Hydropower is energy in moving water
People have a long history of using the force of water flowing in streams and rivers to produce mechanical energy. Hydropower was one of the first sources of energy used for electricity generation and is the largest single renewable energy source for electricity generation in the United States.
In 2018, hydroelectricity accounted for about 7% of total U.S. utility-scale electricity generation and 41% of total utility-scale electricity generation from renewable energy sources. Hydroelectricity’s share of total U.S. electricity generation has decreased over time, mainly because electricity generation from other sources has increased.
Hydropower relies on the water cycle
Understanding the water cycle is important to understanding hydropower. The water cycle has three steps:
- Solar energy heats water on the surface of rivers, lakes, and oceans, which causes the water to evaporate.
- Water vapor condenses into clouds and falls as precipitation—rain and snow.
- Precipitation collects in streams and rivers, which empty into oceans and lakes, where it evaporates and begins the cycle again.
The amount of precipitation that drains into rivers and streams in a geographic area determines the amount of water available for producing hydropower. Seasonal variations in precipitation and long-term changes in precipitation patterns, such as droughts, have a big impact on hydropower production.
Hydroelectric power is produced with moving water
Because the source of hydroelectric power is water, hydroelectric power plants are usually located on or near a water source. The volume of the water flow and the change in elevation (or fall) from one point to another determine the amount of available energy in moving water. Swiftly flowing water in a big river, such as the Columbia River that forms the border between Oregon and Washington, carries a great deal of energy in its flow. Water descending rapidly from a high point, such as Niagara Falls in New York, also has substantial energy in its flow.
At both Niagara Falls and the Columbia River, water flows through a pipe, or penstock, then pushes against and turns blades in a turbine to spin a generator to produce electricity. In a run-of-the-river system, the force of the current applies pressure on a turbine. In a storage system, water accumulates in reservoirs created by dams and is released as needed to generate electricity.
History of hydropower
Hydropower is one of the oldest sources of energy for producing mechanical and electrical energy. Hydropower was used thousands of years ago to turn paddle wheels to help grind grain. Before steam power and electricity were available in the United States, grain and lumber mills were powered directly with hydropower. The first industrial use of hydropower to generate electricity in the United States occurred in 1880, when 16 brush-arc lamps were powered using a water turbine at the Wolverine Chair Factory in Grand Rapids, Michigan. The first U.S. hydroelectric power plant opened on the Fox River near Appleton, Wisconsin, on September 30, 1882. Most U.S. hydroelectricity is now produced at large dams on major rivers, and most of these hydroelectric dams were built before the mid-1970s.