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Vermont   Vermont Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: June 15, 2017

Overview

Three-fourths of Vermont is forested, providing renewable wood products for electricity and heating.

Vermont's forested mountains and fast-running rivers are home to substantial renewable energy potential, but the state has no fossil fuel reserves. Vermont consists largely of the Green Mountains, a part of the Appalachian chain, which rise between the Connecticut River on the state's eastern border with New Hampshire and the Hudson River Valley and Lake Champlain on the western border with New York. The mountains run the length of Vermont, from Canada in the north to the Berkshire Hills of Massachusetts in the south.1 Vermont is the second smallest state by population, after Wyoming,2 and the fifth smallest state by area.3 Nearly one-third of the state's residents live in the Burlington metropolitan region, located in the northwest on Lake Champlain. Most other Vermont residents live in small towns and on farms.4

More than three-fourths of the state is forested, supporting both traditional wood products industries and biomass electricity generation.5,6 One in six Vermont households use wood products, such as wood pellets, as their primary heating source.7 Some areas have reforested as traditional farming has declined.8 Vermont's economy is led by real estate, health care, electronics manufacturing, and tourism.9 The state has mild summers and snowy winters.10 The Green Mountains draw visitors year-round, and more than one in seven homes are occupied only seasonally.11

Vermont's energy production comes almost entirely from renewable sources and meets only about one-fourth of state energy needs.12,13 Vermont energy use is dominated by transportation and by heating requirements in the frigid winters.14,15 As fuel costs to meet those needs rose in recent years, Vermont established long-term policies designed to increase both residential and business energy efficiency, reduce energy use, and shift energy consumption to renewable sources. The state's goals for 2050 include obtaining 90% of all energy from renewable sources and reducing energy use by more than one-third.16 Vermont is already among the lowest one-fifth of states in energy consumed per capita.17

Petroleum

Petroleum provides three-fifths of Vermont's energy and is used primarily for transportation and home heating.

Vermont has no petroleum proved reserves, production, or refining.18,19,20 However, nearly three-fifths of the energy consumed in the state is petroleum-based.21 Petroleum products are brought in by railroad and truck from neighboring states and Canada.22,23 One petroleum pipeline crosses Vermont but does not have delivery terminals in the state: the World War II-era Portland-Montreal Pipeline carrying crude oil from tanker docks at Portland, Maine, to refineries in Montreal, Canada.24 However, those Canadian refineries are now being supplied with crude oil from western Canada, and shipments from Portland have almost stopped.25,26 A proposal to reverse the flow in that pipeline and bring crude oil from Canada and North Dakota to Portland for shipment to refineries elsewhere has encountered opposition in Vermont because the pipeline travels through the Northeast Kingdom, an ecologically sensitive corner of the state.27,28

The residential sector accounts for about one-fifth of Vermont's petroleum product consumption, mainly as heating oil and propane.29,30 More than two-fifths of all Vermont households rely on fuel oil to heat their homes in the long winters,31 making the state particularly vulnerable to distillate fuel oil shortages and price spikes during the cold months.32 The U.S. Department of Energy's Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, created in 2000 to avert supply disruptions, holds 1 million barrels of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) in reserves located in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Jersey.33,34 Vermont is requiring ULSD by 2018.35,36

The transportation sector consumes nearly three-fifths of all petroleum products, partly because rural residents drive long distances.37,38 Because the entire state meets federal air quality standards, Vermont allows the statewide use of conventional motor gasoline.39 To reduce petroleum use in transportation, Vermont has set a goal of having 10% of transportation energy come from renewable sources by 2025 and 80% by 2050. State strategies include supporting greater adoption of alternatively fueled vehicles and land-use planning that reduces the need for automobiles. Nearly 180 electric vehicle (EV) charging stations have been installed statewide,40 and more than 1% of Vermont auto sales are electric vehicles (EVs). Nationally, EVs made up 0.3% of auto sales in recent years, although sales recently rose above 1% nationally.41,42,43 The state's long-term goal is to eliminate most petroleum consumption.44

Natural gas

Vermont has no known natural gas reserves and no natural gas production.45,46 In 2012, the state legislature banned hydraulic fracturing, a technology used for some natural gas production, because of environmental concerns.47 Vermont's single natural gas utility receives all of its natural gas by a small-capacity pipeline from Canada.48 The utility retails natural gas in the Burlington, Vermont, area.49 That region is the only area of the state with access to natural gas. Expanding access to natural gas in the rest of the state has been explored when the cost of petroleum products has risen, and a major expansion into Addison County, south of Burlington, was completed in 2017.50,51,52 Limited access makes Vermont the second-smallest natural gas consumer, and the second-smallest natural gas consumer per capita, among the states. Only Hawaii uses less natural gas.53,54,55 About one in six Vermont households use natural gas as their primary home heating fuel.56

