's petroleum consumption per capita ranks among the lowest one-third of the 50 states.35,36 More than four-fifths of petroleum products consumed in the state are used in the transportation sector.37 Utah requires the use of a motor gasoline blend with low volatility in four counties in the densely populated north central part of the state, including the Salt Lake City, Ogden, and Provo/Orem areas. The rest of the state can use conventional motor gasoline.38,39,40 Utah does not have any ethanol production facilities and the ethanol needed for blending with motor gasoline is supplied by rail from the Midwest.41,42 Fuel oil and kerosene are used to heat far fewer than 1 in 100 Utah households, and petroleum consumption in the state's residential sector is lower than that of all other states except Hawaii.43,44

Natural gas

Utah has 3 of the 100 largest U.S. natural gas fields, ranked by proved reserves, and slightly more than 1% of the nation's proved natural gas reserves.45,46 The state also has almost 3% of U.S. coalbed methane reserves.47 Coalbed methane is the natural gas produced from coal seams.48 Utah's natural gas production, concentrated in Uintah County, accounted for about 1% of U.S. output in 2016.49,50 Production, primarily from increased drilling for natural gas liquids and crude oil, rose from the middle of the last decade and peaked in 2012.51,52 Utah's natural gas production has decreased since 2012 in response to low market prices and reduced crude oil drilling.53 Coalbed methane production peaked in 2002, when it equaled more than one-fifth of the state's natural gas output; production has been gradually declining since then. In 2016, coalbed methane accounted for about one-ninth of Utah's natural gas gross withdrawals.54,55

Utah is crossed by several interstate pipelines that transport natural gas from the Opal Hub in Wyoming, from the Piceance Basin in western Colorado, and from Utah's production to markets in Nevada, Idaho, and beyond.56,57 Utah has 3 natural gas storage facilities with a combined storage capacity of more than 124 billion cubic feet, slightly more than 1% of the nation's total natural gas storage capacity.58 The Clay Basin facility, on the Utah-Wyoming border near Colorado, is the largest underground storage reservoir in the Rocky Mountain region.59

Utah has the eighth-largest number of public-access CNG refueling stations in the nation.

The residential sector, where five in six households use natural gas as their primary heating fuel, is Utah's largest consumer of natural gas. The electric power sector is a close second.60,61 Utah's state energy policy favors diversifying transportation fuels, including increased use of compressed natural gas (CNG).62 In 2017, Utah had the eighth-largest number of public access CNG refueling stations in the nation and the second-largest number per capita.63,64 Overall, Utah consumes less natural gas than it produces, and, in 2016, one-third of the natural gas produced in Utah left the state.65

Coal

Utah has about 1% of the nation's estimated recoverable coal reserves and accounts for nearly 2% of U.S. coal production. Most active mines in the state are underground operations in central Utah. The only active surface mine is in the south near the Arizona border.66,67 More than four-fifths of all coal mined in Utah is consumed in the state, primarily for electric power generation. More than half of the coal burned in state is delivered by truck. Almost all of the rest is delivered by rail.68,69 One mine had delivered coal to a generating station by conveyor belt, but that mine was closed in 2015.70,71

In recent years, Utah coal production has declined and mines have shut down because of decreased demand from the electric power sector and because some older coal mining areas are less profitable.72,73 Shipments of coal to other states declined from almost 10 million tons in 2000 to less than 3 million tons in 2015. Most of Utah's annual coal production now goes to industrial users in less than a half dozen states.74,75 Some coal is exported to Pacific Rim countries through California ports.76

Electricity

About two-thirds of Utah's net electricity generation came from coal in 2016, down from more than four-fifths just three years earlier and from nine-tenths in 2006. Most of Utah's recently added electricity generating capacity is fueled by natural gas. In 2016, natural gas accounted for nearly one-fourth of the state's net generation. Almost all of the rest of Utah's in-state electricity generation came from solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal, and biomass energy.77,78,79 Although the state does not have any nuclear power plants, plans for a nuclear power plant in Utah are in development.80 The state has the nation's only operating uranium ore mill.81 Utah has experienced several booms in uranium mining—during the Cold War, in the 1980s with the growth in the nuclear power industry, and when uranium prices increased in the early 2000s—followed by mine closures when demand and prices fell. The Utah mill now processes uranium ore from mines in other states. There have been no active uranium mines in Utah since 2014, but an application to reopen at least one mine in the state is pending.82,83

Utah generates more electricity than it consumes, and the state is a net power supplier to other states.84 Some Utah generating plants are switching from coal to natural gas to comply with California's low-emission laws for deliveries of power into that state.85 Utah's Strategic Energy Plan predicts that natural gas will replace coal and back up intermittent renewables for new electricity generation.86 No new coal-fired generators have been built since 1995, whereas almost 60 natural gas-fired units have been put into service during the same period.87 High-capacity transmission lines are being constructed to bring conventional and renewable power from Wyoming and Utah to Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Nevada, and California, as well as to enhance reliability of delivery within Utah.88

