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Wisconsin   Wisconsin Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: June 17, 2021

Overview

Bordered by navigable waterways, Wisconsin lies between Lake Superior and Lake Michigan to the north and east and the Mississippi and Saint Croix rivers to the west. The glaciers that covered most of the state during the Ice Ages created rolling hills, thousands of lakes, and the marshy areas where the state's abundant cranberry crops are grown.1,2 The state's fertile soil and strong agricultural economy make it a leader in the market value of agricultural products.3,4 Wisconsin's corn crop provides the feedstock for the state's ethanol production facilities.5 Methane, created when anaerobic digesters process industrial and municipal wastewater as well as the manure from the state's many farm animals, including more than 1 million dairy cows, is used for heat and electricity generation. Methane gas captured from the state's landfills is also used for power generation.6,7 Wisconsin has ample solid biomass resources in the 17 million acres of forestland and the agricultural residues on the state's many farms.8,9 Dozens of dams throughout the state supply hydroelectric power, and most of the state's wind resources are in eastern and southern Wisconsin.10 The state has limited solar potential, but solar power's contribution to Wisconsin's electricity generation is increasing.11,12

Wisconsin does not have any fossil fuel resources, but coal and petroleum products are shipped from Wisconsin's many ports, including from the Wisconsin side of Port of Duluth-Superior, the largest harbor on the Great Lakes.13,14 Coal from Wyoming and Montana is transferred from railcars to ships in Superior for shipment east through the Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Seaway.15,16 Coal and petroleum products are also shipped from other Wisconsin ports along Lake Michigan and the Upper Mississippi River System.17 Additionally, pipelines carry crude oil, petroleum products, and natural gas across Wisconsin on route to markets in the state and elsewhere.18

Despite winters that are cold and snowy, with temperatures frequently falling to minus 30°F in the northern part of the state, Wisconsin's energy consumption per capita is less than that of two-fifths of the states and only slightly above the national average.19,20 Industry is Wisconsin's leading end-use energy consumer.21 In addition to agriculture, the energy-intensive construction, food and beverage, machinery, and chemical manufacturing industries are major contributors to the state's gross domestic product (GDP).22,23 An important dairy state, Wisconsin produces about one-third of the cheese made in the nation, and beer is the state's most valuable processed beverage product.24 The industrial sector accounts for about one-third of the energy consumed in the state, the transportation sector and the residential sector each use nearly one-fourth, and the commercial sector consumes one-fifth.25 Overall, Wisconsin consumes almost six times as much energy as it produces.26

Renewable energy

Wisconsin's primary renewable energy resource is biofuels. The state is among the top 10 fuel ethanol producers in the nation, and ethanol is one of the few energy resources that Wisconsin produces and sends to other states.27,28 Wisconsin's nine ethanol plants can produce almost 600 million gallons of fuel ethanol per year, more than twice the amount consumed in the state.29,30,31 Wisconsin is also one of the nation's top 10 corn-producing states.32 Most of the ethanol plants use corn as feedstock and most are located in agriculturally rich southern and central Wisconsin.33,34 The state also has two biodiesel facilities that have a combined production capacity of 33 million gallons per year, which is more than Wisconsin's annual consumption of biodiesel. In 2019, about 24 million gallons of biodiesel were consumed in the state.35,36

Wisconsin, one of the top 10 ethanol-producing states, can produce about 600 million gallons of fuel ethanol per year.

