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Missouri   Missouri Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

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(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: May 20, 2021

Overview

Missouri is a transportation hub for the United States at the junction of the nation's two longest rivers, the Missouri and the Mississippi. The state's infrastructure and location give shippers the ability to move raw materials and finished products by rail, river, highway, and air to destinations across the country.1,2 Missouri has little fossil fuel production, but it does have fossil fuel resources, including coal deposits and petroleum-bearing tar sands and oil shales.3,4,5,6

The rich soils of the plains, the rolling hills north of the Missouri River, and the southeastern lowlands form the state's fertile agricultural regions.7,8 Missouri's large corn and soybean crops are feedstocks for the state's biofuels industry.9,10 South of the Missouri River, the heavily forested Ozark Plateau has abundant biomass resource potential, and the open prairies of northern and western Missouri have the state's best wind resources.11,12,13 Three of the largest earthquakes in U.S. history were centered in southeastern Missouri.14 The potential for further tremors in that geologically active part of the state is taken into consideration in siting nuclear power plants throughout the Midwest.15,16,17

Missouri ranks third in the nation for per capita energy consumption in the residential sector.

Missouri has a moderate climate, and extended periods of very cold or very hot weather are uncommon.18 The state's total energy consumption per capita is close to the national average, but the state ranks thirds in the nation for per capita energy consumption in the residential sector.19 Missouri consumes almost eight times more energy than it produces.20 The transportation and residential sectors are the two largest energy-consuming end-use sectors, each accounting for three-tenths of the state's total energy use. The commercial sector accounts for almost one-fourth of Missouri's energy consumption. The industrial sector—which includes agriculture; construction; mining; and the manufacture of food, beverage, and tobacco products, chemicals, and automobiles and vehicle parts—accounts for slightly more than one-sixth of the state's energy consumption.21,22

Petroleum

Cass County, in western Missouri, is the source of 7 out of 10 barrels of crude oil produced in the state.

Missouri does not have significant crude oil reserves and had modest production at around 100,000 barrels per year since the mid-1980s, but has been in decline since 2013. In 2020, the state's annual oil output was 75,000 barrels, down significantly from its peak of 285,000 barrels in 1984.23 The first crude oil production in the state came from wells drilled near Kansas City, Missouri, in the late 1860s. Today, crude oil is produced in northwestern Missouri near the state's border with Kansas and Nebraska, and in eastern Missouri near St. Louis. Cass County, in western Missouri, is the source of 7 out of every 10 barrels of crude oil produced in the state.24,25

Six major crude oil pipelines pass through Missouri on their way to refining centers elsewhere in the Midwest.26 The last petroleum refinery in the state closed in 1982.27,28 Missouri receives finished petroleum products from several interstate pipelines, most of which originate along the Gulf Coast.29 Some petroleum products also arrive at the state's inland ports via barge on the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers.30,31

Missouri's petroleum consumption per capita is slightly below the national average.32 Almost two-thirds of the state's petroleum consumption is in the form of motor gasoline.33 Missouri is one of only two Midwestern states—the other is Minnesota—that require statewide use of motor gasoline with at least 10% ethanol.34 In order to reduce emissions, the St. Louis and Kansas City metropolitan areas have stricter motor gasoline requirements than the rest of the state.35 Few Missouri residents use heating oil for home heating, but about 1 in every 11 households depend on propane for their primary heating fuel.36 In addition, Missouri is one of the top 10 corn-producing states in the nation, and, in wet years, propane is used to dry the corn crop after the harvest.37,38

Coal

More coal is consumed for electricity generation in Missouri than in all but one state—Texas.