Utah's per capita electricity consumption is lower than in about three-fourths of the states.89,90 The commercial sector consumes the most electricity, but consumption is fairly evenly divided among that sector, the residential sector, and the industrial sector.91 Utah's retail electricity prices are among the lowest one-fourth of the states.92 Electricity is the primary fuel for home heating in slightly more than one in eight Utah households.93

Renewable energy

More than 8% of Utah's net electricity generation came from renewable sources in 2016. Utility-scale solar energy provided more electricity than any other renewable resource in the state for the first time. Electricity generation from all solar facilities in Utah provided one-third of the state's renewable generation and was 10 times greater in 2016 than in 2015.94 More than 1,240 megawatts of solar generating capacity was added in 2016, about half of it utility-scale, raising Utah's installed capacity to about 1,550 megawatts.95,96 The state requires investor-owned electric utilities and most electric cooperatives to offer net metering, further encouraging electricity generated from solar arrays on consumers' rooftops.97 In 2016, one-seventh of all the state's solar generation came from distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) facilities.98

Wind energy produced more than one-fourth of Utah's net renewable electricity generation in 2016.99 Utah has five wind farms operating with nearly 400 megawatts of capacity.100 The state's two largest wind farms send power to California.101 There is commercial wind power potential in the Wasatch and Uinta mountain ranges in Utah's north-central region and on the mesas in western Utah.102 However, the state requirement that investments in renewable generation projects be cost-effective has resulted in Utah utilities investing in wind projects in neighboring states, where Utah regulators have deemed the projects to be more cost-effective than proposed in-state facilities.103

Hydroelectric generators provided a little more than one-fourth of Utah's net renewable electricity generation in 2016, slightly less than the supply from wind. 104 The state has fewer than 30 utility-scale hydroelectric plants and the annual amount of generation depends on water availability. Two-thirds of Utah's hydroelectric generating units are more than 50 years old; the oldest one was built in 1896.105

Utah is one of seven states with operating utility-scale geothermal electricity generating capacity. In 2016, three small geothermal facilities in southwestern Utah provided about one-sixth of the state's net renewable electricity generation.106,107 The state has among the best geothermal potential in the nation, and more geothermal projects are in development.108,109 Biomass, primarily in the form of landfill gas at facilities on the Wasatch Front, provided the remainder of Utah's renewable net electricity generation in 2016.110

Utah requires that renewable energy sources be used only if they are cost-effective for state ratepayers.

Utah has a renewable portfolio goal that requires all electric distribution utilities to pursue renewable energy resources to the extent that they are cost-effective. Each utility has a goal of acquiring 20% of its adjusted retail electricity sales from qualifying renewable sources by 2025. Adjusted retail sales are calculated by deducting electricity from sources that don't emit carbon, such as nuclear power plants, demand-side management measures, or fossil fuel power plants that sequester their carbon emissions, before computing the 20% goal.111

