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Browse terms related to these fuel groups:alternative fuels|coal|electricity|natural gas|nuclear|petroleum|renewable


M:   Thousand

Machine drive (motors):  The direct process end use in which thermal or electric energy is converted into mechanical energy. Motors are found in almost every process in manufacturing. Therefore, when motors are found in equipment that is wholly contained in another end use (such as process cooling and refrigeration), the energy is classified there rather than in machine drive.

Made available (vehicle):  A vehicle is considered "Made available" if it is available for delivery to dealers or users, whether or not it was actually delivered to them. To be "Made available", the vehicle must be completed and available for delivery; thus, any conversion to be performed by an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) Vehicle Converter or Aftermarket Vehicle Converter must have been completed.

Magma:  Naturally occurring molten rock, generated within the earth and capable of intrusion and extrusion, from which igneous rocks are thought to have been derived through solidification and related processes. It may or may not contain suspended solids (such as crystals and rock fragments) and/or gas phases.

Main heating equipment:  Equipment primarily used for heating ambient air in the housing unit.

Main heating fuel:  The form of energy used most frequently to heat the largest portion of the floorspace of a structure. The energy source designated as the main heating fuel is the source delivered to the site for that purpose, not any subsequent form into which it is transformed on site to deliver the heat energy (e.g., for buildings heated by a steam boiler, the main heating fuel is the main input fuel to the boiler, not the steam or hot water circulated through the building.) Note: In commercial buildings, the heating must be to at least 50 degrees Fahrenheit.

Mains:  A system of pipes for transporting gas within a distributing gas utility's retail service area to points of connection with consumer service pipes.

Maintenance expenses:  That portion of operating expenses consisting of labor, materials, and other direct and indirect expenses incurred for preserving the operating efficiency and/or physical condition of utility plants used for power production, transmission, and distribution of energy.

Maintenance of boiler plant (expenses):  The cost of labor, material, and expenses incurred in the maintenance of a steam plant. Includes furnaces; boilers; coal, ash-handling, and coal-preparation equipment; steam and feed water piping; and boiler apparatus and accessories used in the production of steam, mercury, or other vapor to be used primarily for generating electricity. The point at which an electric steam plant is distinguished from an electric plant is defined as follows:

  1. Inlet flange of throttle valve on prime mover.
  2. Flange of all steam extraction lines on prime mover.
  3. Hot well pump outlet on condensate lines.
  4. Inlet flange of all turbine-room auxiliaries.
  5. Connection to line side of motor starter for all boiler-plant equipment.

Maintenance of structures (expenses):  The cost of labor, materials, and expenses incurred in maintenance of power production structures. Structures include all buildings and facilities to house, support, or safeguard property or persons.

Maintenance supervision and engineering expenses:  The cost of labor and expenses incurred in the general supervision and direction of the maintenance of power generation stations. The supervision and engineering included consists of the pay and expenses of superintendents, engineers, clerks, other employees, and consultants engaged in supervising and directing the maintenance of each utility function. Direct supervision and engineering of specific activities, such as fuel handling, boiler room operations, generator operations, etc., are charged to the appropriate accounts.

Major electric utility:  A utility that, in the last 3 consecutive calendar years, had sales or transmission services exceeding one of the following (1) 1 million megawatthours of total annual sales; (2) 100 megawatthours of annual sales for resale; (3) 500 megawatthours of annual gross interchange out; or (4) 500 megawatthours of wheeling (deliveries plus losses) for others.

Major energy sources:  Fuels or energy sources such as electricity, fuel oil, natural gas, district steam, district hot water, and district chilled water. District chilled water is not included in any totals for the sum of major energy sources or fuels; all other major fuels are included in these totals.

Major fuels:  Fuels or energy sources such as: electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gases, natural gas, district steam, district hot water, and district chilled water.

Major interstate pipeline company:  A company whose combined sales for resale, including gas transported interstate or stored for a fee, exceeded 50 million thousand cubic feet in the previous year.

Make-up air:  Air brought into a building from outside to replace exhaust air.

MANE-VU (Mid-Atlantic/Northeast Visibility Union) :  An organization formed by the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern states, tribes, and federal agencies to coordinate planning activities to reduce haze (air pollution) in the region. The organization encourages a coordinated approach to meeting the requirements of EPA’s Regional Haze Rules and reducing visibility impairment in major national parks and wilderness areas in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions. http://www.otcair.org/manevu/aboutus.asp.

