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Missouri   Missouri Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: March 16, 2017

Overview

Missouri, near the geographic center of the Lower 48 states, is a national transportation hub for rail, river, road, and air shipments.

Missouri is a transportation hub for the nation, located near the geographic center of the Lower 48 states at the junction of the nation's two largest rivers, the Mississippi and the Missouri. The state's infrastructure and location give shippers the ability to move raw materials and finished products by rail, river, road, and air to destinations across the country.1,2 Missouri has little fossil fuel production, but it does have fossil fuel resources, including tar sands, coalbed methane, and oil shales.3 The rich soils of the plains and rolling hills north of the Missouri River and those of the southeastern lowlands form the state's fertile agricultural regions.4,5 Missouri's corn and soybean crops are feedstocks for the state's biofuels industry.6,7 South of the Missouri River, the heavily forested Ozark Plateau has abundant biomass resource potential, and the open prairies of northern and western Missouri have the state's best wind resources.8,9 Three of the largest earthquakes in U.S. history were centered in southeastern Missouri. The potential for further tremors in that geologically active part of the state is taken into consideration in siting nuclear power plants throughout the Midwest.10,11,12

Missouri has a moderate climate, and extended periods of very cold or very hot weather are uncommon.13 The state's energy consumption per capita is at the national median.14 The residential and the transportation sectors each account for about three-tenths of the energy consumed by end-use sectors in Missouri. The industrial sector, which includes agriculture and the manufacture of food products, chemicals, and transportation equipment, accounts for one-fifth of the state's total energy consumption.15,16

Petroleum

Crude oil production in Missouri is less than 0.01% of the nation's total.17 The first petroleum production in the state came from wells drilled near Kansas City, Missouri, in the 1860s, just after the Civil War. Today, crude oil is produced in northwestern Missouri near the state's border with Kansas and Nebraska, and in eastern Missouri near St. Louis.18 Annual crude oil production in the state declined from its peak of nearly 300,000 barrels in 1984 to 80,000 barrels in 2007. Production has increased since then, and, in 2013 and 2014, production reached almost 200,000 barrels each year but declined again in 2015 and 2016.19 Additional undeveloped petroleum resources exist in the tar sands of western Missouri, and in the oil shales in the northern and extreme southwestern parts of the state.20

Six major crude oil pipelines pass through Missouri on their way to refining centers elsewhere in the Midwest. The only petroleum refinery in Missouri closed in 1982.21,22 Missouri receives finished petroleum products from several interstate pipelines that originate mainly in the Gulf Coast.23 Some petroleum products also arrive at the state's inland ports via barge on the Missouri and the Mississippi Rivers.24,25

Missouri's total petroleum consumption per person is slightly below the national average.26,27 However, per person consumption of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is well above the national median. Few Missouri residents use heating oil for home heating,28 but about 1 in every 11 Missouri households depend on LPG for their primary heating fuel. In addition, Missouri is one of the top 10 corn-producing states in the nation, and, in wet years, LPG is used to dry corn after harvest.29,30,31,32 Three-fifths of Missouri's petroleum consumption is in the form of motor gasoline.33 Missouri is one of only two Midwestern states that require statewide use of oxygenated motor gasoline. The St. Louis and Kansas City metropolitan areas have stricter requirements than the rest of the state for motor gasoline blends limiting emissions.34

Natural gas

Missouri has no appreciable proved natural gas reserves and produces only a token amount of natural gas.35,36 Small amounts of natural gas were produced in Missouri in the past, but, except for a few wells that supply natural gas for private use, production in the state has ceased.37 One-third of Missouri, about 24,000 square miles, is underlain by coal seams that potentially could produce coalbed methane. Those coal deposits are in northwest, north-central, and west-central Missouri.38,39

