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Wisconsin   Wisconsin Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: May 21, 2020

Overview

Bordered by navigable waterways, Wisconsin lies between Lake Superior and Lake Michigan to the north and east and the Mississippi River and the Saint Croix River to the west.1 The state lacks fossil fuel resources of its own but ships coal and petroleum products from its many ports, including from the port of Duluth-Superior, the largest harbor on the Great Lakes.2,3,4,5 Coal from Wyoming and Montana is transferred from railcars to ships at the Lake Superior port at Superior, Wisconsin, for shipment east through the Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Seaway.6 Coal and petroleum products are also shipped from other Wisconsin ports along Lake Michigan and the Upper Mississippi River System. Pipelines carry crude oil, petroleum products, and natural gas across the state.7,8

Wisconsin does have several renewable energy resources. The state's fertile soil and strong agricultural economy make it a leader in the market value of agricultural products.9,10 Wisconsin's corn crop feeds the state's ethanol production facilities.11 Methane, created when anaerobic digesters process industrial and municipal wastewater and the manure from some of the state's almost 6 million livestock, including its more than 1 million dairy cows, is used for heat and electricity generation. Methane gas also is captured from the state's landfills.12,13 Wisconsin has ample biomass resources in its more than 16 million acres of forestland and agricultural residues from the state's many farms.14,15 Dozens of dams throughout the state supply hydroelectric power, and wind resources have been developed on the ridges in eastern and southern Wisconsin.16,17 Although the state has limited solar potential, solar power contributes a small but increasing amount of Wisconsin's electricity generation.18,19

Despite winters that are cold and snowy, with temperatures frequently falling to minus 30°F in the northern part of the state, Wisconsin's energy consumption per capita is less than that of nearly half the states and only slightly above the national average.20,21 Industry is Wisconsin's leading end-use energy consumer.22 In addition to agriculture, the energy-intensive food and beverage manufacturing industry is a major contributor to the state's gross domestic product (GDP).23,24 An important dairy state, Wisconsin produces about one-third of the cheese made in the nation, and beer is the state's most valuable processed beverage product.25 The industrial sector accounts for one-third of the energy consumed in the state, the transportation sector and the residential sector each use nearly one-fourth, and the commercial sector consumes one-fifth.26 Overall, Wisconsin consumes almost six times as much energy as it produces.27

Renewable energy

Wisconsin, one of the top 10 ethanol-producing states, can produce about 600 million gallons of fuel ethanol per year.

Wisconsin's primary renewable resource is biofuels. The state is among the top 10 ethanol-producing states in the nation, and ethanol is one of the few energy resources that Wisconsin produces and sends to other states.28,29 Wisconsin's nine ethanol plants can produce about 600 million gallons of fuel ethanol per year using corn as a feedstock.30,31 The state is one of the nation's leading corn-producing states.32 Most of the ethanol plants are located in agriculturally rich southern and central Wisconsin.33 The state also has two biodiesel facilities that have a combined production capacity of 32 million gallons per year, which is slightly more than Wisconsin's annual consumption of about 30 million gallons.34,35

Renewable resources power nearly one-tenth of Wisconsin's electricity net generation. The state's renewable electricity generation comes from hydroelectric, wind, biomass, and solar power. Hydroelectric power is the largest contributor and accounts for almost two-fifths of the state's renewable electricity generation.36 Of the approximately 3,900 dams in Wisconsin, about 150 are used to generate hydroelectric power. Large hydroelectric dams were constructed in the 1950s and earlier, but a few small hydroelectric facilities were recently created by adding generators at existing dams.37,38

Wind energy supplies nearly 3% of the state's total net generation, which accounts for about one-third of Wisconsin's electricity generation from renewable resources.39 The state's best onshore wind energy resources are along ridges in eastern Wisconsin and in isolated areas in the northern section of the state's western uplands.40,41 Most of the state's wind farms are located in the eastern part of the state .42 Additional wind resource potential exists offshore in the Wisconsin portion of Lake Michigan.43

