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International Energy Outlook 2023

Release Date: October 11, 2023 Next Release Date: TBD IEO NarrativePDF IEO Narrative FiguresXLSX
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Data Tables

  • Reference and side case tables
  • Available formats: XLSX| PDF
  • Interactive table browser
  • Available formats: INTERACTIVE
  • API data and tools
  • Available formats: API

Release Event

  • Webcast of release
  • IEO2021 webinar screenshot
  • Release Event Presentation
  • The International Energy Outlook (IEO) presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) assessment of the outlook for international energy markets.
  • PDF | PPT | XLSX

NarrativeRead the Full Narrative


+ Administrator's Foreword

The global energy system is governed by complex dynamics that play out over time across regions and sectors of the economy. Projected increases in population and incomes drive our expectation of rising energy demand through 2050.

+ Executive Summary

Since our last IEO two years ago, IEO2021, the global energy system has evolved against a backdrop of new energy policies, the transition to zero-carbon technologies, energy security concerns, and economic and population growth.

+ Introduction

The International Energy Outlook 2023 (IEO2023) explores long-term energy trends across the world through 2050. We explore three key findings in separate sections of this report, each containing a series of in-depth explanations that include region- and sector-specific insights across modeled cases.


+ Increasing population and income offset the effects of declining energy and carbon intensity on emissions

Our projections highlight a key global insight—global energy-related CO2 emissions will increase through 2050 in all IEO2023 cases except our Low Economic Growth case.

+ The shift to renewables to meet growing electricity demand is driven by regional resources, technology costs, and policy

We project global electricity generation will increase by 30% to 76% in 2050 from 2022 (depending on the case) and will primarily be met by zero-carbon technologies across all cases.

+ Energy security concerns hasten a transition from fossil fuels in some countries, although they drive increased fossil fuel consumption in others

Natural gas and crude oil supply, consumption, and trade patterns evolve in our projections to meet growing demand against the backdrop of Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine, which we assume will continue to limit Russia’s exports to Western markets.


+ Appendix A: Case descriptions

IEO2023 includes a Reference case and a series of six side cases that reflect different assumptions related to macroeconomic growth, fuel prices, and technology costs.

+ Appendix B: Modeling assumptions regarding Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine

We included assumptions in our IEO2023 cases regarding Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine, which are held constant across all cases.

+ Appendix C: New modeling regions

For the International Energy Outlook 2023 (IEO2023), we are introducing new regional groupings for countries in the World Energy Projection System (WEPS) based solely on geography.