U.S. Energy Information Administration logo
Skip to sub-navigation
‹ U.S. States

Wisconsin   Wisconsin Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Visit EIA's U.S. Energy Atlas, our new interface for web map applications and geospatial data catalogue.

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: July 21, 2022

Overview

Bordered by navigable waterways, Wisconsin lies between Lake Superior and Lake Michigan to the north and east and the Mississippi and Saint Croix rivers to the west. The glaciers that covered most of the state during the Ice Ages created rolling hills, thousands of lakes, and the marshy areas where the state's abundant cranberry crops are grown.1,2 The state's fertile soil and strong agricultural economy make it a leader in the market value of agricultural products.3,4 Wisconsin's corn crop provides the feedstock for the state's fuel ethanol production facilities.5 Methane, created when anaerobic digesters process industrial and municipal wastewater as well as the manure from the state's many farm animals, including more than 1 million dairy cows, is used for heat and electricity generation. Methane gas captured from the state's landfills also is used for power generation.6,7 Wisconsin has ample solid biomass resources in the 17 million acres of forestland and the agricultural residues on the state's many farms.8,9 Dozens of dams throughout the state supply hydroelectric power, while most of the state's wind resources are in eastern and southern Wisconsin.10 The state has limited solar potential, but solar power's contribution to Wisconsin's electricity generation is increasing.11,12

Wisconsin does not have any fossil fuel resources, but coal and petroleum products are shipped from the state's many ports, including from the Wisconsin side of the Port of Duluth-Superior, the largest harbor on the Great Lakes.13,14 Coal from Wyoming and Montana is transferred from railcars to ships in Superior for shipment east through the Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Seaway.15,16 Coal and petroleum products are also shipped from other Wisconsin ports along Lake Michigan and the upper Mississippi River.17 Additionally, pipelines carry crude oil, petroleum products, and natural gas across Wisconsin en route to markets in the state and elsewhere.18

Despite winters that are cold and snowy, with temperatures frequently falling to minus 30°F in the northern part of the state, Wisconsin's energy consumption per capita is less than that of two-fifths of the states and only slightly above the national average.19,20 Industry is Wisconsin's leading end-use energy consumer.21 In addition to agriculture, the energy-intensive construction, food and beverage, machinery, paper, and chemical manufacturing industries are major contributors to the state's gross domestic product (GDP).22,23 An important dairy state, Wisconsin produces about one-third of the cheese made in the nation, and beer is the state's most valuable processed beverage product.24 The industrial sector accounts for nearly one-third of the energy consumed in the state, the transportation sector uses one-fourth, and the residential sector uses almost one-fourth. The commercial sector consumes one-fifth.25 Overall, Wisconsin consumes almost six times as much energy as it produces.26

Renewable energy

Wisconsin, one of the top 10 ethanol-producing states, can manufacture about 600 million gallons of fuel ethanol per year.

Wisconsin's primary renewable energy resource is biofuels. The state is among the nation's top 10 fuel ethanol producers.27 Wisconsin's nine ethanol plants can produce about 600 million gallons of fuel ethanol per year, more than twice the amount consumed in the state.28,29 Wisconsin is also one of the nation's top 10 corn-producing states.30 The state's ethanol plants use corn as feedstock and most of those plants are located in agriculturally rich southern and central Wisconsin.31,32 The state also is one of the nation's top 20 biodiesel producers and has two biodiesel facilities.33 The combined production capacity of those two plants is about 33 million gallons per year, which is slightly more than Wisconsin's annual consumption of biodiesel. In 2020, about 30 million gallons of biodiesel were consumed in the state.34,35,36

In 2021, renewable resources, in the form of hydroelectric power, wind energy, biomass, and solar energy, provided almost one-tenth of Wisconsin's in-state electricity net generation. Hydroelectric facilities were the largest contributors and accounted for more than two-fifths of the state's renewable electricity generation. Wind energy accounted for almost three-tenths of Wisconsin's renewable electricity generation.37 The state's best onshore wind energy resources are along ridges in eastern Wisconsin and in isolated areas in the northern section of the state's western uplands.38,39 Most of the state's wind farms are located in the eastern and southern parts of the state.40 Additional wind resource potential exists offshore in the Wisconsin portion of Lake Michigan.41