Missouri holds about 1.5% of U.S. economically recoverable coal reserves, but much of the coal has a high sulfur content that makes it more expensive to burn for coal power plants because emissions have to meet federal clean air standards.39,40 All of Missouri's mined coal is bituminous—which has a high heat content when burned and is used to generate electricity and to make iron and steel—and most of it is sent out of the state by truck to Kansas.41,42,43 The state has one operating surface mine that produces a small amount of coal for industrial use.44,45 Missouri has a rich coal mining history dating back to the 1880s, but coal production has declined significantly from a high of 6.7 million short tons in 1984 to about 189,000 short tons in 2019.46,47,48

More coal is burned for electricity generation in Missouri than in any other state, except for Texas.49 Nearly all the coal fueling Missouri's coal-fired power plants is brought into the state by rail from Wyoming. Minor amounts of coal arrive by rail from Illinois. Additional small amounts of coal from Illinois, Indiana, and Colorado are delivered by river barges, rail, and trucks to industrial and commercial users in the state.50

Natural gas

Missouri has minor natural gas reserves and modest amounts of natural gas were produced in the past. Except for a few wells that supply natural gas for private use, commercial production of natural gas in the state has ceased. 51,52,53,54 One-third of Missouri, about 24,000 square miles, lies on top of coal seams that potentially could produce coalbed methane. Those coal deposits are located in the northern and western areas of the state.55,56

The eastern and western sections of the Rockies Express Pipeline (REX), one of the nation’s longest natural gas pipelines, connect in northern Missouri.

Missouri is crossed by a dozen interstate natural gas pipelines.57,58 Natural gas enters the state from the west and south, mostly by way of Kansas, Arkansas, Nebraska, and Oklahoma. Most of that natural gas continues on to Illinois and Iowa for delivery to markets in the Midwest and beyond.59 The eastern and western sections of the Rockies Express Pipeline (REX), one of the nation's largest and longest natural gas pipelines, connect in northern Missouri. The REX pipeline's western section originates in Colorado and brings Rocky Mountain natural gas east. The pipeline's eastern section is bidirectional and can bring natural gas to Missouri that is produced from shale areas in Ohio and Pennsylvania.60,61,62 Missouri has one natural gas storage field, which is located near St. Louis. It can hold almost 14 billion cubic feet of gas.63,64,65

Missouri's residential sector, where half of households use natural gas as their primary energy source for heating, consumes more than one-third of the natural gas delivered to end users in the state.66 The electric power sector accounts for almost one-fourth of the state's natural gas consumption by end users and the commercial and industrial sectors each account for one-fifth.67 The use of natural gas for electricity generation in Missouri fluctuates, depending on the relative prices of coal and natural gas as generation fuels. As more than 1,400 megawatts of coal-fired generating capacity shut down since 2011, natural gas use in the state's power sector has increased and reached 71.4 billion cubic feet in 2020, a record high.68,69

Electricity

Missouri’s only nuclear power plant contributes nearly 11% of the state’s electricity net generation.

In 2020, coal fueled 70% of Missouri's electricity net generation, and 8 of the 10 largest power plants in the state were coal-fired.70,71 Coal's share of net generation has declined from a high of 81% of electricity net generation in 2010, as older coal-fired plants have been retired, switched to natural gas, or were replaced with renewable generation.72,73,74,75 About 11% of Missouri's electricity generation in 2020 came from the Callaway plant, the state's only nuclear power plant. The state obtained nearly 11% of its net generation from natural gas-fired power plants. Most of the state's remaining in-state electricity was generated using renewable energy, primarily wind and hydropower.76 The state has several hydroelectric pumped storage facilities and conventional hydroelectric power plants, and there is other untapped hydropower potential on the state's rivers.77,78,79 Pumped-storage hydroelectric plants generate electricity during peak demand periods by using water pumped into an upper reservoir in off-peak periods and then releasing it to flow back to a lower reservoir when additional generating capacity is needed. Power is generated as the water flows through turbines located between the reservoirs. Although the plant uses more power than it generates, the plant supplies lower production-cost power in periods of peak demand when electricity prices are highest.80

