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How much energy is consumed in U.S. buildings?

Energy consumption by the U.S. residential sector and the commercial sector represents the majority of energy consumption in or on all U.S. buildings.

In 2019, total end-use energy consumption by the residential sector and commercial sector was about 21 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu). 1 This was equal to 28% of total U.S. end-use energy consumption in 2019. End-use energy consumption includes primary energy consumption and retail electricity sales. Learn more about U.S. end-use energy consumption in U.S. energy consumption by source and sector, 2019.

The U.S. Energy Administration (EIA) collects detailed end-use energy consumption data for selected years in residential buildings, commercial buildings, and manufacturing facilities with energy consumption surveys (see links below). In the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey 2014, energy use in U.S. manufacturing facilities for facility air conditioning, heating, ventilation, lighting, and facility support, was about 0.9 quadrillion Btu, equal to about 3.6% of total U.S. end-use energy consumption in 2014.

Total energy consumption by the residential and commerical sectors includes end-use consumption and electrical system energy losses associated with retail electricity sales to the sectors. Electrical system losses are the amount of energy lost during electricity generation, transmission, and distribution. When electrical system energy losses are included, the residential and commercial sectors accounted for about 21% and 18% respectively (39% combined) of total U.S. energy consumption in 2019.

1 Monthly Energy Review, Tables 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3, April 2020; preliminary data for 2019.

Learn more:
Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS)
Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)
Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS)

Last updated: June 15, 2020

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