Why do gasoline prices fluctuate?

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Gasoline prices generally follow crude oil prices.

Retail gasoline prices are mainly affected by crude oil prices and the level of gasoline supply relative to demand. Strong and increasing demand for gasoline and other petroleum products in the United States and the rest of the world can place intense pressure on available supplies.

Gasoline prices tend to increase when the available supply of gasoline decreases relative to real or expected demand or consumption. Gasoline prices can change rapidly if something disrupts crude oil supplies, refinery operations, or gasoline pipeline deliveries. Even when crude oil prices are stable, gasoline prices fluctuate because of seasonal changes in demand and in gasoline specifications.

Crude oil and gasoline prices reached record levels in 2008

World crude oil prices reached record levels in 2008 as a result of high worldwide oil demand relative to supply. Significant growth in demand in China, the Middle East, and Latin America, combined with market uncertainty in world supply, contributed to the run up in oil prices and, in turn, to record-high gasoline prices in the United States.

Seasonal demand and specifications for gasoline

Historically, retail gasoline prices tend to gradually rise in the spring and peak in late summer when people drive more frequently. Gasoline prices are generally lower in winter months. Gasoline specifications and formulations also change seasonally. Environmental regulations require that gasoline sold in the summer be less prone to evaporate during warm weather. This requirement means that refiners must replace cheaper but more evaporative gasoline components with less evaporative but more expensive components. From 2000 through 2017, the average monthly price of U.S. retail regular-grade gasoline in August was about 36 cents per gallon higher than the average price in January.

Gasoline stocks are the cushion between major short-term supply and demand imbalances.
chart of U.S. gasoline stocks and 5-year range
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