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Louisiana   Louisiana Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: May 19, 2022

Overview

Situated at the mouth of the Mississippi River, Louisiana has abundant crude oil and natural gas reserves both onshore and offshore, buried beneath the thick sediments of the Mississippi Delta.1,2 Freshwater and saltwater wetlands cover about one-third of Louisiana, down from more than one-half of the state's area 200 years ago. The state rises gradually from the marshes, bayous, and estuaries along its extensive Gulf of Mexico coastline to the prairie in the state's north and west. On average, Louisiana is only 100 feet above sea level.3,4

In addition to crude oil and natural gas, Louisiana's energy resources include substantial biomass resources from agricultural byproducts, wood, and wood waste and minor deposits of coal.5,6 Louisiana's subtropical climate—with the highest annual rainfall at nearly 5 feet in the lower 48 states—and rich soils create a diverse agricultural economy that includes sugarcane, rice, and livestock, as well as forest products from upland pine and hardwood forests.7,8

Louisiana's total energy consumption ranks fourth among the states and its per capita energy consumption is the second highest, largely because of the energy-intensive chemical, petroleum, and natural gas industries in the state's industrial sector.9,10,11 Energy consumption in Louisiana's industrial sector is second only to that of Texas.12 Louisiana's demand for air conditioning is high during the hot, humid summer months, while its demand for heating is limited during the mild winter months. The state's residential sector total and per capita energy consumption are both near the middle of the states.13,14,15,16

Natural gas

Louisiana has the third-highest natural gas production and reserves among the states. The state accounts for about 9% of U.S. marketed natural gas production and holds about 8% of U.S. natural gas proved reserves.17,18 Among its many productive formations is the Haynesville Shale, which is located mainly in northwestern Louisiana and northeastern Texas. Haynesville is one of seven key U.S. natural gas-producing regions.19 In early 2022, monthly natural gas production from the Haynesville Shale region reached a record of more than 14 billion cubic feet per day, as the number of new production rigs increased.20

Louisiana is the third-largest natural gas-consuming state, after Texas and California, and the second-largest natural gas consumer on a per capita basis, after Alaska.21,22 The industrial sector accounts for almost three-fifths of the natural gas consumed in Louisiana, and the electric power sector uses about one-fifth. About 13% of the state's natural gas consumption is used in the production and distribution of the state's oil and gas resources. In 2020, Louisiana used more natural gas to maintain pressure in its many pipelines than any other state besides Texas. About one out of three Louisiana households rely on natural gas for home heating, but the share of gas consumed by the residential sector is small—about 1.8% of the state's total consumption—because of Louisiana's mild winters. The commercial sector accounts for slightly less gas use at 1.6%, and the transportation sector uses a very minor amount of natural gas as vehicle fuel.23,24,25

Louisiana receives natural gas from and delivers gas supplies to other states via a vast network of interstate pipelines.26,27 In 2020, Louisiana received 4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and delivered 5.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. About two-fifths of the natural gas that enters Louisiana comes from Texas and close to one-fifth comes from Mississippi. About 15% of the natural gas that enters the state arrives onshore from federal leases in the Gulf of Mexico, 14% of the natural gas enters from Arkansas, and 6% comes via a pipeline transporting Marcellus/Utica shale gas from Ohio. Domestically, Louisiana plays an essential role in the movement of natural gas from the U.S. Gulf Coast region to markets throughout the country. The state has the most active natural gas market center in North America-the Henry Hub in Erath, Louisiana-where nine interstate and three intrastate pipelines interconnect. The pipelines carry natural gas to major markets throughout the country. The Henry Hub is the benchmark price location for natural gas physical and futures trading on the New York Mercantile Exchange. About 1.8 billion cubic feet of natural gas can be transported through the hub each day.28,29,30,31 About 75% of the natural gas that leaves Louisiana goes through Mississippi, Texas, and Arkansas to other regional markets. The other 25% is exported to nearly three dozen countries through the state's LNG export terminals. South Korea, Japan, China, the United Kingdom, Spain, and India received slightly more than half of those natural gas exports in 2020.32

In 2021, Louisiana’s two LNG terminals handled about 52% of U.S. LNG exports.