One-tenth of Wisconsin's in-state electricity net generation comes from hydroelectric, wind, biomass, and solar resources. Hydroelectric facilities are the largest contributors and accounted for almost half of the state's renewable electricity generation in 2020.37,38 Wind energy accounts for about three-tenths of Wisconsin's electricity generation from renewable resources.39 The state's best onshore wind energy resources are along ridges in eastern Wisconsin and in isolated areas in the northern section of the state's western uplands.40,41 Most of the state's wind farms are located in the eastern and southern parts of the state.42 Additional wind resource potential exists offshore in the Wisconsin portion of Lake Michigan.43

Biomass resources accounted for more than one-fifth of Wisconsin's renewable electricity generation in 2020.44 There are almost 200 waste-to-energy systems (anaerobic digesters) and landfill facilities in Wisconsin that capture biogas (methane) for use in power generation.45,46 Agricultural and forest waste also contribute to the state's net generation, as do wood and wood waste from paper and pulp mills.47 Most of the wood-fueled biomass power plants are in the more heavily forested northern part of Wisconsin.48,49 The state has six manufacturing plants that produce fuel-grade wood pellets that can be used for power generation or for heating.50 About 1 in 33 Wisconsin households heat with wood.51

Wisconsin's solar resources, although modest, contributed almost 4% of the state's renewable net generation in 2020.52,53 Almost three-fifths of the solar power generated in the state was from small-scale (less than 1 megawatt), customer-sited solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities.54 By the end of February 2021, there were 25 utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) solar PV facilities in the state. Those utility-scale facilities had a combined capacity of 204 megawatts, which was 5 times greater than a year earlier.55,56 Other large-scale projects are in development and 730 megawatts of additional capacity is expected to come online by the end of 2023.57 Plans for three additional solar and battery projects with a combined capacity of more than 900 megawatts were announced in the first half of 2021.58

The Wisconsin state legislature has established a number of energy goals, including increased energy efficiency, increased use of renewable energy, and reduced atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through increased forested land in the state.59 In 1999, Wisconsin became the first state to enact a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) without restructuring its electric utility industry. Later modifications to the RPS set a statewide target of 10% of electricity retail sales from power generated from renewable resources by the end of 2015. After 2015, the RPS required that each electricity provider maintain, at a minimum, their 2015 percentage of retail sales from renewable resources.60 Wisconsin utilities met their 2015 RPS target two years early in 2013.61 Wisconsin's renewable energy goal also called for all new installed generating capacity to be powered by renewable energy resources to the extent that it is cost-effective and technically feasible.62 In 2019, the governor signed an executive order that established a state Office of Sustainability and Clean Energy and set a goal that all electricity consumed in the state be 100% carbon-free by 2050.63

Electricity

Wisconsin’s Point Beach Unit 1 is one of the oldest operating nuclear reactors in the United States.

Coal, natural gas, and nuclear energy generate most of Wisconsin's electricity. The state's largest power plant by capacity is coal-fired, and coal supplies the largest share of in-state electricity generation on an annual basis.64 However, coal-fired generation has declined steadily. In 2019, coal fueled less than half of in-state generation for the first time in at least three decades, and in 2020, coal accounted for about two-fifths of Wisconsin's electricity net generation.65,66 Natural gas-fired power plants contribute the second-largest amount of state generation, and their contribution increased from less than one-tenth of the state's net generation a decade ago to more than one-third in 2020. Nuclear power and renewable energy supply almost all of the state's remaining net generation.67 Until 2013 the three reactors at the state's two nuclear power plants supplied about one-fifth of Wisconsin's electricity generation.68,69 However, the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant ceased operations in May 2013.70 The two remaining nuclear reactors at the Point Beach nuclear power plant now supply about 16% of the state's net generation.71 Point Beach Unit 1, which started commercial operation in 1970, is one of the oldest operating reactors in the United States, and Point Beach's second reactor is only three years younger. In 2005, Point Beach's two reactors had their operating licenses extended to 2030 and 2033, giving each a total of 60 years of operations.72,73 In 2020, renewables supplied 10% of Wisconsin's in-state generation. Almost 5% came from hydropower, 3% from wind, 2% from biomass, and less than 0.5% from utility-scale and small-scale solar combined.74

Per capita electricity retail sales in Wisconsin are less than in more than half the states and only slightly above the national average. Despite the cold winters, residential electricity retail sales per capita are lower than in almost two-thirds of the states, in part because fewer than one in six Wisconsin households rely on electricity to heat their homes.75,76 Wisconsin's electricity retail sales to the residential, commercial and industrial sectors are almost equal.77 Overall, Wisconsin consumers use more electricity than is generated in the state. To meet consumer demand, Wisconsin takes electricity from the regional electric grid.78

Petroleum

More than 250 fueling stations in Wisconsin sell E85, a blend of 15% motor gasoline and 85% ethanol.