Missouri is crossed by a dozen interstate natural gas pipelines.40 Natural gas enters the state from the west and south, mostly from Kansas, Arkansas, and Nebraska. Most of the natural gas is sent on to Illinois and Iowa for delivery to markets in the Midwest and beyond.41,42 The eastern and western sections of the Rockies Express Pipeline (REX), one of the nation's largest and longest natural gas pipelines, connect in Missouri. The REX pipeline's western section originates in Colorado and brings Rocky Mountain natural gas east. The pipeline's eastern section is bidirectional and can bring natural gas to Missouri from shales in Ohio and Pennsylvania.43,44,45 Missouri has one natural gas storage field with a capacity of almost 14 billion cubic feet.46,47 It is located near St. Louis.48

The residential sector, where more than half of the households use natural gas as their primary energy source for home heating, consumes more than one-third of the natural gas delivered to end users in Missouri.49 The industrial sector and the commercial sector each use about one-fourth of the natural gas delivered to consumers.50 The use of natural gas for electricity generation fluctuates but has increased overall in recent years.51

Coal

The first commercial coal production west of the Mississippi River occurred in Missouri. By the late 1880s, coal mining in the state was a thriving industry. All the state's coal is bituminous, and almost all of it has a high sulfur content.52 Currently, only one surface mine still produces coal in Missouri. Its output is less than 1% of the coal consumed in the state.53

More coal is consumed for electricity generation in Missouri than in all but three other states.

More coal is consumed for electricity generation in Missouri than in all but three other states in the nation; only Texas, Illinois, and Indiana use more.54 Most of the coal fueling Missouri's coal-fired power plants comes by rail from Wyoming. Small amounts of coal also arrive by rail and truck from other states, primarily Illinois. Some of the coal used at industrial plants in Missouri is delivered by river barges from Illinois. Additional small amounts of coal are shipped to industrial, commercial, and institutional users in the state from Illinois, Indiana, and Colorado.55

Electricity

Coal fuels about three-fourths of Missouri's net electricity generation, and 8 of the 10 largest power plants in the state are coal-fired.56,57 Coal's share of net generation has declined slightly as some older coal-fired plants have shut down or switched to natural gas.58,59,60 One-eighth of the state's electricity generation comes from the Callaway nuclear power plant in Fulton, Missouri. The state has been obtaining about 5% of its net generation from natural gas-fired power plants, and that share is rising as coal's share dips. Most of the rest of the state's net electricity generation comes from renewable energy sources, primarily hydroelectric, wind, and solar facilities.61,62

Almost all of the electricity generated in Missouri is provided by electric utilities.63 Much of the state is served by electric cooperatives and municipal utilities; however, most of the population, which is concentrated in the urban areas, receives its electric service from investor-owned utilities.64,65 The retail price of electricity in Missouri is well below the national average for all end-use sectors.66 One-third of Missouri households rely on electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.67

Renewable energy

Renewable resources currently contribute less than 4% of Missouri's net electricity generation,68 but there is considerable renewable energy potential in the state. Missouri's primary renewable electricity sources are hydroelectric power and wind energy.69 The state has several pumped storage facilities and conventional hydroelectric power plants, and there is untapped hydroelectric power potential on the state's rivers.70,71,72 As of 2016, Missouri had 659 megawatts of wind generating capacity online, another 300 megawatts being built, and substantial additional wind energy potential, primarily in the state's northwest.73,74 Small amounts of the state's net electricity generation come from biomass—mostly wood—and from solar energy. Missouri has significant biomass potential from agricultural waste, from municipal solid waste and landfill gas, and from the 14 million acres of forest that cover roughly one-third of the state.75,76,77 Electricity generation from solar photovoltaic installations is increasing. Several utility-scale facilities have been built, including a 5.7 megawatt solar farm in O'Fallon, Missouri, but most of the state's solar generation comes from distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) facilities at both businesses and homes.78,79,80

Missouri ranks 3rd in the nation in biodiesel production capacity and 13th in ethanol production capacity.