U.S. liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports continue to increase, growing nearly 50% compared with 2020 levels to a record 9.7 billion cubic feet per day in 2021. Louisiana handled more than half of those shipments at its two operating LNG export terminals. Sabine Pass began operating in early 2016 and Cameron LNG came online in mid-2019. Sabine Pass handled about 3.4 billion cubic feet per day in natural gas exports, or 35% of the U.S. total, in 2021. Cameron LNG handled 1.65 billion cubic feet per day, or about 17% of the U.S. total.33,34,35,36 A new third LNG export terminal, Calcasieu Pass, which has an export capacity of 1.3 billion cubic feet of natural gas per day, shipped its first LNG cargo in March 2022.37,38

Louisiana has 19 underground natural gas storage sites located in salt caverns and depleted fields, accounting for 8% of total U.S. underground storage capacity.39,40 Those facilities allow Louisiana to store natural gas when national demand is low and to ramp up delivery when markets across the country require larger volumes of gas. Historically, U.S. natural gas demand is highest in the winter, when homes need it for heating. With the growing use of natural gas for U.S. electricity generation, Louisiana withdraws natural gas from storage during the summer months as well, when electricity demand rises for air conditioning.41,42,43

Petroleum

Louisiana ranks among the top 10 states in both crude oil reserves and crude oil production and accounts for about 1% of both U.S. oil reserves and production.44,45 However, in 2021 the state's annual production of crude oil fell to less than half its 2011 level, and output was the lowest in more than six decades, due in part to lower oil prices and petroleum demand during the COVID-19 global pandemic.46,47

Commercial crude oil production in Louisiana started early in the 20th century, soon after the 1901 discovery of the Spindletop oil field just across the border in Texas.48 In 1947, the first offshore U.S. commercial crude oil well that was out of sight of land was completed 10 miles off the Louisiana coast. Although the water was only 18 feet deep, the well was a significant achievement in opening the Gulf of Mexico to crude oil production.49 Today, the Gulf of Mexico is one of the largest U.S. crude oil-producing regions and holds substantial oil reserves.50,51 Many of the nation's largest oil fields are found off the Louisiana coast in federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) waters, and a large share of federal OCS production in the Gulf of Mexico is piped onshore in Louisiana.52,53

Louisiana's offshore petroleum industry experienced a serious setback in April 2010, when an explosion and fire sank the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform 40 miles off the Louisiana coast, killing 11 workers and resulting in the largest crude oil spill in U.S. history. In less than three months, an estimated 4.9 million barrels of crude oil leaked into the Gulf of Mexico.54 The spill resulted in a temporary moratorium on new deep water drilling in the Gulf. The drilling ban ended in October 2010 after new safety rules for offshore drilling and new requirements for oil spill response and containment were implemented.55,56

The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) is the nation's first and only deepwater oil port.

Louisiana is among the top 10 states that receive the most U.S. waterborne foreign crude oil imports.57 Crude oil arrives at several state ports, including the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP). The LOOP, which began receiving foreign crude oil in 1981, is the nation's first and only deepwater oil port. It provides offloading for some of the largest tankers in the world and can receive up to 100,000 barrels of crude oil per hour.58,59 It is the single largest point of entry for waterborne crude oil shipped to the United States.60 The LOOP's onshore facilities include the Clovelly Dome Storage Terminal, where nearly 60 million barrels of crude oil can be stored in 8 underground salt caverns.61 The LOOP recently expanded its aboveground tank storage to about 12 million barrels.62 Through a network of crude oil pipelines, the LOOP connects to more than half of the refining capacity in the United States.63 With the growth in U.S. crude oil production, the Clovelly Dome storage facilities store both domestic and imported crude oil. The LOOP added loading capability for U.S. crude oil exports and sent out its first shipments in early 2018. The LOOP can load a very large tanker, which can hold around 2 million barrels of crude oil, in 2.5 days.64,65,66,67

Louisiana is home to two of the four storage sites that make up the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), which is capable of holding an emergency stockpile of up to 714 million barrels of crude oil. The two Louisiana SPR sites-Bayou Choctaw and West Hackberry-store crude oil in 27 underground salt caverns with a combined storage capacity of about 296 million barrels.68 In April 2022, the U.S. Department of Energy announced it will sell 180 million barrels of SPR crude oil to energy companies by October 2022 to offset market supply disruptions. The Department scheduled the sale as two 90-million-barrel solicitations between May and July and between August and October.69