Biomass resources accounted for more than one-fourth of Wisconsin's renewable electricity generation in 2019.44 There are several waste-to-energy systems (anaerobic digesters) and landfill facilities in Wisconsin that capture biogas (methane) for use in power generation.45,46 Agricultural and forest waste also contribute to the state's electricity net generation, as do wood and wood waste from paper and pulp mills.47 Most of the wood-fueled biomass power plants are in the more heavily forested northern part of Wisconsin.48,49 The state has eight wood pellet manufacturing plants that use hardwood, softwood, or paper waste to produce fuel-grade wood pellets that can be used for power generation or for heating.50,51 About 1 in 30 Wisconsin households heat with wood.52

Wisconsin also has a small amount of electricity generation from solar resources. About two-thirds of the solar power generation in the state is at customer-sited, small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities with less than 1 megawatt of capacity.53 Additionally, by the end of 2019, there were 22 utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) solar PV facilities in the state.54,55 Other large-scale projects are in development including a 9-megawatt solar farm in Madison 56 Solar energy from all sources contributed less than 0.3% to the state's net generation in 2019.57

The Wisconsin state legislature has established a number of energy goals, including increased energy efficiency, increased use of renewable energy, and reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide by increasing the amount of forested land in the state.58 In 1999, Wisconsin became the first state to enact a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) without restructuring its electric utility industry. Later modifications to the RPS set a statewide target of 10% of electricity retail sales from power generated from renewable resources by the end of 2015. Specific percentage requirements varied by provider, and power generated out of state could be counted if it was sold to Wisconsin consumers. After 2015, the RPS required that each electricity provider maintain, at a minimum, their 2015 percentage of retail sales from renewable resources.59 Wisconsin utilities met their 10% RPS renewable energy target two years early, in 2013.60 Wisconsin's current renewable energy goal is for all new installed generating capacity to be powered by renewable energy resources to the extent that it is cost-effective and technically feasible.61 In 2019, the governor signed an executive order that established a state Office of Sustainability and Clean Energy and set a goal that all electricity consumed in the state be 100% carbon-free by 2050.62

Electricity

Wisconsin’s Point Beach Unit 1 is one of the oldest operating nuclear reactors in the United States.

Wisconsin's largest power plants are fueled by coal, natural gas, and nuclear energy, and coal-fired power plants are the largest suppliers of in-state electricity generation.63 However, in 2019, coal fueled less than half of state generation for the first time in at least three decades and accounted for 42% of Wisconsin's in-state electricity net generation.64,65 Natural gas-fired power plants contribute the second-largest amount of state generation, and their contribution has increased from less than one-tenth of the state's net generation a decade ago to about one-third in 2019.66 Nuclear power and, to a lesser extent, renewable resources, supply almost all of the state's remaining net generation. Until 2013 the three reactors at the state's two nuclear power plants supplied about one-fifth of Wisconsin's electricity generation.67,68 However, the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant ceased operations in May 2013.69 The two remaining nuclear reactors at the Point Beach nuclear power plant now supply about 16% of the state's net generation.70 Point Beach Unit 1, which started commercial operations in 1970, is one of the oldest operating reactors in the United States, and Point Beach's second reactor is only three years younger. In 2005, Point Beach's two reactors had their operating licenses extended to 2030 and 2033, giving each a total of 60 years of operations.71,72 In 2019, hydropower and wind each provided about 3% of Wisconsin's utility-scale net generation, and biomass fueled about 2%.73

Per capita electricity retail sales in Wisconsin are only slightly above the national average, despite the cold winters, in part because the majority of Wisconsin homes are heated with natural gas, not electricity.74 Fewer than one in six Wisconsin households rely on electricity to heat their homes.75 Wisconsin's retail sales of electricity to the commercial and industrial sectors are almost equal and are only slightly greater than sales to the residential sector.76 Overall, Wisconsin consumers use more electricity than is generated in the state. To meet consumer demand, Wisconsin brings in electricity from the regional electric grid.77

Petroleum

More than 230 fueling stations in Wisconsin sell E85, a blend of motor gasoline with 85% ethanol.

