‹ U.S. States

Nevada   Nevada Profile

State Profile and Energy Estimates

Profile AnalysisPrint State Energy Profile
(overview, data, & analysis)

Last Updated: November 19, 2015

Overview

Tourism to Las Vegas and Reno helps make transportation Nevada's biggest energy consumer.

Nevada is located almost entirely in the Great Basin, an arid high plateau with no outlet to the sea. The state has the lowest average annual precipitation in the nation, and much of Nevada is desert. Nevada's portion of the Great Basin is broken by more than 150 north-south trending mountain ranges. To the west, the Sierra Nevada Mountains brush the edge of the state, and to the northeast lies the Columbia Plateau, with its open prairie and deep canyons. Above the desert floor, Nevada's mountain slopes are home to lush forests that give the state some biomass resource, and the mountain ridges provide wind power potential.1,2,3,4 Nevada has substantial geothermal and solar development.5,6 However, the state has no significant fossil fuel reserves, and most of Nevada's energy comes from out of state.7,8

Settlers first flocked to Nevada in 1859, after silver was discovered in the Comstock Lode near Virginia City.9 Known as the Silver State, Nevada is rich in mineral deposits and is one of the largest sources of gold in the world, providing almost three-fourths of U.S. gold production.10,11 Although mining for gold, silver, and other minerals remains important, the state's economy has grown to encompass aerospace and defense, information technology, renewable energy, and tourism.12 Las Vegas and Reno have become tourist destinations for gaming and entertainment, and the hospitality industry is the state's largest employer.13 Nevada had the fastest-growing population of any state from 2000 to 2010.14 The state's population is concentrated around its water resources. Almost three-fourths of Nevada's residents live in Clark County, which borders the Colorado River and includes the city of Las Vegas.15,16,17 Half of the state's counties have fewer than two residents per square mile.18 More than four-fifths of Nevada's land is under federal control, a higher share than in any other state in the nation.19 In part because of tourism, the transportation sector is the state's leading energy-consuming sector, using almost one-third of all energy consumed in Nevada.20 Overall, the state's economy is not energy-intensive,21 and per capita energy consumption is well below the national average,22 despite the heavy use of air conditioning in the hot summers.23

Petroleum

Petroleum exploration in Nevada has been sporadic over the past century, and the state produces only small amounts of crude oil.24 Nevada's geology is complex, and no large oil fields have been found so far.25 Nevada has one small crude oil refinery in Ely that refines local crude oil and produces asphalt.26,27,28

Nearly nine-tenths of petroleum products consumed in Nevada are transportation fuels.29 Until 2012, fuel was supplied to Las Vegas and Reno almost exclusively by petroleum product pipelines from California refineries. In 2012, the 425-mile UNEV pipeline began bringing fuel to Las Vegas from refineries in Salt Lake City, Utah.30,31 Both the Las Vegas and Reno metropolitan areas require the use of oxygenated motor gasoline during the winter months, and the Reno area also requires a reduced volatility blend during the summer to reduce evaporative emissions that contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone.32,33 Ethanol is used as an oxygenate for motor gasoline, but there are no ethanol plants in Nevada.34 Ethanol is shipped by rail from the Midwest for blending with motor gasoline at Nevada terminals.35 On a per capita basis, Nevada is one of the lowest petroleum-consuming states in the nation.36 Nearly all petroleum that is not used in the transportation sector is consumed by the industrial sector.37 Fewer than 1% of Nevada's residents use fuel oil for heating.38

Natural gas

Nevada's small amount of natural gas production is entirely associated gas from oil wells.39 Those wells do not produce enough natural gas to meet the state's needs.40 Interstate pipelines supply Nevada with natural gas from producing regions in nearby states. The Las Vegas area receives natural gas primarily by pipeline through Utah from the Opal trading hub in Wyoming.41 Secondary supply comes from a pipeline crossing Arizona bringing natural gas from the Permian Basin in Texas and the San Juan Basin in New Mexico. Other pipeline systems transport natural gas from the Malin trading hub in Oregon and from interstate pipelines in Idaho across the border to the Reno area.42,43 About half of the natural gas that enters Nevada continues on to California.44 Of the natural gas consumed in Nevada, about two-thirds is used for electricity generation, and almost half of the rest is consumed by the residential sector.45 Three in five Nevada households use natural gas as their primary heating fuel.46

Coal

Nevada's newest coal-fired plant powers gold mining in the desert and also supplies electricity to the transmission grid.