Louisiana's 16 oil refineries account for nearly one-fifth of the nation's refining capacity and can process about 3.2 million barrels of crude oil per calendar day.70,71 In January 2021, Shell Oil shut down its 211,000 barrel-per-day refinery, located halfway between New Orleans and Baton Rouge, in response to lower petroleum demand during the COVID-19 pandemic.72,73 Many of the state's refineries use advanced technology that enable refining processes to yield larger quantities of lighter, higher-value petroleum products such as motor gasoline and jet fuel.74 Louisiana refineries can process a wide variety of crude oil types from around the world, although the state's refineries use less foreign oil than in the past. In recent years, the Gulf of Mexico produced the largest share of crude oil processed by the state's refineries. Federal offshore crude oil production in the Gulf of Mexico reached a record high in 2019 of nearly 1.9 million barrels per day, but was lower in 2020 and 2021 in part because of the economic impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic.75,76

Louisiana sends most of its refined petroleum products out of state.77 The 3,100-mile PPL Pipeline, formerly known as the Plantation Pipeline, is one of the nation's largest refined petroleum product pipelines. It runs from near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, through several southern states and terminates in the suburbs of Washington, DC. The pipeline distributes about 720,000 barrels per day of motor gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and biodiesel throughout much of the South.78,79 The 5,500-mile Colonial Pipeline, which begins in Houston, Texas, also passes through Louisiana and carries about 2.5 million barrels per day of petroleum products to 11 other states before it ends in Linden, New Jersey.80,81 Louisiana's refineries also supply the state's industrial sector with petroleum product feedstocks, particularly the petrochemical industry.82 The large concentration of petrochemical manufacturing facilities in the state contributes to Louisiana ranking third in total petroleum use and first in per capita consumption of petroleum.83,84 About 2 out of 100 state households rely on propane, fuel oil, or kerosene for home heating.85

Coal

New Orleans is the nation’s third-largest coal exporting port.

Louisiana's recoverable coal reserves are small, and account for just 0.1% of the U.S. total.86 In 2020, the state's coal production was also small and consisted of only low-grade lignite from two surface mines that contributed about 0.1% of total U.S. coal output.87 Louisiana plays a much bigger role in transporting U.S. coal, as New Orleans is the nation's third-largest coal exporting port. In 2021, the port of New Orleans shipped about 13% of U.S. coal exports.88 Coal that is exported from New Orleans comes from other states. Louisiana's two coal mines had supplied the nearby 650-megawatt Dolet Hills power plant with coal delivered by truck from one mine and by a 12-mile-long conveyor belt from the other mine. The power plant's owners closed the generating facility at the end of 2021, five years ahead of schedule, due in part to the high cost of lignite.89,90 Most of the coal consumed in Louisiana is used for power generation, and about 85% of that coal comes from out of state. Almost all the out-of-state coal delivered to Louisiana's coal-fired power plants is shipped by rail from Wyoming. A small amount of the coal consumed in Louisiana also comes by barge down the Mississippi River from Illinois and Indiana.91

Electricity

In 2021, natural gas was the primary fuel used to generate electricity in Louisiana, accounting for 65% of the state's electricity net generation. Natural gas fuels 7 of the 10 largest power plants in Louisiana, based on generation. Nuclear electric power surpassed coal as the state's second-largest source of in-state electricity in 2015. Louisiana's two nuclear power plants, which are both located along the Mississippi River, accounted for about 18% of the state's net generation in 2021. The two nuclear plants are the second- and third-largest power plants in the state by actual generation.92,93,94

Coal was Louisiana's second-leading source for electricity generation for decades, but in 2021 coal fueled about 8% of the state's generation. Louisiana has three coal-fired power plants. Petroleum coke, which is a byproduct in crude oil refining, provided 4% of the state's generation. Louisiana generates more electricity from petroleum coke than any other state. Biomass, solar energy, and hydropower together accounted for slightly less than 4% of Louisiana's electricity generation.95,96,97,98

Louisiana has the second-highest per capita residential sector electricity consumption of any state.