Biomass resources accounted for about one-fifth of Wisconsin's renewable electricity generation in 2021.42 There are almost 200 waste-to-energy systems (anaerobic digesters) and landfill facilities in Wisconsin that capture biogas (methane) for use in power generation.43,44 Agricultural and forest waste also contribute to the state's net generation, as do wood and wood waste from paper and pulp mills.45 Most of the wood-fueled biomass power plants are in the more heavily forested northern part of Wisconsin.46,47 The state also has five manufacturing plants that produce fuel-grade wood pellets used for power generation and heating.48 About 1 in 33 Wisconsin households heat with wood.49

Wisconsin's solar resources, although modest, contributed 10% of the state's renewable-sourced electricity generation in 2021.50,51 Utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) installations generated about two-thirds of the state's solar power in 2021, and their contribution exceeded that from small-scale (less than 1 megawatt), customer-sited solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities for the first time.52 By early 2022, there were 38 utility-scale solar PV facilities in the state with a combined capacity of about 507 megawatts, up from about 215 megawatts a year earlier.53,54 Other large-scale projects are in development and almost 1,500 megawatts of additional solar PV capacity is expected to come online by the end of 2023.55

The Wisconsin state legislature established a state energy policy with a number of goals, including increased energy efficiency, greater use of renewable energy, and reduced atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions through an increase in forested land in the state.56 In 1999, Wisconsin became the first state to enact a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) without restructuring its electric utility industry. Later modifications to the RPS required that 10% of electricity retail sales statewide come from renewable resources by the end of 2015. Wisconsin utilities met their 2015 target two years early in 2013. After 2015, the RPS required that each electricity provider maintain, at a minimum, their 2015 percentage.57,58 Wisconsin's renewable energy goal also required that all new generating capacity be powered by renewable energy resources to the extent that it is cost-effective and technically feasible.59 In 2019, the governor signed an executive order that established a state Office of Sustainability and Clean Energy and set a goal that all electricity consumed in the state be 100% carbon-free by 2050.60

Electricity

Wisconsin’s Point Beach Unit 1 is one of the oldest operating nuclear reactors in the United States.

Coal, natural gas, and nuclear energy generate most of Wisconsin's electricity. Four of the state's 10 largest power plants by capacity are coal-fired, and coal supplies the largest share of in-state electricity generation on an annual basis.61 However, coal-fired generation has declined steadily. In 2019, coal fueled less than half of in-state generation for the first time in at least three decades, and in 2021, coal accounted for 42% of Wisconsin's electricity net generation.62,63 Natural gas fuels the second-largest amount of state generation, and its contribution increased from 10% in 2011 to about 34% in 2021.64

Nuclear power and renewable energy supply almost all of the state's remaining net generation. Until 2013 the three reactors at the state's two nuclear power plants typically supplied about one-fifth of Wisconsin's electricity generation.65,66 However, the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant's one reactor ceased operations in May 2013.67 Since 2013, the two operating nuclear reactors at the Point Beach plant, including one of the nation's oldest, typically supply about 15% of the state's net generation annually.68,69 Point Beach's reactors started commercial operations in 1970 and 1973. In 2005, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission extended the licenses for Point Beach's two reactors to 2030 and 2033, respectively.70,71 In 2021, hydroelectric power provided 4% of Wisconsin's total net generation, wind supplied more than 2%, biomass fueled less than 2%, and utility-scale and small-scale solar combined accounted for almost 1%.72

Per capita electricity retail sales in Wisconsin are less than in more than half the states and only slightly above the national average. Despite the cold winters, residential electricity retail sales per capita are lower than in two-thirds of the states, in part because only about one in six Wisconsin households rely on electricity to heat their homes.73,74 Wisconsin's electricity retail sales to the residential, commercial and industrial sectors are almost equal.75 Overall, Wisconsin consumers use more electricity than the state's power plants generate. To meet consumer demand, Wisconsin receives additional power from the regional electric grid.76

Petroleum

More than 260 fueling stations in Wisconsin sell E85, a blend of 15% motor gasoline and 85% ethanol.