On an annual basis, Missouri typically uses more electricity than it generates and has to import power from other states via the regional grid.81 Almost all of the electricity generated in Missouri is provided by electric utilities.82 The northeast corner and southeastern part of the state is served primarily by electric cooperatives. However, most of the state's population is concentrated in urban areas—mainly St. Louis and Kansas City—and receives retail electric service from investor-owned utilities.83,84 The residential sector uses the most electricity in the state, accounting for almost half of total power sales.85 The average retail price for electricity in Missouri's residential sector is near the lowest one-fifth of the states.86 Nearly 4 out of 10 Missouri households rely on electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.87

Renewable energy

In 2020, renewable sources accounted for nearly 9% of Missouri's total in-state electricity net generation, and there is substantial renewable energy potential in the state. Missouri's primary renewable electricity sources are wind energy, which provided more than half of the state's renewable generation, and hydropower, which provided more than one-third.88 At the beginning of 2021, Missouri had close to 2,000 megawatts of wind power generating capacity and 448 megawatts under construction. Almost 1,000 megawatts of wind power generation capacity was added in 2020.89,90 The best wind energy resources are located in the northwest corner of the state.91

Missouri ranks third in the nation in biodiesel production capacity.

Small amounts of the state's electricity generation come from biomass—mostly wood—and from solar energy.92 Missouri has significant biomass potential from agricultural waste, municipal solid waste, landfill gas, and the 14 million acres of forest that cover roughly one-third of the state.93,94 The amount of electricity generated from utility-scale and small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) installations in the state is increasing and has more than tripled since 2014. More than three-fourth of the state's solar power comes from customer-sited, small-scale generating systems, many of which are installed on rooftops at both businesses and homes.95,96,97

Missouri produces significant amounts of both fuel ethanol and biodiesel.98 The state has six manufacturing plants that use corn as the feedstock to manufacture ethanol. The ethanol plants have a production capacity of 297 million gallons per year.99,100,101 In 2019, Missouri ranked among the top one-third of states in ethanol consumption of 309 million gallons.102 The state has the third-largest biodiesel production capacity in the nation—253 million gallons annually at 8 biodiesel plants.103 The biodiesel plants use a variety of feedstocks, mostly soy oil or animal fats. Missouri's biodiesel consumption of 29 million gallons in 2019 was also among the top one-third of the states.104,105

Some of Missouri's large pig farms provide methane from manure lagoons that is converted into renewable natural gas, which is delivered by pipeline to cities and towns in the state.106,107

Missouri's forests and biomass resources also provide feedstock for the state's wood pellet industry. The state has four wood pellet manufacturing plants with a combined production capacity of about 160,000 tons per year.108 Wood pellets are used as fuel for generating electricity and for heating.109

In 2008, Missouri voters approved a mandatory renewable portfolio standard (RPS) to replace a voluntary goal. The RPS requires investor-owned electric utilities to meet 15% of their electricity sales with power generated from renewable sources by 2021, which they need to report by April 2022.110 The standard also requires that solar power account for at least 0.3% of total retail electricity sales by 2021. State regulators have implemented cost caps to keep electricity retail rates from rising more than 1% in any year because of the mandate.111