Louisiana does not generate enough electricity to meet in-state demand and receives almost one-eighth of its power supplies from other states by way of the regional interstate grid.99 Louisiana ranks third among the states with the highest total electricity consumption on a per capita basis.100 In 2021, the industrial sector consumed the most electricity in the state, accounting for about 42% of the state total, followed by the residential sector at 33% and the commercial sector at 25%.101 Louisiana has the second-highest residential sector per capita electricity consumption in the nation.102 More than 6 in 10 state households rely on electricity for home heating and almost all households have air conditioning.103,104

Renewable energy

In 2021, renewable sources provided almost 4% of Louisiana's electricity net generation. Biomass resources are abundant in Louisiana, and wood and wood waste accounted for nearly three-fifths of the state's renewable electricity generation.105 The state's wood waste and sugarcane residues also provide ample feedstock for the state's two wood pellet manufacturing plants, which have a combined production capacity of about 1.3 million tons per year. Most of those wood pellets are exported to other countries, where they are burned at power plants to generate electricity.106,107 108

Hydroelectric power accounted for slightly less than one-third of Louisiana's in-state renewable electricity in 2021.109 The state's one hydropower plant—the 192-megawatt Sidney A. Murray Jr. Hydroelectric Station—was also the world's largest prefabricated power plant when it came online in 1990. Located on the Mississippi River, the plant has eight turbines. The plant structure was prefabricated in New Orleans and floated about 200 miles north to its final location.110,111

Solar power provided slightly more than one-tenth of Louisiana's renewable generation in 2021. Louisiana's utility-scale (facilities 1 megawatt or larger) solar generation was four times greater in 2021 than in 2020 after the state's largest solar farm, which has 50 megawatts in generating capacity from 197,000 solar panels, came online near Baton Rouge in late 2020. Two more utility-scale solar power projects with a combined generating capacity of 70 megawatts are scheduled to come online in the second half of 2022. Louisiana's small-scale, customer-sited solar panel electric generating systems (less than 1 megawatt) are growing at a slower rate, although they account for a larger share, about three-fifths, of the state's total solar power generation.112,113,114,115 Louisiana has little wind energy resource potential and no utility-scale wind power generating facilities.116,117

The Louisiana Public Service Commission initiated a renewable energy pilot program in 2010 to determine whether a renewable portfolio standard (RPS), which would require a certain amount of electricity come from renewables, was suitable for the state. In 2013, the commission concluded that Louisiana did not need a mandatory RPS.118 However, Louisiana has other policies designed to encourage the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency, including voluntary electric utility efficiency programs, energy standards for public buildings, net metering, and home energy loans.119,120,121,122 Small-scale distributed generation installations of up to 25 kilowatts for residential systems and up to 300 kilowatts for commercial and agricultural systems that use solar PV, wind, biomass, and other renewable technologies are eligible for utility net metering. Total consumer net metering capacity connected to the grid is limited to 0.5% of each utility's monthly retail peak power demand load. Several large electric utilities in the state have already reached their net metering cap.123 Beginning in 2020, Louisiana's Public Service Commission cut by two-thirds the rate that utilities have to pay new net metering customers for excess electricity they put on the grid from their rooftop solar panels.124