Manhattan Project:  The U.S. Government project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. Started in 1942, the Manhattan Project formally ended in 1946. The Hanford Site, Oak Ridge Reservation, and Los Alamos National Laboratory were created for this effort. The project was named for the Manhattan Engineer District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Manual dimmer switches:  These are like residential-style dimmer switches. They are not generally used with fluorescent and high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps.

Manufactured gas:  A gas obtained by destructive distillation of coal or by the thermal decomposition of oil, or by the reaction of steam passing through a bed of heated coal or coke. Examples are coal gases, coke oven gases, producer gas, blast furnace gas, blue (water) gas, carbureted water gas. Btu content varies widely.

Manufacturing:  An energy-consuming subsector of the industrial sector that consists of all facilities and equipment engaged in the mechanical, physical, chemical, or electronic transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. Assembly of component parts of products is included, except for that which is included in construction.

Manufacturing division:  One of 10 fields of economic activity defined by the Standard Industrial Classification Manual. The manufacturing division includes all establishments engaged in the mechanical or chemical transformation of materials or substances into new products. The other divisions of the U.S. economy are agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting, and trapping; mining; construction; transportation, communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; personal, business, professional, repair, recreation, and other services; and public administration. The establishments in the manufacturing division constitute the universe for the MECS (an EIA survey).

Manufacturing establishment:  An economic unit at a single physical location where mechanical or chemical transformation of materials or substances into new products are performed.

MARAMA (Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association, Inc.) :  A voluntary, non-profit association of ten Mid-Atlantic state and local air pollution control agencies. http://www.marama.org/about-us.

Marginal cost:  The change in cost associated with a unit change in quantity supplied or produced.

Marine freight:  Freight transported over rivers, canals, the Great Lakes, and domestic ocean waterways.

Market clearing price:  The price at which supply equals demand for the Day-ahead or hour-ahead markets.

Market price contract:  A contract in which the price of uranium is not specifically determined at the time the contract is signed but is based instead on the prevailing market price at the time of delivery. A market price contract may include a floorprice, that is, a lower limit on the eventual settled price. The floorprice and the method of price escalation generally are determined when the contract is signed. The contract may also include a price ceiling or a discount from the agreed-upon market price reference.

Market price settlement (uranium):  The price paid for uranium delivery under a market-price contract. The price is commonly (but not always) determined at or sometime before delivery and may be related to a floor price, ceiling price, or discount.

Market-based pricing:  Prices of electric power or other forms of energy determined in an open market system of supply and demand under which prices are set solely by agreement as to what buyers will pay and sellers will accept. Such prices could recover less or more than full costs, depending upon what the buyers and sellers see as their relevant opportunities and risks.

Marketable coke:  See Petroleum coke, marketable .

Marketed energy:  An energy source that is commercially traded. Typically, this energy is sold by a producer, such as a petroleum refiner, through a transmission and distribution network (e.g., pipelines and trucks) to an end-use consumer (e.g., gasoline sold at the pump).

Marketed production:  Gross withdrawals less gas used for repressuring, quantities vented and flared, and nonhydrocarbon gases removed in treating or processing operations. Includes all quantities of gas used in field and processing plant operations.

Masonry:  A general term covering wall construction using masonry materials such as brick, concrete block, stone, and tile that are set in mortar; also included is stucco. The category does not include concrete panels because concrete panels represent a different method of constructing buildings. Concrete panels are reported separately.

Masonry stove:  A type of heating appliance similar to a fireplace, but much more efficient and clean burning. They are made of masonry and have long channels through which combustion gases give up their heat to the heavy mass of the stove, which releases the heat slowly into a room. Often called Russian or Finnish fireplaces.

Mass burn facility:  A type of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration facility in which MSW is burned with only minor presorting to remove oversize, hazardous, or explosive materials.

Master-metering:  Measurement of electricity or natural gas consumption of several tenants or housing units using a single meter. That is, one meter measures the energy usage for several households collectively.

Maximum deliverability:  The maximum rate natural gas can be withdrawn from or injected into a storage field when filled to maximum capacity.