There are no coal mines in Nevada.47 The state's three coal-fired power plants are supplied by railroad from mines in Wyoming and Utah.48 One power plant generates electricity for the Las Vegas region, a second plant supplies northern Nevada towns, and the third and newest plant, an industrial facility, provides power to gold and copper mining operations in the northern Nevada desert near Elko.49 That power plant also sends electricity to the regional transmission grid.50 The coal-fired plant near Las Vegas was the state's largest until three of its four coal-fired units were shut in 2014. Decommissioning of its fourth unit is scheduled to begin in 2018.51 A small amount of coal from Utah is delivered to industrial facilities in Nevada. Most of that coal arrives by truck.52

Electricity

Natural gas is the primary fuel for power generation in Nevada, and 7 of the state's 10 largest power plants by generating capacity are natural gas-fired.53 Those power plants typically supply about two-thirds of Nevada's net electricity generation.54 Minimizing the use of scarce water in conventional generation is a priority for Nevada.55,56 The state's largest generating plant, NV Energy's Chuck Lenzie Generating Station, uses high-efficiency natural gas combined-cycle technology, recycles three-fourths of the water it uses, and, to reduce its water needs, employs one of North America's largest air-cooled condenser systems.57,58

Coal-fired power plants supply less than one-fifth of the state's net generation. Until 2006, one of the largest power plants in Nevada was the coal-fired Mohave Generating Station, the only plant in the world with coal delivered by a slurry pipeline. Plant operations were suspended in 2005, and the plant was later dismantled, in part because of decreased water supply for the 273-mile long slurry pipeline that ran from a mine in northern Arizona to the power plant in Nevada.59,60,61 Coal-fired electricity generation in Nevada has declined to one-third of the level it was in 1990 as the state's coal-fired power plants have been retired.62,63 In compliance with a 2013 state law, Nevada's largest utility is planning to eliminate most of its coal-fired electricity generation by the end of 2019.64,65 Renewable energy resources, mainly geothermal, hydroelectric, and solar power plants, are supplying an increasing share of the state's net generation and now exceed the contribution from coal.66,67

Electricity consumption per capita in Nevada is near the national average. The industrial sector is the leading electricity-consuming sector, followed closely by the residential sector, where about one in three households use electricity for home heating.68,69,70 However, Nevada's electricity consumption exceeds in-state generation, and the state obtains needed electricity over high-voltage transmission lines from other states.71,72

Two separate transmission grids provide power to Nevada. One grid supplies the Las Vegas area and is connected to the Arizona, southern Utah, and California grids. The other power grid supplies communities in the northern part of Nevada, including the cities of Elko and Reno. The northern grid is tied into Idaho, northern Utah, and northern California. Transmission projects running the length of the state, through the eastern desert from Idaho to Las Vegas, connected the two grids for the first time in 2014.73,74,75 New transmission is also planned elsewhere in the state to facilitate development of electricity generation projects fueled by either natural gas or renewable sources.76,77 Other large-scale transmission projects are routed through Nevada for the delivery of renewable power to the California, Arizona, and Nevada.78 The transmission projects linking the northern and southern Nevada electric grids are aimed in part at enabling the connection of electricity generated from renewable energy projects in remote areas of Nevada to the state's population centers.79,80

Renewable energy

Nevada is one of the few states that generates electricity from geothermal resources, and those resources account for more than two-thirds of the state's renewable power generation.81 Nevada is second in the nation, after California, in the amount of geothermal power produced and has the country's largest untapped geothermal resources.82,83 Most of the rest of Nevada's renewable generation comes from hydroelectric power plants, primarily the Hoover Dam, the third largest power plant in the state.84,85 Built in less than five years during the Great Depression, the Hoover Dam also supplies electricity to Arizona and California and is a National Historic Landmark.86

A small but increasing share of Nevada's electricity generation comes from solar resources, particularly several large-scale solar thermal and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects.87,88 The state leads the nation in solar power potential.89 By 2014, Nevada ranked among the top five states nationally in installed solar electric capacity.90 The world's first hybrid geothermal-solar PV plant, combining base-load geothermal and peaking solar generation, is in Nevada.91 The state also has wind power potential along ridgelines across Nevada.92 Because the federal government controls more than four-fifths of all land in the state, most large-scale projects need some federal rights-of-way.93,94 The state's first commercial wind farm on public lands opened in 2012, and other projects are in development.95,96

Nevada gets more than two-fifths of its renewable energy from geothermal resources.