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, 2015-20.
2 U.S. EIA, Estimated Dry Natural Gas contained in Total Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, Annual, 2015-20.
3 NETSTATE, Louisiana, The Geography of Louisiana, accessed April 18, 2022.
4 U.S. Geological Survey, National Water Summary on Wetland Resources, State Summary Highlights, Louisiana, accessed April 18, 2022.
5 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
6 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biomass Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, U.S. Biomass Resource Maps (January 15, 2014).
7 Keim, Barry, "Louisiana-The Wettest State in the Contiguous United States," Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, accessed April 18, 2022.
8 NETSTATE, Louisiana, Louisiana Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
9 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Total Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
11 NETSTATE, Louisiana, Louisiana Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
13 Current Results, Winter Temperature Averages for Every State, accessed April 18, 2022.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
15 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (2009), Space Heating, Table HC6.10, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.10.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
17 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2016-21.
18 U.S. EIA, Estimated Dry Natural Gas Contained in Total Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, Annual, 2015-20.
19 U.S. EIA, Drilling Productivity Report (April 18, 2022), Production by Region.
20 U.S. EIA, Drilling Productivity Report (April 18, 2022), Contents, Haynesville, Haynesville Region Drilling Productivity Report.
21 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2020.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
23 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Louisiana, Annual, 2020.
24 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Pipeline and Distribution Use, Annual, 2020.
25 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Louisiana.
26 U.S. EIA, Energy Atlas, Natural Gas Infrastructure and Resources, National Gas Pipelines, accessed April 18, 2022.
27 American Petroleum Institute, Where are the Pipelines? Natural Gas Pipelines, accessed April 18, 2022.
28 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Louisiana, Annual, 2015-20.
29 Fisher, Joe, "Last Piece of Marcellus-Focused Ohio-Louisiana Access Approved for Service," Natural Gas Intelligence (May 31, 2016).
30 Sabine Pipe Line LLC, About Sabine Pipe Line LLC, Assets, accessed April 19, 2022.
31 S&P Global Platts, Henry Hub Gas Price Assessment, What is Henry Hub?, accessed April 19, 2022.
32 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Louisiana, Annual, 2015-20.
33 U.S. EIA, "U.S. exported record amounts of liquefied natural gas in 2021," Today in Energy (March 28, 2022).
34 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Exports and Re-Exports by Point of Exit, Area, Sabine Pass, LA and Cameron, LA, annual, 2021.
35 Cheniere, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, accessed April 19, 2022.
36 Cameron LNG, A small local company with a large global impact, accessed April 19, 2022.
37 Venture Global LNG, "Venture Global LNG and Jera Announce Departure of Inaugural Commissioning Cargo from Calcasieu Pass," Press Release (March 1, 2022).
38 U.S. EIA, "Calcasieu Pass, the seventh U.S. liquefied natural gas export terminal, begins production," Today in Energy (April 29, 2022).
39 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2015-20.
40 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2015-20.
41 U.S. EIA, "U.S. natural gas consumption has both winter and summer peaks," Today in Energy (February 13, 2020).
42 U.S. EIA, "Natural gas-fired generation has increased in most U.S. regions since 2015," Today in Energy (December 4, 2020).
43 U.S. EIA, Louisiana Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals, Monthly, 1990-2022.
44 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2020 (January 13 2022), Table 7, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, 2020.
45 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, 2016-21.
46 U.S. EIA, Louisiana Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, Thousand Barrels per Day, 1981-2021.
47 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table PT1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Louisiana, 1960-2019.
48 Louisiana Oil & Gas Association, The History of Louisiana's Oil & Gas Industry, Jennings Field, accessed April 19, 2022.
49 National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling, Staff Working Paper No. 1, Draft, A Brief History of Offshore Oil Drilling, p. 2.
50 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day, PADD 3, Federal Offshore, 2016-21.
51 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, Annual, Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama), 2015-20.
52 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 5-7.
53 U.S. EIA, Gulf of Mexico Fact Sheet, Energy Infrastructure with Real-time Storm Information, Layers/Legend: crude oil pipelines, accessed April 19, 2022.
54 National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling, Deep Water, The Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future of Offshore Drilling (January 2011), p. 17, 167-169.
55 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Reforms Since the Deepwater Horizon Tragedy, accessed April 20, 2022.
56 Cohen, Tom, "Obama administration lifts deep-water drilling moratorium," CNN (October 13, 2010).
57 U.S. EIA, Crude Imports, Import of all grades to total U.S. 2021, Origin by Count, Destination by State.
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64 Kearney, Laila, "Thrown for a LOOP: Big U.S. offshore port's crude exports in surprising surge," Reuters (July 1, 2020).
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68 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Strategic Petroleum Reserve, SPR Storage Sites, accessed April 20, 2022.
69 U.S. Department of Energy, "DOE Announces Second Emergency Notice of Sale of Crude Oil From The Strategic Petroleum Reserve to Address Putin's Energy Price Hike," Press Release (April 1, 2022).