Maximum demand:  The greatest of all demands of the load that has occurred within a specified period of time.

Maximum dependable capacity, net:  The gross electrical output measured at the output terminals of the turbine generator(s) during the most restrictive seasonal conditions, less the station service load.

Maximum established site capacity (reactors):  The maximum established spent fuel capacity for the site is defined by DOE as the maximum number of intact assemblies that will be able to be stored at some point in the future (between the reporting date and the reactor's end of life) taking into account any established or current studies or engineering evaluations at the time of submittal for licensing approval from the NRC.

Maximum generator nameplate capacity:  The maximum rated output of a generator, prime mover, or other electric power production equipment under specific conditions designated by the manufacturer.

Maximum hourly load:  This is determined by the interval in which the 60-minute integrated demand is the greatest.

Maximum streamflow:  The maximum rate of water flow past a given point during a specified period.

MBOED:  million barrels of oil equivalent per day

Mcf:   one thousand cubic feet

Mean indoor temperature:  The "usual" temperature. If different sections of the house are kept at different temperatures, the reported temperature is for the section where the people are. A thermostat setting is accepted if the temperature is not known.

Mean operating hours:  The arithmetic average number of operating hours per building is the weighted sum of the number of operating hours divided by the weighted sum of the number of buildings.

Mean power output (of a wind turbine):  The average power output of a wind energy conversion system at a given mean wind speed based on a Raleigh frequency distribution.

Mean square feet per building:  The arithmetic average square feet per building is the weighted sum of the total square feet divided by the weighted sum of the number of buildings.

Measured heated area of residence:  The floor area of the housing unit that is enclosed from the weather and heated. Basements are included whether or not they contain finished space. Garages are included if they have a wall in common with the house. Attics that have finished space and attics that have some heated space are included. Crawl spaces are not included even if they are enclosed from the weather. Sheds and other buildings that are not attached to the house are not included. "Measured" area means the measurement of the dimensions of the home, using a metallic, retractable, 50-foot tape measure. "Heated area" is that portion of the measured area that is heated during most of the season. Rooms that are shut off during the heating season to save on fuel are not counted. Attached garages that are unheated and unheated areas in the attics and basements are also not counted.

Measured reserves:  See Proved energy reserves.

Measured resources, coal:  Coal resources for which estimates of the rank, quality, and quantity have been computed, within a margin of error of less than 20 percent, from sample analyses and measurements from closely spaced and geologically well known sample sites. Measured resources are computed from dimensions revealed in outcrops, trenches, mine workings, and drill holes. The points of observation and measurement are so closely spaced and the thickness and extent of coals are so well defined that the tonnage is judged to be accurate within 20 percent. Although the spacing of the points of observation necessary to demonstrate continuity of the coal differs from region to region, according to the character of the coalbeds, the point of observation are no greater than 1/2 mile apart. Measured coal is projected to extend as a belt 1/4 mile wide from the outcrop or points of observation or measurement.

MECS:   Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey

Median:  The middle number of a data set when the measurements are arranged in ascending (or descending) order.

Median streamflow:  The middle rate of flow of water past a given point for which there have been several greater and lesser rates of flow occurring during a specified period.

Median water condition:  The middle precipitation and run-off condition for a distribution of water conditions that have happened over a long period of time. Usually determined by examining the water supply record of the period in question.

Medium pressure:  For valves and fittings, implies that they are suitable for working pressures between 125 to 175 pounds per square inch.

Medium-temperature collector:  A collector designed to operate in the temperature range of 140 degrees to 180 degrees Fahrenheit, but that can also operate at a temperature as low as 110 degrees Fahrenheit. The collector typically consists of a metal frame, metal absorption panels with integral flow channels (attached tubing for liquid collectors or integral ducting for air collectors), and glazing and insulation on the sides and back.

Medium-volatile bituminous coal:  See Bituminous coal.

Megavoltamperes (MVA):   Millions of voltamperes, which are a measure of apparent power. (See definition for apparent power.)

Megawatt (MW):  One million watts of electricity.

Megawatt electric (MWe):  One million watts of electric capacity.

Megawatthour (MWh):  One thousand kilowatt-hours or 1million watt-hours.