Coal

Vermont has no demonstrated coal reserves or coal mining and is one of only two states in the nation without any coal-fired power plants; the other is Rhode Island.57,58 Vermont is part of the six-state Independent System Operator-New England (ISO-NE) regional grid, which is getting a shrinking share of its power from coal but remains dependent on coal facilities during periods of peak electricity demand.59

Electricity

Vermont electric utilities own little generating capacity and rely on contracts with independent generators and the ISO-NE grid for power from neighboring states and Canada.60 With the permanent shutdown of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Plant at the end of 2014,61 Vermont lost 55% of its electricity generating capacity62 and the source of more than 70% of its net generation in recent years.63 As a result, in 2016, in-state generation provided only about one-third of the electricity consumed in Vermont.64 More than half of in-state generation came from hydroelectric power, and another one-fourth came from biomass. The rest came mostly from wind. Solar energy also provided a small amount.65 Vermont has little in-state generation from natural gas, but more of the state's electricity is coming from the New England grid, which is increasingly reliant on natural gas.66,67

Vermont is the only New England state that has chosen not to restructure its electricity system.

Vermont is the only New England state that has chosen not to restructure its electricity system. The state has 1 investor-owned distribution utility, 14 municipal utilities, and 2 cooperative utilities.68 The investor-owned utility, which serves about three-fourths of all Vermont consumers, is a subsidiary of the Canadian firm that also owns the state's sole natural gas utility.69 In 1956, Vermont's electric utilities pooled their transmission systems to connect with hydroelectric generators in New York and Canada, so all wholesale transmission in the state is operated by a single entity.70

Vermont's per capita electricity consumption is among the lower one-fifth of states.71,72 Demand for air conditioning is minimal during the mild summers, and fewer than 1 in 20 households use electricity as their primary home heating source.73 In 1999, Vermont created an Energy Efficiency Utility to fund programs to reduce power demand peaks and optimize electricity use for consumers statewide, the first such entity in the nation. The efficiency utility is funded by a fee on electricity bills and regulated by the state.74 Vermont has been reducing electricity consumption annually through its efficiency programs and is recognized as a leader in state efficiency efforts.75,76,77,78 The state is a member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), established to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from power generation, and proceeds from the sale of RGGI carbon allowances help fund efficiency programs.79 With its small net electricity generation, nearly all of it from renewable sources, Vermont has the lowest carbon dioxide emissions of any state in the nation.80

Renewable energy

Almost one-fifth of all energy consumed in Vermont comes from renewable sources,81 and the state is expanding the use of renewable energy for both heating and electricity. Nearly all the electricity generated in Vermont—and about 45% of the electricity consumed in the state—comes from renewable resources.82,83 The largest share of renewable electricity consumed is imported from Canadian hydroelectricity generators. Vermont has several dozen hydroelectric dams, which produce over half of the state's net electricity generation.84

Vermont's integrated renewable energy standard requires electric utilities to help customers reduce fossil fuel use.

Several utility-scale generators using wood and wood waste produce one-fourth of the electricity generated in Vermont.85 More than one-third of state school children attend facilities heated by wood products, such as wood pellets, or other biomass.86 Vermont also obtains renewable electricity from wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), landfill methane, and methane digester facilities.87 Vermont's commercial wind resources are concentrated on its mountain ridges.88 In 2016, four utility-scale wind farms contributed 15% of Vermont's net electricity generation.89,90 The state also hosts a number of small-scale municipal and distributed (customer-sited) wind facilities.91

In 2016, solar power produced 4% of Vermont's net electricity generation from utility-scale facilities, and about the same amount from customer-sited facilities smaller than 1 megawatt.92 Almost nine-tenths of all new utility-scale generating capacity installed in the state during 2016 was solar PV.93 As of late 2016, Vermont had 168.5 megawatts of solar capacity installed at residential, commercial, and industrial sites across the state.94,95 Commercial systems with more than 200 kilowatts of capacity are increasing.96 The state's largest solar farm, with 3.8 megawatts of capacity, began operating in 2014, and a 20-megawatt project is in development.97,98

Vermont had been the only New England state without a mandatory renewable portfolio standard, but, in 2015, the state replaced its package of economic incentives for renewables with the nation's first integrated renewable energy standard (RES).99 The Vermont RES makes electric utilities responsible not only for supplying renewably sourced power but also for helping consumers reduce their total fossil fuel use. The RES requires that 55% of electricity sold in Vermont in 2017 be obtained from renewables, with the share rising 4% every 3 years to reach 75% in 2032. Of that power, by 2032, 10% must come from new, in-state, renewable generation from customer-sited facilities smaller than 5 megawatts. The RES also created a separate "energy transformation" requirement, equaling another 12% of sales in 2032, which may be met with additional customer-sited generation or projects that reduce customers' fossil fuel use. Those projects may include home weatherization and heating efficiency measures as well as infrastructure to support adoption of EVs.100,101,102 Vermont's state goals for 2025 are to obtain 67% of electricity, 30% of building energy consumption, and 10% of transportation energy from renewable sources.103