Wisconsin has no crude oil production or reserves.79 However, high-quality sand mined in southwestern Wisconsin is used in other states for oil and gas exploration. The sand is used as a proppant to keep fractures open in low permeability rock formations during hydraulic fracturing to enhance oil and natural gas recovery.80 Wisconsin does have one small oil refinery in Superior in the northwestern part of the state.81 When operational, the Superior refinery can process about 38,000 barrels of light and heavy crude oil per calendar day into motor gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt, and heavy fuel oils.82 Refinery operations were interrupted by an explosion and fire in April 2018.83 A rebuild is underway, and operations are expected to return to normal in 2022.84 Crude oil is delivered to the Superior refinery from Canada and North Dakota via a pipeline system that also transports crude oil south across the state to Chicago area refineries and across northern Wisconsin to Michigan's Upper Peninsula and then south to a Canadian refinery.85,86 Refined products are delivered to Wisconsin markets from the refinery in Superior and from refineries in the Chicago and Minneapolis metropolitan areas.87

Most of the petroleum consumed in Wisconsin is used in the transportation sector. About three-fifths of the state's petroleum consumption is as motor gasoline and one-fourth as distillate fuel oil, which includes diesel fuels.88,89 Although most of Wisconsin can use conventional gasoline, a cleaner-burning reformulated motor gasoline blend of 10% ethanol and 90% conventional motor gasoline is required in a six-county area surrounding Milwaukee, in southeastern Wisconsin.90 That blend is sold at most retail gasoline stations in Wisconsin, and other ethanol-motor gasoline blends are also available across the state. Statewide, more than 250 fueling stations sell E85, a blend of motor gasoline with 85% ethanol.91 The transportation sector accounts for 77% of state petroleum consumption, and the industrial sector consumes about 12%. More than 8% is used in the residential sector, where about one in seven Wisconsin households use petroleum products—mostly propane but also fuel oil and kerosene—for home heating.92 The commercial sector accounts for less about 3% of the state's petroleum consumption.93

Natural gas

Wisconsin does not have any natural gas reserves or production.94 Although eastern Wisconsin is within the boundary of the natural gas-rich Michigan Basin, a geologic structure centered in Michigan's Lower Peninsula, Wisconsin does not share in any of that Basin's substantial natural gas production history.95 Wisconsin's natural gas needs are met by natural gas from Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, Kansas, and Alberta, Canada that is transported to the state by interstate pipelines, which enter Wisconsin from Minnesota, Illinois, and Michigan.96 Most of the natural gas that is not consumed in Wisconsin is sent on to Michigan. In 2019, about three-fifths of the natural gas that was delivered to Wisconsin was used in the state.97 Wisconsin has no underground natural gas storage fields.98

About two-thirds of Wisconsin households use natural gas for home heating.

Natural gas consumption in Wisconsin remained fairly constant until 2012 and then rose as natural gas use by the electric power sector increased.99,100 That sector was the state's largest natural gas user for the second year in a row in 2020 when it accounted for nearly three-tenths of deliveries to consumers.101 The industrial sector's natural gas consumption almost equaled that of the electric power sector. The residential sector, where about two-thirds of state households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating, accounted for more than one-fourth of the natural gas delivered to Wisconsin consumers in 2020.102 The commercial sector consumed about one-sixth. A very small amount was used in the transportation sector as vehicle fuel.103

