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Geothermal explained Use of geothermal energy

Some applications of geothermal energy use the earth's temperatures near the surface and others require drilling miles into the earth. There are three main types of geothermal energy systems:

  • Direct use and district heating systems
  • Geothermal power plants
  • Geothermal heat pumps

Direct use and district heating systems

Direct use and district heating systems use hot water from springs or reservoirs located near the earth's surface. Ancient Roman, Chinese, and Native American cultures used hot mineral springs for bathing, cooking, and heating. Today, many hot springs are still used for bathing, and many people believe the hot, mineral-rich waters have health benefits.

Geothermal energy is also used to directly heat individual buildings and to heat multiple buildings with district heating systems. Hot water near the earth's surface is piped into buildings for heat. A district heating system provides heat for most of the buildings in Reykjavik, Iceland.

Industrial applications of geothermal energy include food dehydration (drying), gold mining, and milk pasteurizing.

Geothermal electricity generation

Geothermal electricity generation requires water or steam at high temperatures (300°F to 700°F). Geothermal power plants are generally built where geothermal reservoirs are located, within a mile or two of the earth's surface.

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In 2023, the United States had geothermal power plants in seven states, which produced about 0.4% (17 billion kilowatthours) of total U.S. utility-scale electricity generation. Utility-scale power plants have at least 1,000 kilowatts (1 megawatt) of electricity generation capacity.

States with geothermal power plants in 2023 1
State share of total U.S. geothermal electricity generation Geothermal share of total state electricity generation
California 66.6% 5.1%
Nevada 26.1% 10.1%
Utah 3.2% 1.5%
Hawaii 2.1% 3.7%
Oregon 1.3% 0.4%
Idaho 0.5% 0.6%
New Mexico 0.2% 0.1%

International geothermal electricity generation

In 2022, 24 countries, including the United States, generated about 92 billion kWh of electricity from geothermal energy. Indonesia was the top geothermal electricity producer at about 17 billion kWh—which was about 5% of Indonesia’s total electricity generation. Kenya, was the seventh-highest geothermal electricity producer, at about 5 billion kWh, which was equal to about 45% of Kenya's annual electricity generation. Kenya had the largest percentage share of electricity generation from geothermal energy among all countries with geothermal power plants.

Geothermal heat pumps

Geothermal heat pumps use the constant temperatures near the surface of the earth to heat and cool buildings. Geothermal heat pumps transfer heat from the ground (or water) into buildings during the winter and reverse the process in the summer.

1 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Monthly, Tables 1.3.B and 1.16.B, February 2024, preliminary data.

Last updated: April 3, 2024, with preliminary data for the United States.