Wisconsin has no crude oil production or reserves.77 However, high-quality sand mined in southwestern Wisconsin is used in other states to enhance crude oil and natural gas recovery by propping fractures open in low permeability rock formations during a process known as hydraulic fracturing.78 Refined products are delivered to Wisconsin markets from refineries in the Chicago and Minneapolis metropolitan areas.79 The state has one small refinery located in Superior in northwestern Wisconsin. When operational that refinery can process light and heavy crude oil into motor gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt, and heavy fuel oils.80,81 However, refinery operations were interrupted by an explosion and fire in April 2018.82 A rebuild is underway, and operations are expected to return in 2023.83 The crude oil delivered to the Superior refinery came from Canada and North Dakota via a pipeline system that also transports crude oil south across the state to Chicago area refineries and across northern Wisconsin to Michigan's Upper Peninsula and then south and across a border to a Canadian refinery.84,85

The transportation sector uses most of the petroleum consumed in Wisconsin. Almost three-fifths of the state's petroleum consumption is as motor gasoline and one-fourth is distillate fuel oil, which includes on- and off-highway diesel fuels.86,87 Although most of Wisconsin can use conventional gasoline, a cleaner-burning reformulated motor gasoline blend of 10% ethanol and 90% conventional motor gasoline is required in a six-county area surrounding Milwaukee, in southeastern Wisconsin.88 However, like in most states, retail gasoline stations throughout Wisconsin sell gasoline blended with at least 10% ethanol.89 Other ethanol-motor gasoline blends are available statewide. Wisconsin has more than 260 fueling stations that sell E85, a blend of 15% motor gasoline with 85% ethanol.90 In 2020, the transportation sector accounted for 76% of state petroleum consumption, and the industrial sector consumed about 12%. The residential sector, where about one in seven Wisconsin households use petroleum products—mostly propane but also fuel oil and kerosene—for home heating, used 8%.91 The commercial sector accounted for 3% of the state's petroleum consumption, and the electric power sector used the rest.92

Natural gas

Although eastern Wisconsin is within the boundary of the natural gas-rich Michigan Basin, a geologic structure centered in Michigan's Lower Peninsula, Wisconsin does not share in any of the Basin's substantial natural gas production history and does not have any natural gas reserves or production.93,94 Wisconsin's natural gas needs are met by supply, primarily from Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, Kansas, and Alberta, Canada, that is transported by interstate pipelines that enter Wisconsin by way of Minnesota, Illinois, and Michigan.95 In 2020, about three-fifths of the natural gas delivered to Wisconsin was used in state. Most of the natural gas that was not consumed in the state was sent on to Michigan.96 Wisconsin has no underground natural gas storage fields.97

About two-thirds of Wisconsin households use natural gas for home heating.

Natural gas use by Wisconsin's electric power sector is increasing, and in 2020 it was more than three times greater than in 2011.98 The electric power sector is Wisconsin's largest natural gas consumer and has been since 2019.99 In 2021, that sector accounted for about three-tenths of natural gas delivered to consumers.100 The industrial sector was the second-largest natural gas consumer and accounted for more than one fourth of state consumption. The residential sector, where about two-thirds of state households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating, accounted for one-fourth of the natural gas delivered to Wisconsin consumers in 2021.101 The commercial sector consumed almost one-fifth, and the transportation sector used a small amount as vehicle fuel.102