Endnotes

1 WorldAtlas, Longest Rivers in the United States, accessed April 1, 2021.
2 Missouri Department of Economic Development, Why Missouri?, Missouri Transportation and Logistics Portal, accessed April 1, 2021.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Production, Annual, View History, 1981-2020.
4 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2014-20.
5 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Missouri Geological Survey, Geology, Oil and Gas in Missouri, accessed April 1, 2021.
6 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 5, 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
7 Missouri Department of Agriculture, Missouri Ag Highlights, accessed April 1, 2021.
8 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey, Physiographic Regions of Missouri (2018).
9 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 25, 2020), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD District) are available in XLS.
10 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 26, 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel Producers and Production Capacity by State.
11 U.S. Department of Energy, Benefits of Biofuel Production and Use in Missouri, September 2015.
12 University of Missouri Extension, Woody Biomass for Energy in Missouri, accessed April 1, 2021.
13 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Missouri, Maps & Data, accessed April 2, 2021.
14 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Earthquakes in Missouri, accessed April 7, 2021.
15 Gramling, Carolyn, "New Map Fingers Future Hot Spots for U.S. Earthquakes," Science (July 17, 2014).
16 U.S. Geological Survey, The New Madrid Seismic Zone, accessed April 7, 2021.
17 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Background on Seismic Reviews at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants, updated June 13, 2018.
18 Decker, Wayne L., "Climate of Missouri," Missouri Climate Center, accessed April 7, 2021.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
22 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Classification, NAICS, Missouri, All statistics in table, Area Missouri, 2020.
23 U.S. EIA, Missouri Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 1981-2020.
24 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas in Missouri, Missouri Geological Survey fact sheet number 19 (November 2016).
25 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, 2019-2020 Annual Report Oil and Gas Activities, Presentation, State Oil and Gas Council Meeting (July 15, 2020), p.8-10.
26 Missouri Department of Transportation, Missouri Pipeline System, accessed April 7, 2021.
27 "Amoco to Close Third Refinery," The New York Times (March 4, 1982).
28 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, Annual (as of January 1), 2015-20.
29 Pipeline 101, Where Are Liquids Pipelines Located? accessed April 7, 2021.
30 World Port Source, Port of Kansas City, accessed April 7, 2021.
31 Missouri Port Authorities, Port of Metropolitan St. Louis, accessed April 7, 2021.
32 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
33 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2018.
34 Missouri Department of Agriculture, The Missouri Renewable Fuel Standard Act, accessed April 7, 2021.
35 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
36 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Missouri.
37 U.S. EIA, "Propane Use for Crop Drying Depends on Weather and Corn Markets as well as Crop Size," Today in Energy, (October 2, 2014).
38 Missouri Department of Agriculture, Missouri Agriculture at a glance, accessed April 7, 2021.
39 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 5, 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
40 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Summary of the Clean Air Act, accessed 27 April 2021.
41 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 5, 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
42 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Coal Explained, Types of Coal, Bituminous, accessed April 7, 2021.
43 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 5, 2020), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, Missouri, Table OS-13, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2019.
44 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 5, 2020), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
45 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 5, 2020), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018.
46 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Missouri Coal, p. 3-4, accessed April 7, 2021.
47 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), Missouri, 2001-19.
48 U.S. EIA, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2018, p.66.
49 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report (October 5, 2020), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2019 and 2018.
50 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report (October 5, 2020), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, Missouri, Table DS-23, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
51 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2019, Table 10, Total natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2019.
52 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2014-19.
53 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Oil and Gas in Missouri, Missouri Geological Survey fact sheet number 19 (November 2016).
54 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, 2019-2020 Annual Report Oil and Gas Activities, Presentation, State Oil and Gas Council Meeting (July 15, 2020).
55 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Missouri Coal, p. 3, accessed April 8, 2021.