Wisconsin has no crude oil production or reserves.78,79 However, high-quality sand mined in southwestern Wisconsin is used in other states for oil and gas exploration. The sand is used in the hydraulic fracturing of low permeability formations to enhance oil and natural gas recovery.80 Wisconsin does have one small oil refinery in Superior in the northwestern part of the state.81 The Superior refinery had processed about 38,000 barrels of light and heavy crude oil per calendar day into motor gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt, and heavy fuel oils.82 However, refinery operations were interrupted by an explosion and fire in April 2018.83 A rebuild is underway, and operations are expected to return to normal in 2021.84 Crude oil is delivered to the Wisconsin refinery from Canada and North Dakota via railcar and a major crude oil pipeline. The same pipeline system transports crude oil south across the state to the Chicago area and also across northern Wisconsin to Michigan's Upper Peninsula and then south to a Canadian refinery.85,86,87 Refined products are delivered to Wisconsin markets from the refinery in Superior and from refineries in the Chicago and Minneapolis metropolitan areas.88

Most of the petroleum consumed in Wisconsin is used in the transportation sector as motor gasoline and distillate fuel oil, which includes diesel fuels and heating oil.89,90 Although most of Wisconsin can use conventional gasoline, a cleaner-burning reformulated motor gasoline blend of 10% ethanol and 90% conventional motor gasoline is required in a six-county area surrounding Milwaukee, in southeastern Wisconsin.91 That blend, known as E10, is sold at most retail gasoline stations in Wisconsin, and other ethanol-motor gasoline blends are also available across the state. Statewide, more than 230 fueling stations sell E85, a blend of motor gasoline with 85% ethanol.92 The transportation sector accounts for about four-fifths of state petroleum consumption, and the industrial sector consumes almost 13%. Most of the rest, about 6%, is used in the residential sector, where more than one in seven Wisconsin households use petroleum products—mostly propane but also fuel oil and kerosene—for home heating. The commercial sector accounts for less than 3% of the state's petroleum consumption.93,94

Natural gas

Wisconsin does not have any natural gas reserves or production.95,96 Although eastern Wisconsin is within the boundary of the natural gas-rich Michigan Basin, a geologic structure centered in Michigan's Lower Peninsula, Wisconsin does not share in any of that Basin's substantial natural gas production history.97,98

Wisconsin's natural gas needs are met by several interstate pipelines. Natural gas from Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, Kansas, and Alberta, Canada is transported to the state by interstate pipelines.99 Natural gas enters Wisconsin primarily from Minnesota and Illinois, and most of the natural gas that is not consumed in Wisconsin is sent on to Michigan.100 Wisconsin has no underground natural gas storage fields.101

About two-thirds of Wisconsin households use natural gas for home heating.

Wisconsin's industrial sector is the state's largest natural gas consumer, accounting for nearly three-tenths of state deliveries to end users in 2019. Natural gas consumption in Wisconsin remained fairly constant until 2012 but then rose as natural gas use by the electric power sector increased.102,103 The electric power sector's natural gas consumption now almost equals that of the industrial sector. The residential sector, where about two-thirds of state households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating, follows closely after the electric power sector and accounts for more than one-fourth of the natural gas delivered to Wisconsin consumers.104 The commercial sector consumes more than one-sixth.105

Coal

Wisconsin has no coal mines and no coal reserves.106 Most of the approximately 20 million tons of coal consumed in the state is used to generate electricity and arrives by rail from Wyoming. Some coal from other states, primarily Pennsylvania, is also delivered to electric power generators in Wisconsin, and small amounts of coal from a variety of other states are also delivered to industrial and commercial users in the state. Most of Wisconsin's coal supply arrives by rail, but minor amounts arrive on the Great Lakes and by river barge and truck.107,108 Transshipments of coal from other states are also handled at several of the state's ports along the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River.109 A very small number of Wisconsin households use coal for home heating.110