Endnotes

1 Davies, Robert, "Climate Utah—Cathedral Peaks, Monument Valleys, Ancient Lakes and the Greatest Snow on Earth," Utah's Climate, The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, ‘State Climate Series,' accessed October 16, 2017.
2 Office of Energy Development, Utah's Energy Resources and Priorities, accessed October 16, 2017.
3 Current Results, Average Annual Sunshine by State, accessed November 6, 2017.
4 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Photovoltaic Solar Resource of the United States (September 19, 2012).
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.16.B, 1.17.B.
6 U.S. EIA, Utah Profile Overview, Biomass Power Plant map layer, accessed October 24, 3017.
7 World Population Review, Utah Population 2017, accessed October 16, 2017.
8 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Utah Profile, Population Density by Census Tract, accessed October 16, 2017.
9 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2015.
10 Governor's Office of Energy Development, Energy Overview, accessed October 16, 2017.
11 State of Utah School and Institutional Trust Lands Administration, Fiscal Year 2017 Annual Report, p. 7.
12 Vincent, Carol H., et al., Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data, Congressional Research Service (March 3, 2017), p. 8.
13 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Public Land Statistics 2016, BLM/OC/ST-17/001+1165 (May 2017), p, 120-121.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
15 Davies, Robert, "Climate Utah—Cathedral Peaks, Monument Valleys, Ancient Lakes and the Greatest Snow on Earth," Utah's Climate, The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, ‘State Climate Series,' accessed October 16, 2017.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2015.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2015, DOE/EIA-0214(2015) (June 2017), Table C12, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2015.
18 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Regional Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, All industries, Utah, 2015.
19 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved reserves as of December 31. 2015.
20 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 121, Utah Geological Survey (2016), p. 34.
21 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2016.
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27 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 121, Utah Geological Survey (2016), p. 24.
28 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2017, Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2017.
29 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 121, Utah Geological Survey (2016), p. 26.
30 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 121, Utah Geological Survey (2016), p. 26.
31 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2017, Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2017.
32 Utah Rails.net, Utah's Oil Industry and Utah's Railroads, updated July 5, 2015.
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34 Sinclair, Refineries, Sinclair Wyoming Refining Company, accessed October 17, 2017.
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36 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01).
37 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
38 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, State by State RVP Table, updated August 1, 2016.
39 Utah State Bulletin, Utah Administrative Code, Rule R307-301. Utah and Weber Counties: Oxygenated Gasoline Program as a Contingency Measure (February 15, 2017), p. 62.
40 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements (June 2015).
41 U.S. EIA, Utah Profile Data, Environment, accessed October 18, 2017.
42 The Scoular Co., "Scoular to Construct Utah Ethanol Distribution Terminal," Press Release (June 3, 2010).
43 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
44 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Advanced Search, Utah, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
45 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2015.
46 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015).
47 U.S. EIA, Coalbed Methane, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2015.
48 U.S. EIA, Glossary, Coalbed Methane, accessed October 18, 2017.
49 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 121, Utah Geological Survey (2016), p. 31.
50 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2016.
51 U.S. EIA, Utah Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2016.
52 Utah Governor's Office of Planning and Budget, Economic Outlook 2012 (January 2012), p. 34.
53 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 121, Utah Geological Survey (2016), p. 31.
54 U.S. EIA, Utah Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2016.
55 U.S. EIA, Utah Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, 2002-2016.
56 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Utah, 2011-16.
57 U.S. EIA, Utah Profile Data, Distribution and Marketing, accessed October 18, 2017.
58 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Total Working Gas Capacity, and Total Number of Existing Fields, 2016.
59 Dominion Energy, Dominion Energy Questar Pipeline, LLC, accessed October 18, 2017.
60 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Utah, 2011-16.
61 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Advanced Search, Utah, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
62 Utah Governor's Office, Energy Initiatives and Imperatives: Utah's 10-Year Strategic Energy Plan 2.0, updated February 2014, p. 42.
63 U.S. Department of Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Compressed Natural Gas, excluding private stations, by state, updated October 18, 2017.
64 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01).
65 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Annual Supply and Disposition by State, Utah, Annual, 2011-16.
66 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2015 and 2014; and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2015.
67 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 121, Utah Geological Survey (2016), p. 16.
68 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2015 and 2014.
69 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (November 2016), Utah Table OS-26, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2015; and Utah Table DS-42, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2015.
70 PacifiCorp, Huntington Plant, accessed October 22, 2016.
71 PacifiCorp, Mining, accessed October 19, 2017. http://www.pacificorp.com/es/mining.html
72 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 121, Utah Geological Survey (2016), p. 18, 21.
73 Utah Economic Council, 2016 Economic Report to the Governor, p. 116.
74 Jahanbani, F. R., 2000 Annual Review and Forecast of Utah Coal Production and Distribution, State of Utah Natural Resources (July 2001), Appendix Table 6.
75 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (November 2016), Utah Table OS-26, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2015.
76 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 121, Utah Geological Survey (2016), p. 21.
77 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B, 1.9.B, 1.10.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.16.B, 1.17.B.
78 U.S. EIA, Utah Electricity Profile 2015, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2015.
79 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 121, Utah Geological Survey (2016), p. 37-39.
80 Webb, Dennis, "Nuke plant unaffected by Westinghouse bankruptcy," The Daily Sentinel (April 12, 2017).
81 U.S. EIA, Domestic Uranium Production Report-Annual, Table 4, U.S. uranium mills by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2011-16.
82 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 121, Utah Geological Survey (2016), p. 35-36.
83 World Nuclear Association, US Uranium Mining and Exploration, updated August 2017.
84 U.S. EIA, Utah Electricity Profile 2015, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2015.
85 Hollenhorst, John, "Utah Power Plant Looks to Natural Gas to Fuel the Future," KSL.com (March 24, 2014).
86 Utah Governor's Office, Energy Initiatives and Imperatives: Utah's 10-Year Strategic Energy Plan 2.0, updated February 2014, p. 25-26.
87 U.S. EIA, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2015 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
88 Shallenberger, Krysti, "Feds greenlight pair of Western US transmission projects," Utility Drive (December 14, 2016).
89 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.4.B.
90 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, State Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01).
91 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F21, Electricity Consumption Estimates, 2015.
92 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.6.B.
93 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Utah, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, 2016.
94 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.10.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.16.B, 1.17.B.
95 Solar Energy Industries Association, Utah Solar, accessed October 24, 2017.
96 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 6.3.
97 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Utah, Net Metering, updated August 17, 2017.
98 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.17.B.
99 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
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101 Southern California Public Power Authority, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I and II, accessed October 24, 2017.
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103 Utah Governor's Office, Energy Initiatives and Imperatives: Utah's 10-Year Strategic Energy Plan 2.0, updated February 2014, p 28-32.
104 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
105 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data, 2015 Form EIA-860 Data - Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
106 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2016), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.16.B.
107 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 121, Utah Geological Survey (2016), p. 11.
108 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geothermal Resource of the United States (October 13, 2009).
109 Geothermal Energy Association, 2016 Annual U.S. and Global Geothermal Power Production Report (March 2016), p. 17.
110 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source, 1990-2015.
111 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Utah, Renewable Portfolio Goal, updated May 31, 2017.