Coal

Wisconsin has no coal mines and no coal reserves.104 Wisconsin consumed more than 15 million tons of coal in 2019, and most of it arrived by rail from Wyoming to generate electricity. Some coal from Pennsylvania was also delivered to electric power generators in Wisconsin, and a small amount from a variety of states went to industrial and commercial users in the state. Although most of Wisconsin's coal supply arrives by rail, minor amounts arrive on Great Lakes ships and by river barge.105,106 Several of the state's ports along the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes handle transshipments of coal from other states, most notably at the Superior terminal at the Port of Duluth-Superior.107

Endnotes

1 Wisconsin State Climatology Office, Climate of Wisconsin (March 25, 2003).
2 Wisconsin Cranberries, About Cranberries, Where Wisconsin Cranberries are Grown, accessed May 19, 2021.
3 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2020 State Agriculture Overview, Wisconsin.
4 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, FAQs, Which are the top 10 agricultural producing States?, accessed May 19, 2021.
5 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated December 15, 2020.
6 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2020 State Agriculture Overview, Wisconsin.
7 Wisconsin Office of Energy Innovation, Wisconsin Biogas Survey Report (2016), p. 2.
8 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry Resources, Forestry, accessed May 19, 2021.
9 University of Wisconsin Stevens Point, Renewable Energy Education, Biomass Feedstocks, accessed May 19, 2021.
10 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Hydroelectric Power Plant and Wind Power Plant Map Layers, accessed May 19, 2021.
11 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Solar Resource Data, Tools, and Maps, accessed May 19, 2021.
12 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All solar, Small-scale photovoltaic, Utility-scale photovoltaic, Annual, 2014-20.
13 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Data, Reserves, accessed May 19, 2021.
14 Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning and Economic Development, Economic Impact of
Wisconsin's Commercial Ports (January 2014), p. 1, 2, 8.
15 DTE, Midwest Energy Resources Company, Company, Fueling Success for Everyone, accessed May 19, 2021.
16 American Great Lakes Ports Association, Great Lake Seaway Cargoes, accessed May 19, 2021.
17 Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning and Economic Development, Economic Impact of
Wisconsin's Commercial Ports (January 2014), p. 2-8.
18 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Natural Gas Pipeline, HGL Pipeline, Crude Oil Pipeline and Petroleum Product Pipeline Map Layers, accessed May 19, 2021.
19 Wisconsin State Climatology Office, Climate of Wisconsin (March 25, 2003).
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
22 U.S. EIA, Use of energy explained, Energy use in industry, U.S. industrial sector energy consumption by type of industry, 2019.
23 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Wisconsin, All statistics in table, 2019.
24 NETSTATE, Wisconsin, Wisconsin Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
27 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2018.
28 Wisconsin Public Service Commission, 2013 Wisconsin Energy Statistics, Chapter 2, Energy Use by Type of Fuel, Petroleum, p. 39.
29 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2020 (Excel File).
30 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2018.
31 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
32 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Crop Production 2020 Summary (January 2021), p. 11.
33 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated December 15, 2020.
34 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Ethanol Plant and Biodiesel Plant Map Layers, accessed May 21, 2021.
35 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2020.
36 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
38 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-20.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-20.
40 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Wisconsin, Wisconsin 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed May 21, 2021.
41 NETSTATE, Wisconsin, The Geography of Wisconsin, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
42 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed May 21, 2021.
43 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wisconsin Offshore 90-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential, accessed May 21, 2021.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, Conventional Hydroelectric, Other renewables (total), Biomass, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-20.
45 Pennington, Melissa, Anaerobic Digestion Facilities Processing Food Waste in the United States (2016), Survey Results September 2019, EPA/903/S-19/001, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, p. vii, 9, 30.
46 Wisconsin Office of Energy Innovation, Wisconsin Biogas Survey Report, p. 2, accessed May 21, 2021.
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of February 2021, Wisconsin, Other Waste Biomass, Landfill Gas, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
48 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Biomass Power Plant Map Layer, accessed May 21, 2021.
49 NETSTATE, Wisconsin, The Geography of Wisconsin, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
50 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, February 2021.