Endnotes

1 Wisconsin State Climatology Office, Climate of Wisconsin (March 25, 2003).
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved reserves as of December 31, 2018.
3 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, 2018, Dry Natural Gas.
4 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
5 Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning and Economic Development, Economic Impact of
Wisconsin's Commercial Ports (January 2014), p. 1, 2, 8.
6 Duluth Seaway Port Authority, Port Authority, Port Facilities, Midwest Energy Resources Company, accessed March 30, 2020.
7 Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning and Economic Development, Economic Impact of
Wisconsin's Commercial Ports (January 2014), p. 2-8.
8 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Profile Overview, Layers/Legends, Natural Gas Inter/Intrastate Pipeline, Natural Gas Pipeline Border Crossing, Crude Oil Pipeline and Petroleum Product Pipeline, accessed March 30, 2020.
9 Wisconsin State Climatology Office, Climate of Wisconsin (March 25, 2003).
10 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2019 State Agriculture Overview, Wisconsin, and 2012 Census of Agriculture State Profile, Wisconsin, Ranked items within U.S., 2012.
11 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated February 24, 2020.
12 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2019 State Agriculture Overview, Wisconsin.
13 Wisconsin Office of Energy Innovation, Wisconsin Biogas Survey Report (2016), p. 2.
14 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry Resources, Wisconsin's Forest Resources, accessed March 30, 2020.
15 University of Wisconsin Stevens Point, Renewable Energy Education, Biomass Feedstocks, accessed March 30, 2020.
16 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), Wisconsin, Conventional Hydroelectric.
17 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin State Profile, Overview, Hydroelectric Power Plant and Wind Power Plant Map Layers, accessed March 30, 2020.
18 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Solar Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, accessed March 30, 2020.
19 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Wisconsin, All sectors, Small-scale photovoltaic, Utility-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2014-19.
20 Wisconsin State Climatology Office, Climate of Wisconsin (March 25, 2003).
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2017.
23 U.S. EIA, Use of energy explained, Energy use in industry, U.S. industrial sector energy consumption by type of industry, 2018.
24 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Wisconsin, All statistics in table, 2017.
25 NETSTATE, Wisconsin, Wisconsin Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2017.
27 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2017.
28 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2017.
29 Wisconsin Public Service Commission, 2013 Wisconsin Energy Statistics, Chapter 2, Energy Use by Type of Fuel, Petroleum, p. 39.
30 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2018 (Excel File).
31 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated February 24, 2020.
32 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Crop Production 2018 Summary (February 2019), p. 11.
33 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Profile Overview, Layers/Legends, Ethanol Plant and Biodiesel Plant, accessed March 31, 2020.
34 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (March 2020), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, January 2020.
35 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2018.
36 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Wisconsin, All sectors, All fuels, Conventional Hydroelectric, Other renewables (total), Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2019.
37 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Dams overview, updated July 7, 2015.
38 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Hydro-electric generation, updated February 19, 2018.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Wisconsin, All sectors, All fuels, Conventional Hydroelectric, Other renewables (total), Wind, Annual, 2019.
40 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Wisconsin, Wisconsin 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed April 1, 2020.
41 NETSTATE, Wisconsin, The Geography of Wisconsin, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
42 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Profile Overview, Layers/Legends, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed April 1, 2020.
43 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wisconsin Offshore 90-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential, accessed April 1, 2020.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Wisconsin, All sectors, All fuels, Conventional Hydroelectric, Other renewables (total), Biomass, Annual, 2019.
45 Pennington, Melissa, Anaerobic Digestion Facilities Processing Food Waste in the United States (2016), Survey Results September 2019, EPA/903/S-19/001, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, p. vii, 9, 30.
46 Wisconsin Office of Energy Innovation, Wisconsin Biogas Survey Report, p. 2, accessed March 31, 2020.
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), Wisconsin, Other Biomass, Landfill Gas, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
48 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Profile Overview, Layers/Legends, Biomass Power Plant, accessed March 31, 2020.
49 NETSTATE, Wisconsin, The Geography of Wisconsin, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
50 "U.S. Pellet Plants, Operational," Biomass Magazine, updated January 14, 2020.
51 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, December 2019.
52 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Wisconsin, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Wisconsin, All sectors, All fuels, All Solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2019.
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), Wisconsin, Solar.
55 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 6.3.