Nevada's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requires a growing share of solar power in the renewable mix. Overall, the RPS requires that increasing percentages of electricity sold to retail customers in Nevada must come from renewable resources, reaching the goal of 25% of retail electricity sales by 2025. Up to one-fourth of the RPS goal can be met by energy efficiency measures, half of which must be at residential customer locations. 97

Energy on Tribal Lands

There are 32 Indian reservations and colonies across Nevada, including the 19 federally recognized Indian tribal entities.98,99 Although more than 80% of Nevada is under federal control, reservations are only a small part of that amount. Native Americans, as tribes and individuals, control a little more than 1.1 million acres, 2% of the state's land.100,101 However, solar resources are abundant, and Nevada's Moapa River Indian Reservation is the site of the nation's first utility-scale solar power plant built on tribal land. Construction on the Moapa Southern Paiute Solar Project-located about 50 miles northeast of Las Vegas-began in 2014.102 When completed in 2016, the solar power plant will have a maximum electricity generating capacity of 250 megawatts. The Moapa Southern Paiute Solar Project has signed agreements to sell the power to the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power.103 A second solar power plant on the Moapa River Indian Reservation has been approved by the U.S. Department of the Interior and could add another 200 megawatts of generating capacity.104 Additional solar projects on Nevada's tribal lands are planned.105,106

Nevada has abundant geothermal power potential, and some of it is on tribal lands.107 The Pyramid Lake Indian Reservation near Reno is the largest reservation in Nevada and is home to the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe. The tribe has evaluated the reservation's geothermal resources and is in the early stages of developing them. 108,109