Vermont was the first state in the nation to institute a feed-in tariff for small renewable energy facilities.104 The feed-in tariff, called the Standard Offer, guarantees owners of small renewable facilities a specific price for their power for up to 25 years. Projects bid for contracts under the tariff.105 The state also allows net metering of small, customer-sited facilities.106 The programs have encouraged growth primarily of solar generation,107 but also small hydroelectricity, wind, and agricultural digester facilities. Both programs proved popular, and, as of January 1, 2017, the state eliminated a cap on how much of an electricity distributor's peak demand could be net metered.108,109,110,111

The state has a Clean Energy Development Fund, created with tax payments from the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Plant, to assist small-scale and community projects that use renewable technologies. The fund is focusing on promoting high-efficiency combustion of wood fuels from sustainable forest ecosystems.112,113

Endnotes

1 Morrissey, Charles T., Vermont, Encyclopaedia Britannica, updated February 22, 2017.
2 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01), 2016 Population Estimates.
3 U.S. Census Bureau, Geography, State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates (January 1, 2010).
4 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Vermont Profile, accessed May 17, 2017.
5 Vermont Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation, Agency of Natural Resources, Vermont's Forests, accessed May 17, 2017.
6 North East State Foresters Association, The Economic Importance of Vermont's Forest-Based Economy 2013, Executive Summary.
7 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Vermont, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
8 Vermont Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation, 2015 Vermont Forest Fragmentation Report (April 2015), p. 3, 9.
9 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Begin using the data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Classification NAICS, All Industries, Vermont, Time Period 2012–14.
10 Dupigny-Giroux, Lesley-Ann, Vermont's Climate, Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, accessed May 18, 2017.
11 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Vermont, Tables B25002, Occupancy Status, and B25004, Vacancy Status, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
12 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 5.4.B.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2015.
14 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, Executive Summary, p. 1?2.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, U.S. States, Table C4, Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2014.
16 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, Executive Summary, p. 1, 5.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
18 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, by PADD and State, 2011–16.
19 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2016, Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2016.
20 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-End 2015 (December 2016), Table 6, Crude oil and lease condensate proved reserves, reserve changes, and production, 2015.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2014.
22 Baird, Joel Banner, "Oil Risks Roll on Vermont's Rails," Burlington Free Press (August 15, 2014).
23 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports (2016, 2015, 2014).
24 Portland Pipe Line Corp., Montreal Pipe Line Ltd., About Us, accessed May 18, 2017.
25 Turkel, Tux, "Analysis: Portland Pipeline's Open for Business, But Not Flowing," Portland Press Herald (March 20, 2016).
26 Bell, Tom, "Shifting Markets May Make Portland's Oil Pipeline to Quebec Redundant," Portland Press Herald (November 30, 2015).
27 Herrick, John, "13 Vermont Towns Oppose Reversal of Portland-Montreal Oil Pipeline," VT Digger (March 5, 2014).
28 Wheeler, S., "Remembering the Northeast Kingdom Oil Spill of 1952," Vermont's Northland Journal (December 6, 2016).
29 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
30 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, p. 88.
31 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Vermont, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
32 Andrews, Anthony, The Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve and the National Oilheat Research Alliance, Congressional Research Service 7-5700 (September 19, 2013), Summary.
33 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, accessed May 3, 2017.
34 U.S. EIA, Weekly Petroleum Status Report (May 17, 2017), Appendix C, Northeast Reserves.
35 U.S. EIA, Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets (May 2012), p. 9.
36 New England Fuel Institute, State Sulfur & Bioheat Requirements for No. 2 Heating Oil in the Northeast & Mid-Atlantic States, updated July 30, 2014.
37 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F15, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2015.
38 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, Executive Summary, p. 9.
39 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated gasoline, Reid vapor pressure, Winter oxygenates, accessed May 18, 2017.
40 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Vermont Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles, updated January 3, 2017.
41 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, cover page.
42 Goreham, John, "Battery Electric Vehicles Make Up 0.3% of Current U.S. Auto Sales," Torque News (March 2, 2016).
43 EV Obsession, Electric Car Sales Monthly Report (April 2017).
44 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, Executive Summary, p. 2, 9.
45 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Supply and Disposition by State, 2011–16.
46 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, Annual, 2010–15.
47 Page, Guy, "Vermont's Electricity Outlook: Today through 2016," Vermont Energy Partnership, p. 2, accessed May 19, 2017.
48 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, 2010–15.
49 Vermont Gas, Who We Are, accessed May 19, 2017.
50 Parent, Beth, "Vermont Gas Completes 41-Mile Expansion, Begins Serving Customers in Addison County," Press Release, Vermont Gas (April 12, 2017).