Bioenergy production in Missouri includes alternative liquid fuels in the form of ethanol and biodiesel. The state has the third-largest biodiesel production capacity in the nation, with nine biodiesel plants and a tenth under construction. The biodiesel plants in Missouri use a variety of feedstocks, mostly soy oil or animal fats.81,82 Missouri also has seven facilities that use corn, sorghum, and switchgrass to produce ethanol, and the state ranks 13th in the nation in ethanol production capacity.83,84

In 2008, Missouri voters approved a mandatory renewable energy standard. The standard requires investor-owned electric utilities to obtain at least of 15% of electricity sales from renewable resources by 2021. The standard also requires that solar energy supply at least 0.3% of total retail electricity sales by 2021. State regulators have implemented cost caps to keep retail electricity rates from rising more than 1% annually because of the mandate.85

Endnotes

1 Kammerer, J. C., "Largest Rivers in the United States," U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 87-242 (May 1990).
2 Missouri Department of Economic Development, Why Missouri?, Missouri Transportation and Logistics Portal, accessed February 13, 2017.
3 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey, "Oil and Gas in the Show-Me State," The Geologic Column of Missouri, Volume 2, Issue 1 (Summer 2007), p. 1-4.
4 Christensen, Lawrence O., "Explore More with Facts for Now, Missouri," The New Book of Knowledge, accessed February 13, 2017.
5 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey, Physiographic Regions of Missouri (2002).
6 "U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Platforms, Existing," Ethanol Producer Magazine, updated February 7, 2017.
7 "USA Plants, existing," Biodiesel Magazine, updated December 12, 2016.
8 Stelzer, Henry E., Chris Barnett, and Verel W. Bensen, "Sustainable Bioenergy Production from Missouri's Ozark Forests," U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Proceedings, 16th Central Hardwood Forest Conference, General Technical Report NRS-P-24 (March 2008), p. 306.
9 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Missouri Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, updated September 24, 2015.
10 Gramling, Carolyn, "New Map Fingers Future Hot Spots for U.S. Earthquakes," Science (July 17, 2014).
11 McKeown, F. A., and L. C. Pakiser, editors, Investigations of The New Madrid, Missouri, Earthquake Region, U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey Professional Paper 1236 (1982), p. iii.
12 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Fact Sheet on Seismic Issues for Nuclear Power Plants, updated March 1, 2016.
13 Decker, Wayne L., "Climate of Missouri," Missouri Climate Center, accessed February 13, 2017.
14 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Begin using data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Classification NAICS, All Industries, Area Missouri, Time Period 2013, 2014, 2015.
17 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2010-15.
18 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas in Missouri, Missouri Geological Survey fact sheet number 15 (February 2014).
19 U.S. EIA, Missouri Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 1981-2015, and Monthly, January 1981-November 2016.
20 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey, "Oil and Gas in the Show-Me State," The Geologic Column of Missouri, Volume 2, Issue 1 (Summer 2007), p. 4.
21 Ray, Mildred, "Sugar Creek, MO - Refinery," Kansas City Times, Kansas City Public Library, Missouri Valley Special Collections (October 9, 1987).
22 U.S. EIA, Missouri Number of Operable Refineries as of January 1, 2016, accessed February 13, 2017.
23 U.S. EIA, Missouri Profile Data, Distribution and Marketing, accessed February 13, 2017.
24 World Port Source, Port of Kansas City, accessed February 13, 2007.
25 Missouri Port Authorities, City of St. Louis Port Authority, accessed February 13, 2017.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2014.
27 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01).
28 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Missouri, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate.
29 U.S. EIA, "Propane Use for Crop Drying Depends on Weather and Corn Markets as well as Crop Size," Today in Energy (October 2, 2014).
30 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F12, Liquefied Petroleum Gases Consumption Estimates, 2014.
31 Missouri Department of Economic Development, Division of Energy, Propane, accessed February 13, 2017.
32 University of Missouri Extension, Missouri Crop Resource Guide, Missouri Corn Facts, accessed February 13, 2017.
33 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2014.
34 Gardner, K.S., "U.S. Gasoline Requirements," ExxonMobil (June 2015).
35 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, Annual, 2010-15.
36 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2010-15.