Coal

Wisconsin has no coal mines and no coal reserves.103 Wisconsin consumed almost 14 million tons of coal in 2020, and almost all of it arrived by rail from Wyoming and was used to generate electricity. Electric power generators in Wisconsin also received some coal from Pennsylvania. A small amount of coal from a variety of states went to industrial and commercial users in the state.104 Although most of Wisconsin's coal supply arrives by rail, minor amounts arrive on Great Lakes ships and by river barge.105,106 Several of the state's ports along the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes handle transshipments of coal from other states, most notably at the Superior terminal at the Port of Duluth-Superior.107 Wisconsin coal consumption is declining, and about half of the state's almost 5,300 megawatts of coal-fired capacity are scheduled for retirement by 2024.108

Endnotes

1 Wisconsin State Climatology Office, Climate of Wisconsin (March 25, 2003).
2 Wisconsin Cranberries, About Cranberries, Where Wisconsin Cranberries are Grown, accessed June 20, 2022.
3 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2021 State Agriculture Overview, Wisconsin.
4 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, FAQs, Which are the top 10 agricultural producing States?, accessed June 20, 2022.
5 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated June 6, 2022.
6 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2021 State Agriculture Overview, Wisconsin.
7 Wisconsin Office of Energy Innovation, Wisconsin Biogas Survey Report (2016), p. 2.
8 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry Resources, Forestry, accessed June 20, 2022.
9 University of Wisconsin Stevens Point, Renewable Energy Education, Biomass Feedstocks, accessed June 20, 2022.
10 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Hydroelectric Power Plant and Wind Power Plant Map Layers, accessed June 21, 2022.
11 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Solar Resource Maps and Data, U.S. Annual Solar, accessed June 21, 2022.
12 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All solar, Small-scale photovoltaic, Utility-scale photovoltaic, Annual, 2013-21.
13 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Data, Reserves, accessed June 21, 2022.
14 Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning and Economic Development, Economic Impact of Wisconsin's Commercial Ports (January 2014), p. 1, 2, 8.
15 DTE, Midwest Energy Resources Company, Company, Fueling Success for Everyone, accessed June 21, 2022.
16 American Great Lakes Ports Association, Great Lake Seaway Cargoes, accessed June 21, 2022.
17 Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning and Economic Development, Economic Impact of Wisconsin's Commercial Ports (January 2014), p. 2-8.
18 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Natural Gas Pipeline, HGL Pipeline, Crude Oil Pipeline and Petroleum Product Pipeline Map Layers, accessed June 21, 2022.
19 Wisconsin State Climatology Office, Climate of Wisconsin (March 25, 2003).
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2020.
22 U.S. EIA, Use of energy explained, Energy use in industry, Basics, accessed June 21, 2022.
23 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Wisconsin, All statistics in table, 2020.
24 NETSTATE, Wisconsin, Wisconsin Economy, Manufacturing, updated December 19, 2017.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2020.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2020, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2020.
27 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2020, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2020.
28 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2021 (Excel File).
29 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2020.
30 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Crop Production 2021 Summary (January 2022), p. 11.
31 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated June 6, 2022.
32 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Ethanol Plant and Biodiesel Plant Map Layers, accessed June 21, 2022.
33 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2020, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2020.
34 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
35 "U.S. Biodiesel Plants, Operational," Biodiesel Magazine, updated January 24, 2022.
36 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2020.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-21.
38 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Wisconsin, Wisconsin 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed June 21, 2022.
39 NETSTATE, Wisconsin, The Geography of Wisconsin, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
40 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed June 21, 2022.
41 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wisconsin Offshore 90-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential, accessed June 21, 2022.
42 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, Conventional Hydroelectric, Other renewables (total), Biomass, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-21.
43 Pennington, Melissa, Anaerobic Digestion Facilities Processing Food Waste in the United States (2016), Survey Results September 2019, EPA/903/S-19/001, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, p. vii, 9, 30.
44 Wisconsin Office of Energy Innovation, Wisconsin Biogas Survey Report, p. 2, accessed June 22, 2022.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022, Wisconsin, Other Waste Biomass, Landfill Gas, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
46 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Biomass Power Plant Map Layer, accessed June 22, 2022.
47 NETSTATE, Wisconsin, The Geography of Wisconsin, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
48 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, March 2022.
49 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Wisconsin, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, All Solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001-21.
