Wind is an emissions-free source of energy

Wind turbines at the Cerro Gordo Project, west of Mason City, Iowa
Wind Farm at The Cerro Gordo Project, West of Mason City, Iowa

Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (public domain)

Wind is a renewable energy source. Overall, using wind to produce energy has fewer effects on the environment than many other energy sources. Wind turbines do not release emissions that can pollute the air or water (with rare exceptions), and they do not require water for cooling. Wind turbines may also reduce the amount of electricity generation from fossil fuels, which results in lower total air pollution and carbon dioxide emissions.

An individual wind turbine has a relatively small physical footprint. Groups of wind turbines, sometimes called wind farms, are located on open land, on mountain ridges, or offshore in lakes or the ocean.

Wind turbines have some negative effects on the environment

Modern wind turbines can be very large machines, and they may visually affect the landscape. A small number of wind turbines have also caught fire, and some have leaked lubricating fluids, but these occurrences are rare. Some people do not like the sound that wind turbine blades make as they turn in the wind. Some types of wind turbines and wind projects cause bird and bat deaths. These deaths may contribute to declines in the population of species also affected by other human-related impacts. The wind energy industry and the U.S. government are researching ways to reduce the effect of wind turbines on birds and bats.

Most wind power projects on land require service roads that add to the physical effects on the environment. Wind turbines may also use rare earth minerals. These minerals are often located in countries with less stringent environmental standards than the United States, and mining these minerals can have negative effects on the environment. Producing the metals and other materials used to make wind turbines and the concrete used for their foundations requires energy that may have been produced by fossil fuels.