Endnotes

1 Netstate, The Geography of Nevada, accessed October 15, 2015.
2 National Park Service, The Great Basin, accessed October 15, 2015.
3 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Nevada Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity (September 24, 2015).
4 American Wind Energy Association, Nevada Wind Energy, accessed October 15, 2015.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Monthly (February 2015), Tables 1.19.B, 1.20.B.
6 Solar Energy Industries Association, Nevada Solar, accessed October 15, 2015.
7 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Nevada State Profile Data, Reserves and Supply 2013.
8 U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2013, Table P3. Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2013.
9 ONE, Online Nevada Encyclopedia, Comstock Lode, accessed October 15, 2015.
10 Netstate, Nevada Economy (April 12, 2015).
11 Nevada Mining Association, Nevada Mining Industry, Global Mineral Production: Where Nevada Stands (January 2014).
12 Nevada Governor's Office of Economic Development, Key Industries, accessed October 15, 2015.
13 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Economy at a Glance, Nevada, accessed October 15, 2015.
14 U. S. Census Bureau, "Population Distribution and Change: 2000 to 2010," 2010 Census Briefs, C2010BR-01 (March 2011).
15 Nevada State Legislature, 2010 Population of Counties in Nevada, accessed October 15, 2015.
16 U.S. Census, State and County QuickFacts, Nevada, Clark County, 2014 Population Estimate, accessed October 23, 2015.
17 Thompson, Jeff, "Nevada's Extremes Reign Supreme," Nevada's Climate, Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed October 15, 2015.
18 U.S. Census Bureau, State and County QuickFacts, Nevada, Churchill, Clark, Douglas, Elko, Esmerelda, Eureka, Humboldt, Lander, Lincoln, Mineral, Nye, Pershing, Storey, Washoe, and White Pine Counties, 2014 Population Estimate, accessed October 15, 2015.
19 Gorte, R., C. H. Vincent, L. A. Hanson, and M. R. Rosenblum, Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data, Congressional Research Service 7-5700 R42346 (February 8, 2012), p. 4.
20 U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2013, DOE/EIA-0214(2013) (July 2015), Table C10, Total Consumption by End-Use Sector, 2013.
21 U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2013, DOE/EIA-0214(2013) (July 2015), Table C12, Total Energy Consumption, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2013.
22 U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2013, DOE/EIA-0214(2013) (July 2015), Table C13, Energy Consumption per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2013.
23 Goldman, Abigail, "Nevada Shaped by Fans of Air Conditioning," Las Vegas Sun (July 12, 2010).
24 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Nevada Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981-2014, accessed October 16, 2015.
25 University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada Bureau of Mines & Geology, Oil & Gas Historical Summary, accessed October 16, 2015.
26 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Refinery Capacity Report 2015 (June 19, 2015), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State and Individual Refinery as of January 1, 2015, p 14.
27 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries, Nevada, accessed October 16, 2015.
28 "American Liberty Petroleum Corp. Announces Foreland Refining's Crude Oil Purchase Contract for All Production from Gabbs Oil Field," Oil Voice (April 25, 2012).
29 U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Data 2013: Updates by Energy Source, Table F15: Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2013.
30 Holly Energy Partners, Operations, UNEV Pipeline, accessed October 19, 2015.
31 Holly Energy Partners, L. P., UNEV Pipeline Transaction, Investor Update (July 12, 2012), p. 5.
32 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, State Winter Oxygenated Fuel Program Requirements for Attainment or Maintenance of CO NAAQS, EPA420-B-08-006 (January 2008).
33 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, accessed October 19, 2015.
34 "U.S. Ethanol Plants," Ethanol Producer Magazine (October 6, 2015).
35 "Ethanol Fuels Firefighting Dilemma," Las Vegas Review Journal (March 14, 2008).
36 U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates, State Totals: Vintage 2014, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010, to July 1, 2014, NST-EST2014-01.
37 U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Data 2013: Updates by Energy Source, Table F15: Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2013.
38 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Nevada, House Heating Fuel, Universe: Occupied housing units, 2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
39 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Nevada, Annual, 2008-13, accessed October 19, 2015.
40 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Nevada, Annual, 2008-13, accessed October 19, 2015.
41 U.S. Energy Information Administration, International & Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Nevada, Annual 2009-14, accessed October 19, 2015.
42 U.S. Energy Information Administration, About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines, Natural Gas Pipelines in the Western Region, accessed October 19, 2015.
43 Kinder Morgan, Natural Gas Pipelines, Ruby Pipeline LLC, accessed October 19, 2015.
44 U.S. Energy Information Administration, International & Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Nevada, Annual 2009-14, accessed October 19, 2015.
45 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Nevada, Annual, 2008-13, accessed October 19, 2015.
46 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Nevada, House Heating Fuel, Universe: Occupied housing units, 2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
47 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Coal Report 2013, Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2013 and 2012.
48 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2013, By Destination State, Nevada, Table DS-26. Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2013.
49 NV Energy, Our Power Supply, accessed October 19, 2015.
50 Peltier, Robert, "TS Power Plant, Eureka County, Nevada," POWER Magazine (October 15, 2008).
51 NV Energy, Reid Gardner Generating Station (May 2015).
52 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2013, By Destination State, Nevada, Table DS-26. Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2013.
53 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Nevada Electricity Profile 2013, Table 2, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2013.
54 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Monthly, Previous Issues, 2008-14, Tables 1.6.B, 1.7.B.