56 Hubbuch, Chris, "Dane County airport solar farm approved; $16.8M project expected to save money, help meet climate goals," Wisconsin State Journal (May 1, 2020).
57 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Wisconsin, All sectors, All fuels, All Solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2019.
58 Wisconsin State Legislature, 2015-16 Wisconsin Statutes and Annotations, Chapter 1, Section 1.12, State energy policy (March 11, 2019).
59 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Wisconsin Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated May 31, 2018.
60 Content, Thomas, "Wisconsin utilities hit 10% renewable energy goal, two years early," The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (June 12, 2014).
61 Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, Renewable Energy, accessed April 1, 2020.
62 Vickerman, Michael, "Governor Evers Delivers a Clean Energy Vision for Wisconsin," Renew Wisconsin (September 23, 2019).
63 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2018, Tables 2A, 2B.
64 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2018, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2018.
65 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Wisconsin, Net generation all sectors, All fuels, Coal, Annual, 2001-19.
66 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Wisconsin, Net generation all sectors, All fuels, Natural Gas, Annual, 2001-19.
67 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Wisconsin, Net generation all sectors, All fuels, Nuclear, Conventional hydroelectric, Wind, Biomass (total), Annual, 2001-19.
68 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin State Nuclear Profile 2010, accessed April 2, 2020.
69 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Kewaunee Power Station, updated July 25, 2018.
70 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Wisconsin, Net generation all sectors, All fuels, Nuclear, Annual, 2001-19.
71 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Unit 1, updated April 30, 2018.
72 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Point Beach Nuclear Plant 2, updated April 30, 2018.
73 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Wisconsin, Net generation all sectors, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Wind, Biomass (total), Annual, 2019.
74 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales per Capita, Ranked by State, 2017.
75 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Wisconsin, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
76 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.4.B.
77 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018.
78 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2018.
79 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, Estimated Production, Annual, 2018.
80 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Industrial sand mining overview, updated February 28, 2020.
81 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin State Profile, Overview, Petroleum Refinery Map Layer, accessed April 2, 2020.
82 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Wisconsin, Annual as of January 1, 2019.
83 U.S. Chemical Safety Board, Husky Energy Refinery Explosion and Fire, accessed April 2, 2020.
84 Husky Energy, "Husky Receives Approval to Begin Superior Refinery Rebuild," Press Release (September 30, 2019).
85 Brelsford, Robert, "Husky Energy acquires Wisconsin refinery," Oil and Gas Journal (November 9, 2017).
86 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin State Profile, Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline and Petroleum Refinery Map Layers, accessed April 10, 2020.
87 Wisconsin Office of Energy Innovation, Wisconsin Energy Statistics 2018, Wisconsin Petroleum Pipelines, p. 95.
88 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin State Profile, Overview, Petroleum Product Pipeline and Petroleum Product Terminal Map Layers, accessed April 10, 2020.
89 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2017.
90 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2017.
91 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
92 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Ethanol Fueling Station Locations, Advanced Filters, Wisconsin, E85, Public, accessed April 10, 2020.
93 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2017.
94 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Wisconsin, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
95 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2013-18.
96 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2014-19.
97 Vigil, José F., Richard J. Pike, and David G. Howell, A Tapestry of Time and Terrain, U.S. Geological Survey (February 24, 2000), p. 6, paragraph 9.
98 U.S. EIA, Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2018.
99 Wisconsin State Energy Office, 2013 Wisconsin Energy Statistics, Wisconsin Natural Gas Deliveries, by Pipeline Company, p. 47.
100 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Wisconsin, Annual, 2018.
101 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2013-18.
102 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Natural Gas Total Consumption, 1997-2019.
103 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2019.
104 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Wisconsin, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
105 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Wisconsin, 2014-19.
106 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 2019), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2018 and 2017, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
107 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2018.
108 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 2019), By Coal Destination State, Wisconsin Table DS-43, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2018.
109 Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning and Economic Development, Economic Impact of Wisconsin's Commercial Ports (January 2014), p. 1, 4, 5, 7-10.
110 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Wisconsin, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.