56 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey, Oil and Gas in the Show-Me State, The Geologic Column of Missouri, Volume 2, Issue 1 (Summer 2007), p. 4, Unconventional Resources.
57 Interstate Natural Gas Association of America, Map, accessed April 8, 2021.
58 Missouri Public Service Commission, Missouri Natural Gas Pipelines, updated July 12, 2018.
59 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Missouri, 2014-19.
60 Tallgrass Energy, Rockies Express Pipeline map (April 18, 2017).
61 Tallgrass Energy, Rockies Express Pipeline (REX), accessed April 8, 2021.
62 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Weekly Update, "Rex Zone 3 capacity expansion enters full service, increasing Northeast takeaway capacity," (January 11, 2017).
63 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2014-19.
64 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, 2014-19.
65 U.S. EIA, Missouri State Profile and Energy Estimates, Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Natural Gas Underground Storage, accessed April 8, 2021.
66 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Missouri.
67 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use (million cubic feet), Annual, Missouri, 2015-20.
68 U.S. EIA, Missouri Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (million cubic feet), 1997-2020.
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of January 2021, Missouri, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
70 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Missouri, 2017-20.
71 U.S. EIA, Missouri Electricity Profile 2019, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2019.
72 Sweeney, Darren and Taylor Kuykendall, "US utilities, power providers continue plans to accelerate coal retirements," S&P Global Market Intelligence (August 18, 2020).
73 Barker, Jacob, "Ameren's Meramec Coal Plant Starts Using Natural Gas," St. Louis Post-Dispatch (April 20, 2016).
74 Uhlenhuth, Karen, "Small Missouri utility proposes big pivot to clean energy in latest resource plan," Energy News Network (July 29, 2019).
75 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of January 2021, Missouri, Technology: Conventional Steam Coal.
76 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Missouri, 2017-20.
77 Hadjerioua, Boualem, Yaxing Wei, and Shih-Chieh Kao, An Assessment of Energy Potential at Non-Powered Dams in the United States, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, GPO DOE/EE-0711 (April 2012), p. 25.
78 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Missouri, 2017-20.
79 National Hydropower Association, Missouri, accessed April. 9, 2021.
80 U.S. EIA, "Pumped storage provides grid reliability even with net generation loss," Today in Energy (July 8, 2013).
81 U.S. EIA, Missouri Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, Missouri.
82 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (January 2021), Table 1.3.B.
83 Association of Missouri Electric Cooperatives, Our Co-ops, accessed April 8, 2021.
84 Missouri Public Service Commission, Missouri Electric Service Areas (November 8, 2019).
85 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity (million kilowatthours), Missouri, 2017-20.
86 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (January 2021), Table 5.6.B.
87 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Missouri`.
88 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Missouri, 2017-20.
89 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly, Table 6.2.B, Net Summer Capacity Using Primarily Renewable Energy Sources and by State, February 2021 and 2020 (Megawatts).
90 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), updated March 24, 2021
91 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Missouri, Maps & Data, accessed April 9, 2021.
92 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Missouri, 2017-20.
93 Missouri Department of Conservation, Missouri Forest Facts, accessed April 9, 2021.
94 Missouri Department of Economic Development, Division of Energy, 2013 Missouri Energy Resource Assessment (June 2014) p. 27-48.
95 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Missouri, 2017-20.
96 Solar Energy Industries Association, State Solar Policy, Missouri Solar, accessed April 9, 2021.
97 Missouri Division of Energy, Solar Energy, accessed April 9, 2021.
98 U.S. EIA, "EIA now estimates biodiesel production and consumption by state," Today in Energy (July 23, 2020).
99 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 25, 2020), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD District) are available in XLS.
100 U.S. Ethanol Plants, Operational, Ethanol Producer Magazine (December 15, 2020).
101 Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Energy, Biomass Industry, accessed April 9, 2021.
102 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
103 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (February 26, 2021), Table 4, Biodiesel Producers and Production Capacity by State.
104 U.S. Biodiesel Plants, Operational, Biodiesel Magazine (December 15, 2020).
105 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
106 Gay, Bryce, "Manure-to-energy' projects on Missouri pig farms attract fresh $45 million investment," St. Louis Post-Dispatch (February 20, 2020).
107 Sims, Bob, "Smithfield, Roeslein Alternative Energy continue projects in Missouri," Meat+Poultry (March 5, 2020).
108 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (March 17, 2021), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, December 2020.
109 U.S. EIA, "New EIA survey collects data on production and sales of wood pellets," Today in Energy (December 14, 2016).
110 Missouri Public Service Commission, Renewable Energy Standard Compliance Reports/Plan, accessed 22 April 2021.
111 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Missouri, Renewable Energy Standard, updated June 12, 2018.