70 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Number of Operating Refineries, Annual (as of January 1), 2016-21.
71 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, Annual (as of January 1), 2016-21.
72 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 25, 2021), Table 11, New, Shutdown and Reactivated Refineries During 2020.
73 Mosbrucker, Kristen, "Louisiana braces for refinery closure as Shell retains Gulf emphasis amid global production cutback," The Advocate (February 11, 2021).
74 U.S. EIA, Downstream Charge Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries, Louisiana, Annual (as of January 1), 2016-21.
75 Louisiana, Department of Natural Resources, Louisiana Crude Oil Refinery Survey Report 2019 (June 2019), Figure 5, Historical Crude Oil Sources for Louisiana Refineries, p. 16.
76 U.S. EIA, Petroleum & Other Liquids, Federal Offshore-Gulf of Mexico Field Production of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day), Annual, 1981-2021.
77 Louisiana, Department of Natural Resources, Louisiana Crude Oil Refinery Survey Report 2019 (June 2020), p. 7.
78 Kinder Morgan, Form 10-K, For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, Products Pipeline, Southeast Refined Products, PPL Pipeline, p. 10.
79 Kinder Morgan, Products Pipelines, Southeast Operations, Products (SE) Pipe Line Corporation, accessed April 20, 2022.
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81 Colonial Pipeline Company, Our History, Colonial Through the Years, accessed April 20, 2022.
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83 Scott, Loren, The Energy Sector: Still a Giant Economic Engine for the Louisiana Economy—An Update (2014), Loren C. Scott & Associates, p. 17.
84 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption Estimates, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
85 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Louisiana.
86 U.S. EIA, U.S. Coal Reserves (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
87 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank.
88 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, 4td Quarter 2021 (April 1, 2022) Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District.
89 Vasilyeva, Elena, "Cleco, SWEPCO to close Louisiana coal plant early," Argus Media (November 1, 2021).
90 Mosbrucker, Kristen, "One of the last coal-fired power plants in Louisiana to close, laying off dozens," The Advocate (October 28, 2021).
91 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Louisiana, Table DS-14, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
92 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Louisiana, Annual, 2001-21.
93 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Operating Nuclear Power Reactors (by Location or Name), accessed April 22, 2022.
94 U.S. EIA, Louisiana Electricity Profile 2020, Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2020.
95 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Louisiana, Annual, 2001-21.
96 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of February 2022, Plant State: Louisiana, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
97 U.S. EIA, "Asian demand spurs U.S. net exports of petroleum coke to higher levels in early 2012," Today in Energy (May 25, 2012).
98 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Table 1.6.B, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Petroleum Coke.
99 U.S. EIA, Louisiana Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 2020.
100 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
101 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), Louisiana, Annual, 2001-21.
102 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
103 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Louisiana.
104 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (2009), Housing characteristics tables, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.10.
105 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Louisiana, Annual, 2001-21.
106 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (May 18, 2022), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, February 2022, Download.
107 U.S. EIA, "New EIA survey collects data on production and sales of wood pellets," Today in Energy (December 14, 2016).
108 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Louisiana, Annual, 2001-21.
109 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of February 2022, Plant State: Louisiana, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric.
110 Vidalia Conference & Convention Center, Sidney A. Murray, Jr. Hydroelectric Station, accessed April 23, 2022.
111 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Louisiana, Annual, 2001-21.
112 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of February 2022, Plant State: Louisiana, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic; Inventory of Planned Generators as of February 2022, Plant State: Louisiana, Technology: Solar Photovoltaic.
113 Solar Energy Industries Association, Louisiana Solar, Louisiana Annual Solar Installations, accessed April 23, 2022.
114 Depcom Power, Capital Region Solar Facility Serving Entergy Louisiana Customers (October 21, 2020).
115 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Louisiana, Maps & Data, accessed April 23, 2022.
116 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of February 2022, Plant State: Louisiana, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
117 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Louisiana, Renewable Energy Pilot Program, updated March 24, 2016.
118 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Louisiana, Programs, accessed April 23, 2022.
119 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Louisiana, Energy Reduction in Major State Facilities, updated May 12, 2020.
120 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Louisiana, Net Metering, updated January 17, 2017.
121 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Louisiana, Home Energy Loan Program (HELP), updated March 29, 2019.
122 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Louisiana, Net Metering, updated January 17, 2017.
123 Morehouse, Catherine, "Louisiana utilities to pay less for rooftop solar power under new net metering rules," Utility Dive (September 13, 2019).