51 D'Ambrosio, Dan, "VT Gas Pulls Plug on Pipeline Expansion to NY," Burlington Free Press (February 10, 2015).
52 Baynes, Luke, "Town Eyed for Gas Pipeline," Williston Observer (April 26, 2012).
53 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Consumers, Annual, 2011?16.
54 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01), 2015 Population Estimates.
55 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F19, Natural Gas Consumption Estimates, 2015.
56 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Vermont, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
57 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method.
58 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990–2015 Existing Nameplate and Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source, Producer Type and State (EIA-860).
59 ISO New England, 2017 Regional Electricity Outlook, Retirements of Non-Gas-Fired Power Generators (January 2017).
60 Vermont Department of Public Service, Electric, Vermont Electric Utilities, accessed May 19, 2017.
61 Bidgood, Jess, "Vermont Yankee Nuclear Plant Begins Slow Process of Closing," New York Times (January 4, 2015).
62 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990–2015 Existing Nameplate and Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source, Producer Type and State (EIA-860).
63 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990–2015 Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source.
64 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 5.4.B.
65 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.14.B, 1.15.B, 1.17.B.
66 Johnson, Eric, and Molly Connors, "ISO New England Overview and Regional Update," ISO New England (January 27, 2017).
67 Institute for Energy Research, New England Using More Natural Gas Following Vermont Yankee Closure (January 20, 2016).
68 Vermont Department of Public Service, Electric, Vermont Electric Utilities, accessed May 19, 2017.
69 Valener, Inc., "Gaz Metro Completes Acquisition of Central Vermont Public Service Corporation," Press Release (June 27, 2012).
70 Vermont Electric Power Co. Inc., accessed May 19, 2017.
71 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.4.B.
72 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 (NST-EST2016-01), 2016 Population Estimates.
73 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Vermont, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
74 Vermont Public Service Board, Energy Efficiency Utility Program, accessed May 19, 2017.
75 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, p. 4.
76 Vermont Department of Public Service, Comprehensive Energy Plan, Volume I (December 2011), p. 2.
77 American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, State and Local Policy Database, Vermont, Utilities tab, updated July 2016.
78 U.S. EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2016, Legislation and Regulations, LR7, State energy efficiency resource standards and goals through January 2016 (September 15, 2016), Vermont.
79 Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Vermont, accessed May 19, 2017.
80 U.S. EIA, U.S. States, Rankings: Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2014.
81 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, p. 29.
82 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B.
83 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, Executive Summary, p. 9, 10.
84 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, p. 379–383.
85 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.15.B, 5.4.B.
86 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, p. 324.
87 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, p. 280.
88 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Vermont Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, updated September 24, 2015.
89 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 Detailed Data, 2015 Data, Table 3_1_GeneratorY2015.
90 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B, 5.4.B.
91 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, p. 304, 309.
92 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.17.B, 5.4.B.
93 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 6.3.
94 Solar Energy Industries Association, State Solar Policy, Vermont Solar, accessed May 22, 2017.
95 Solar Siting Task Force Report, to the Vermont House and Senate Committees on Natural Resources and Energy, the House Committee on Commerce and Economic Development, and the Senate Committee on Finance (January 22, 2016), p. 5?6.
96 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, p. 288.
97 Machado, Steph, "Largest Solar Array in Vermont Operating on Historic Farm," myChamplainValley.com (2014).
98 Faher, Mike, "Largest Ever Vt. Solar Array OK'd," Valley News (March 30, 2017).
99 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, p. 5.
100 Vermont General Assembly, 2015-2016 Session, H. 40 (Act 56), Act Summary.
101 Herrick, John, "Special Report: New Renewable Standard Would Revolutionize Energy Use in Vermont," VT Digger (February 17, 2015).
102 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Vermont, Renewable Energy Standard, updated November 4, 2016.
103 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, Executive Summary, p. 2.
104 Larson, Linda, "Vermont Experiments with Feed-In Tariffs to Promote Renewable Energy Production," Marten Law (September 23, 2009).
105 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Vermont, Standard Offer Program, updated May 19, 2016.
106 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Vermont, Net Metering, updated March 17, 2017.
107 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, cover page.
108 Solar Siting Task Force Report, to the Vermont House and Senate Committees on Natural Resources and Energy, the House Committee on Commerce and Economic Development, and the Senate Committee on Finance (January 22, 2016), p. 5?6.
109 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, p. 20.
110 Ring, Wilson, "Vermont Solar Growth Slowed for Now as Utilities Hit Limit," Washington Times (January 24, 2016).
111 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Vermont, Net Metering, updated March 17, 2017.
112 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, p. 328, 329.
113 VT Digger, Clean Energy Development Fund, story index, accessed May 22, 2017.