37 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas in Missouri, Missouri Geological Survey fact sheet number 19 (November 2016).
38 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Missouri Coal, p. 3, accessed February 13, 2017.
39 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey, "Oil and Gas in the Show-Me State," The Geologic Column of Missouri, Volume 2, Issue 1 (Summer 2007), p. 4, Unconventional Resources.
40 U.S. EIA, Missouri Profile Data, Distribution and Marketing, accessed February 13, 2017.
41 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Missouri, 2010-15.
42 Missouri Public Service Commission, Missouri Natural Gas Pipelines, updated January 29, 2013.
43 Kramer, Brad, "Rockies Express Pipeline Gets a Second Chance," North America Oil and Gas Pipelines (February 25, 2014).
44 Tallgrass Energy, Rockies Express Pipeline (REX), accessed February 13, 2017.
45 BusinessWire, "Tallgrass Energy and Rockies Express Pipeline Announce Completion of REX's Zone 3 Capacity Enhancement Project," Press Release (January 5, 2017).
46 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2010-15.
47 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, 2010-15.
48 Laclede Gas, Underground Storage, accessed February 14, 2017.
49 U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder, Missouri, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate.
50 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Missouri, Annual, 2010-15.
51 U.S. EIA, Missouri Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2015.
52 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Missouri Coal, accessed February 14, 2017.
53 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Tables 1, 6, 26.
54 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 26.
55 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 2016), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, Missouri, Table DS-23, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2015.
56 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B.
57 U.S. EIA, Missouri Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2015.
58 Cassell, Barry, "Missouri Town to End Coal Use at Two Power Plants," Electric Light & Power (July 23, 2014).
59 City Utilities of Springfield, MO, "James River Power Station Switches From Coal to Natural Gas," Press Release (October 8, 2015).
60 Barker, Jacob, "Ameren's Meramec Coal Plant Starts Using Natural Gas," St. Louis Post-Dispatch (April 20, 2016).
61 U.S. EIA, Missouri Electricity Profile 2015, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2015.
62 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.7.B, 1.9.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
63 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.3.B.
64 Missouri Public Service Commission, Missouri Electric Service Areas (September 2008).
65 U.S. EIA, Electric power sales, revenue, and energy efficiency Form EIA-861 detailed data files, 2015, Missouri, Sales to Ultimate Customers, customer count.
66 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.6.B.
67 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Missouri, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate.
68 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.12.B.
69 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B.
70 Hadjerioua, Boualem, Yaxing Wei, and Shih-Chieh Kao, An Assessment of Energy Potential at Non-Powered Dams in the United States, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, GPO DOE/EE-0711 (April 2012), p. 25.
71 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.10.B, 1.12.B.
72 Missouri Department of Economic Development, Division of Energy, Missouri Comprehensive State Energy Plan (October 2015), p. 195.
73 American Wind Energy Association, Missouri Wind Energy, accessed February 14, 2017.
74 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Missouri Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, updated September 24, 2015.
75 Missouri Department of Conservation, Missouri Forest Facts, accessed February 14, 2017.
76 Missouri Department of Economic Development, Division of Energy, 2013 Missouri Energy Resource Assessment (June 2014) p. 27-48.
77 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.15.B.
78 Ameren Missouri, Generating Clean Energy Using Solar Power, accessed February 14, 2017.
79 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.17.B.
80 Solar Energy Industries Association, State Solar Policy, Missouri Solar, accessed February 14, 2017.
81 Biodiesel Magazine, USA Plants, existing (December 12, 2016).
82 Biodiesel Magazine, USA Plants, under construction (December 12, 2016).
83 Ethanol Producer Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Platforms, Existing (February 14, 2017).
84 Nebraska Energy Office, Ethanol Facilities' Capacity by State, updated October 20, 2016.
85 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Missouri, Renewable Energy Standard, updated May 18, 2015.