What are Ccf, Mcf, Btu, and therms? How do I convert natural gas prices in dollars per Ccf or Mcf to dollars per Btu or therm?
Btu—British thermal unit(s)
Ccf—the volume of 100 cubic feet (cf)
M—one thousand (1,000)
MM—one million (1,000,000)
Mcf—the volume of 1,000 cubic feet
MMBtu—1,000,000 British thermal units
Therm—One therm equals 100,000 Btu, or 0.10 MMBtu
In the United States, natural gas can be priced in units of dollars per therm, dollars per MMBtu, or dollars per cubic feet.1 The heat content of natural gas per physical unit (such as Btu per cubic foot) is needed to convert these prices from one price basis to another. In 2019, the U.S. annual average heat content of natural gas delivered to consumers was about 1,037 Btu per cubic foot. Therefore, 100 cubic feet (Ccf) of natural gas equals 103,700 Btu, or 1.037 therms. One thousand cubic feet (Mcf) of natural gas equals 1.037 MMBtu, or 10.37 therms.
You can convert natural gas prices from one price basis to another with these formulas (assuming a heat content of natural gas of 1,037 Btu per cubic foot):
$ per Ccf divided by 1.037 equals $ per therm
$ per therm multiplied by 1.037 equals $ per Ccf
$ per Mcf divided by 1.037 equals $ per MMBtu
$ per Mcf divided by 10.37 equals $ per therm
$ per MMBtu multiplied by 1.037 equals $ per Mcf
$ per therm multiplied by 10.37 equals $ per Mcf
The heat content of natural gas may vary by location and by type of natural gas consumer, and it may vary over time. Consumers and analysts should contact natural gas distribution companies or natural gas suppliers for information on the heat content of the natural gas they supply to their customers. Some natural gas distribution companies or utilities may provide this information on customers' bills.
1 The U.S. Energy Information Administration reports natural gas in volumes of cubic feet through 1964 at a pressure base of 14.65 psia (pounds per square inch absolute) at 60° Fahrenheit. Beginning in 1965, the pressure base is 14.73 psia at 60° Fahrenheit.
Average annual and monthly heat content of natural gas consumed by state
Newly released heat content data allow for state-to-state natural gas comparisons
Natural gas conversion calculator
Last updated: June 17, 2020
Other FAQs about Natural Gas
- Does EIA have county-level energy production data?
- Does EIA have information on U.S. natural gas and oil pipelines?
- Does EIA have projections for energy production, consumption, and prices for individual states?
- Does EIA publish energy consumption and price data for cities, counties, or by zip code?
- Does EIA publish shale gas and coalbed methane production and reserves data?
- How does EIA calculate the year-ago and five-year averages in the Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report?
- How many alternative fuel and hybrid vehicles are there in the United States?
- How much coal, natural gas, or petroleum is used to generate a kilowatthour of electricity?
- How much does it cost to generate electricity with different types of power plants?
- Which states consume and produce the most natural gas?
- Why am I being charged more for heating oil or propane than the price on EIA's website?
- How much natural gas does the United States have, and how long will it last?
- How much natural gas is consumed in the United States?
- How much of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions are associated with electricity generation?
- How much shale gas is produced in the United States?
- What are Ccf, Mcf, Btu, and therms? How do I convert natural gas prices in dollars per Ccf or Mcf to dollars per Btu or therm?
- What are the major factors affecting natural gas prices?
- What can I expect to pay for heating this winter?
- What is U.S. electricity generation by energy source?
- What is the outlook for home heating fuel prices this winter?
- What is the price or cost of natural gas for U.S. electric power producers?
- What is the volume of world natural gas reserves?
- What types and amounts of energy are produced in each state?