51 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Solar Resources Map Layer, accessed June 22, 2022.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001-21.
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022, Wisconsin, Solar photovoltaic.
54 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (July 2022), Table 6.2.B.
55 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of April 2022, Wisconsin, Solar photovoltaic.
56 Wisconsin State Legislature, 2019-20 Wisconsin Statutes and Annotations, Chapter 1, Section 1.12, State energy policy (May 6, 2021).
57 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Wisconsin Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated May 31, 2018.
58 Content, Thomas, "Wisconsin utilities hit 10% renewable energy goal, two years early," The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (June 12, 2014).
59 Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, Renewable Energy, accessed June 22, 2022.
60 Vickerman, Michael, "Governor Evers Delivers a Clean Energy Vision for Wisconsin," Renew Wisconsin (September 23, 2019).
61 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2020, Table 2A.
62 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, Coal, Annual, 2001-21.
63 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2020, Table 5, Electric power industry generation1 by primary energy source, 1990 through 2020.
64 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-21.
65 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, Nuclear, Annual, 2001-21.
66 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Wisconsin, updated March 9, 2021.
67 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Kewaunee Power Station, updated November 3, 2021.
68 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Operating Nuclear Power Reactors (by Location or Name), updated October 1, 2021.
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, Nuclear, Annual, 2001-21.
70 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Unit 1, updated May 6, 2022.
71 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Point Beach Nuclear Plant 2, updated May 6, 2022.
72 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Biomass (total), All utility-scale solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-21.
73 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
74 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Wisconsin, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
75 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Wisconsin, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Annual, 2021.
76 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2020, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2020.
77 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Data, Reserves and Supply & Distribution, accessed June 22, 2022.
78 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Industrial sand mining overview, accessed June 22, 2022.
79 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Petroleum Product Pipeline, HGL Pipeline, and Petroleum Product Terminal Map Layers, accessed June 23, 2022.
80 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Petroleum Refinery Map Layer, accessed June 22, 2022.
81 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Wisconsin, Annual as of January 1, 2022.
82 U.S. Chemical Safety Board, Husky Energy Refinery Explosion and Fire, accessed June 22, 2022.
83 Cenovus Energy, Superior Refinery Rebuild, accessed June 22, 2022.
84 Enbridge, Enbridge in Wisconsin, Superior Terminal, accessed June 22, 2022.
85 Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Petroleum Pipelines, from Wisconsin Energy Statistics 2018, p. 95. accessed June 22, 2022.
86 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
87 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2020.
88 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed June 23, 2022.
89 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
90 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Ethanol Fueling Station Locations, Wisconsin, E85, Public, accessed June 23, 2022.
91 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Wisconsin, Table 25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
92 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2020.
93 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Data, Reserves and Supply & Distribution, accessed June 23, 2022.
94 Vigil, José F., Richard J. Pike, and David G. Howell, A Tapestry of Time and Terrain, U.S. Geological Survey (February 24, 2000), p. 6, Section 9.
95 Wisconsin State Energy Office, 2020 Wisconsin Energy Statistics, Wisconsin Natural Gas Deliveries, by Pipeline Company, p. 44.
96 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Wisconsin, Annual, 2015-20.
97 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2015-20.
98 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2020.
99 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Natural Gas Total Consumption, 1997-2020.
100 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Wisconsin, 2016-21.
101 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Wisconsin, Table 25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
102 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Wisconsin, 2016-21.
103 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Data, Reserves and Supply & Distribution, accessed June 24, 2022.
104 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), By Coal Destination State, Wisconsin Table DS-42, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
105 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2020.
106 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), By Coal Destination State, Wisconsin Table DS-42, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
107 Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning and Economic Development, Economic Impact of Wisconsin's Commercial Ports (January 2014), p. 1, 4, 5, 7-10.
108 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of April 2022, Wisconsin, Conventional Steam Coal.