51 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Wisconsin, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, All Solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001-20.
53 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Solar Resources Map Layer, accessed May 21, 2021.
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001-20.
55 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of February 2021, Wisconsin, Solar photovoltaic.
56 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (April 2021), Table 6.2.B.
57 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of February 2021, Wisconsin, Solar photovoltaic.
58 Holbrook, Emily, "Wisconsin's Largest Renewable Energy Project in the Works," Environment + Energy Leader (May 3, 2021).
59 Wisconsin State Legislature, 2019-20 Wisconsin Statutes and Annotations, Chapter 1, Section 1.12, State energy policy (May 6, 2021).
60 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Wisconsin Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated May 31, 2018.
61 Content, Thomas, "Wisconsin utilities hit 10% renewable energy goal, two years early," The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (June 12, 2014).
62 Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, Renewable Energy, accessed May 21, 2021.
63 Vickerman, Michael, "Governor Evers Delivers a Clean Energy Vision for Wisconsin," Renew Wisconsin (September 23, 2019).
64 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2A.
65 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, Coal, Annual, 2001-20.
66 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2019, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2019.
67 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
68 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, Nuclear, Annual, 2001-20.
69 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Wisconsin, updated March 19, 2020.
70 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Kewaunee Power Station, updated March 24, 2021.
71 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, Nuclear, Annual, 2001-20.
72 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Unit 1, updated March 24, 2021.
73 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Point Beach Nuclear Plant 2, updated March 24, 2021.
74 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Biomass (total), All utility-scale solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-20.
75 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
76 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Wisconsin, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
77 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Wisconsin, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Annual, 2020.
78 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
79 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Data, Reserves and Supply & Distribution, accessed May 22, 2021.
80 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Industrial sand mining overview, accessed May 22, 2021.
81 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Petroleum Refinery Map Layer, accessed May 22, 2021.
82 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Wisconsin, Annual as of January 1, 2020.
83 U.S. Chemical Safety Board, Husky Energy Refinery Explosion and Fire, accessed May 22, 2021.
84 Husky Energy, Superior Refinery Rebuild, accessed May 22, 2021.
85 Enbridge, Enbridge in Wisconsin, Superior Terminal, accessed May 22, 2021.
86 Wisconsin Office of Energy Innovation, Wisconsin Energy Statistics 2018, Wisconsin Petroleum Pipelines, p. 95.
87 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Petroleum Product Pipeline and Petroleum Product Terminal Map Layers, accessed May 22, 2021.
88 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
89 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2018.
90 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed May 22, 2021.
91 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Ethanol Fueling Station Locations, Wisconsin, E85, Public, accessed May 22, 2021.
92 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Wisconsin, Table 25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
93 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
94 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Data, Reserves and Supply & Distribution, accessed May 22, 2021.
95 Vigil, José F., Richard J. Pike, and David G. Howell, A Tapestry of Time and Terrain, U.S. Geological Survey (February 24, 2000), p. 6, Section 9.
96 Wisconsin State Energy Office, 2013 Wisconsin Energy Statistics, Wisconsin Natural Gas Deliveries, by Pipeline Company, p. 47.
97 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Wisconsin, Annual, 2014-19.
98 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2014-19.
99 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Natural Gas Total Consumption, 1997-2019.
100 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2020.
101 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Wisconsin, 2015-20.
102 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Wisconsin, Table 25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
103 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Wisconsin, 2015-20.
104 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Data, Reserves and Supply & Distribution, accessed May 22, 2021.
105 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2019.
106 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), By Coal Destination State, Wisconsin Table DS-45, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
107 Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning and Economic Development, Economic Impact of Wisconsin's Commercial Ports (January 2014), p. 1, 4, 5, 7-10.