55 NV Energy, Three Part Strategy, accessed October 20, 2015.
56 Donnelly, K. and H. Cooley, Water Use Trends in the United States, Pacific Institute (April 2015), p. 2-6.
57 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Nevada Electricity Profile 2013, Table 2, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2013.
58 NV Energy, Chuck Lenzie Generating Station (April 2015).
59 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Nevada Electricity Profile 2013, Table 2, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2013.
60 "Environmental Quandary Shuts Mohave Plant," POWER Magazine (March 15, 2006).
61 Randazzo, R., "Mohave Generating Station to Be Demolished," The Arizona Republic (June 11, 2009).
62 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electricity Detailed State Data, Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source (EIA-906, EIA-920, and EIA-923), 1990-2013, accessed October 20, 2015.
63 DiSavino, S., "NV Energy Proposes to Shut Nevada Coal-fired Power Plants," Reuters (April 4, 2013).
64 Legiscan, Nevada Senate Bill 123, 2013, 77th Legislature, Enrolled, accessed October 20, 2015.
65 Whaley, S., "NV Energy proposes shutting three of four Reid Gardner coal-fired units," Las Vegas Review-Journal (May 1, 2014).
66 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Monthly (February 2015), Tables 1.6.B through 1.20.B.
67 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Monthly (February 2013), Tables 1.6.B through 1.20.B.
68 U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Data 2013: Updates by Energy Source, Table F21: Electricity Consumption Estimates, 2013.
69 U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates, State Totals: Vintage 2013, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013.
70 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Nevada, B25040, House Heating Fuel, Universe: Occupied housing units, 2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
71 U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2013, DOE/EIA-0214(2013) (July 2015), Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2013.
72 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Nevada Electricity Profile 2013, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990-2013.
73 Western Electricity Coordinating Council, WECC Interactive Transmission Project Portal Map, accessed October 21, 2015.
74 Totten, K., "Officials dedicate line connecting Northern, Southern Nevada electricity grids," Las Vegas Review-Journal (January 24, 2014).
75 NVEnergy, "One Nevada Transmission Line Begins Serving Customers," Press Release (January 23, 2014).
76 Western Electricity Coordinating Council, WECC Interactive Transmission Project Portal Map, accessed October 21, 2015.
77 NV Energy, Three Part Strategy, accessed October 21, 2015.
78 TransWest Express LLC, Delivering Wyoming Wind Energy, accessed October 21, 2015.
79 Western Electricity Coordinating Council, WECC Interactive Transmission Project Portal Map, accessed October 21, 2015.
80 Nye County Renewable Energy Resource Development, Power Transmission, accessed October 21, 2015.
81 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Monthly (February 2015), Tables 1.6.B, 1.13.B, 1.14.B, 1.19.B.
82 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Monthly (February 2015), Table 1.19.B.
83 U.S. Department of Energy, "Geothermal Energy, heat from the earth, Nevada" DOE/GO -102001-1432 (October 2001).
84 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Monthly (February 2015), Tables 1.6.B, 1.13.B, 1.14.B, 1.19.B.
85 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Nevada Electricity Profile 2013, Table 2, Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2013.
86 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Hoover Dam, The Story of Hoover Dam (August 20, 2015).
87 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Monthly (February 2015), Tables 1.6.B, 1.13.B, 1.14.B, 1.20.B.
88 Solar Energy Industries Association, Nevada Solar, accessed October 21, 2015.
89 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State (March 11, 2010).
90 Solar Energy Industries Association, Nevada Solar, accessed October 21, 2015.
91 CleanEnergy Action Project, Enel Green Power Stillwater Hybrid Power Plant, accessed October 21, 2015.
92 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Nevada Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity (September 24, 2015).
93 Gorte, R., C. Vincent, L. and Hanson, M. Rosenblum, Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data, Congressional Research Service R42346 (February 8, 2012), p. 4.
94 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Rights-of-Way, accessed October 21, 2015.
95 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Spring Valley Wind Project (January 23, 2014).
96 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Searchlight Wind Energy Project (NVN-084626) Federal Process and Documents (July 23, 2014).
97 State of Nevada Public Utilities Commission, Renewable Portfolio Standard, accessed October 21, 2015.
98 Nevada's Indian Territory, Map of Nevada Tribes, Indian Reservations and Colonies of Nevada, accessed October 22, 2015.
99 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, "Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs," Federal Register, Vol. 80 No. 9 (January 14, 2015), p. 1942-1948.
100 Gorte, R., C. H. Vincent, L. A. Hanson, and M. R. Rosenblum, Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data, Congressional Research Service 7-5700 R42346 (February 8, 2012), p. 4.
101 U.S. Forest Service, Forest Service National Resource Guide to American Indian and Alaska Native Relations, Appendix D: Indian Nations, The American Indian Digest (April 1997) p. D-3.
102 Lott, M., "First utility-scale solar project on tribal land breaks ground in Nevada," Scientific American (April 5, 2014).
103 First Solar, Project Overview, Moapa River Indian Reservation, Moapa, Nevada, USA, accessed October 22, 2015.
104 Clarke, C., "2nd Tribal Solar Plant Approved On Nevada Reservation" KCET (May 7, 2014).
105 Duroni, L., "Interior Seeks Public Comment on Nev. Tribe's Solar Project," Law360 (May 18, 2015).
106 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Tribal Energy Program, Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone: Battle Mountain Colony, 2012 Project, accessed October 22, 2015.
107 Roberts, Billy J., "Geothermal Resource of the United States," National Renewable Energy Laboratory (October 13, 2009).
108 Noel, D. M, "Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe Geothermal Energy Project," p. 4, accessed on November 11, 2015.
109 Clutter, Ted J., "Pyramid Lake Geothermal," Geothermal Resources Council (GRC) Bulletin (March/April 2005), p. 84-87.

l