Mercaptans:  Also known as thiols. Mercaptans are highly odorous sulfur-containing hydrocarbons that are often removed from light petroleum products such as LPG or jet fuel. Mercaptans have a chemical structure that includes a hydrogen atom bonded to a sulfur atom bonded to a carbon atom, with the generic formula R-SH. Mercaptans can be removed in hydrotreaters and by sweetening in Merox units.

Merchant coke plant:  A coke plant where coke is produced primarily for sale on the commercial (open) market.

Merchant facilities:  High-risk, high-profit facilities that operate, at least partially, at the whims of the market, as opposed to those facilities that are constructed with close cooperation of municipalities and have significant amounts of waste supply guaranteed.

Merchant MTBE plants:  MTBE (methyl tertiary butylether) production facilities primarily located within petrochemical plants rather than refineries. Production from these units is sold under contract or on the spot market to refiners or other gasoline blenders.

Merchant oxygenate plants:  Oxygenate production facilities that are not associated with a petroleum refinery. Production from these facilities is sold under contract or on the spot market torefiners or other gasoline blenders.

Mercury vapor lamp:  A high-intensity discharge lamp that uses mercury as the primary light-producing element. Includes clear, phosphor coated, and self-ballasted lamps.

Merger:  A combining of companies or corporations into one, often by issuing stock of the controlling corporation to replace the greater part of that of the other.

Merox:  Also known as kerosene Merox or LPG Merox. The Merox unit is a proprietary technology owned by the Universal Oil Products (UOP) Company, now Honeywell UOP. It selectively sweetens petroleum products by oxidizing the foul-smelling mercaptans into the sweeter disulfides that remain in the product, leaving the total sulfur content the same. The process is currently less expensive to install than a hydrotreater, which actually lowers the sulfur content. In the Merox process, mercaptans are oxidized by means of a catalyst in an alkaline environment.

Met:  An approximate unit of heat produced by a resting person, equal to about 18.5 Btu per square foot per hour.

Meta-anthracite:  See Anthracite.

Metal halide lamp:  A high-intensity discharge lamp type that uses mercury and several halide additives as light-producing elements. These lights have the best Color Rendition Index (CRI) of the high-intensity discharge lamps. They can be used for commercial interior lighting or for stadium lights.

Metallic:  The metallic material composition of the collector's absorber system.

Metallurgical coal:  Coking coal and pulverized coal consumed in making steel.

Metered data:  End-use data obtained through the direct measurement of the total energy consumed for specific uses within the individual household. Individual appliances can be submetered by connecting the recording meters directly to individual appliances.

Metered peak demand:  The presence of a device to measure the maximum rate of electricity consumption per unit of time. This device allows electric utility companies to bill their customers for maximum consumption, as well as for total consumption.

Methane (CH4):  A colorless, flammable, odorless hydrocarbon gas which is the major component of natural gas. It is also an important source of hydrogen in various industrial processes. Methane is a greenhouse gas. See also Greenhouse gases.

Methanogens:  Bacteria that synthesize methane, requiring completely anaerobic conditions for growth.

Methanol (CH3OH):  A light, volatile alcohol eligible for gasoline blending.

Methanol blend:  Mixtures containing 85 percent or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70 percent) by volume of methanol with gasoline. Pure methanol is considered an "other alternative fuel."

Methanotrophs:  Bacteria that use methane as food and oxidize it into carbon dioxide.

Methyl chloroform (trichloroethane):  An industrial chemical (CH3CCl3) used as a solvent, aerosol propellant, and pesticide and for metal degreasing.

Methylene chloride:  A colorless liquid, nonexplosive and practically nonflammable. Used as a refrigerant in centrifugal compressors, a solvent for organic materials, and a component in nonflammable paint removers.

Metric conversion factors (for floorspace):  Floorspace estimates may be converted to metric units by using the relationship, 1 square foot is approximately equal to .0929 square meters. Energy estimates may be converted to metric units by using the relationship, 1 Btu is approximately equal to 1,055 joules. One kilowatthour is exactly 3,600,000 joules. One gigajoule is approximately278 kilowatthours (kWh).

Metric ton (mt):  A unit of weight equal to 2,204.6 pounds.

Metropolitan:  Located within the boundaries of a metropolitan area.

Metropolitan area:  A geographic area that is a metropolitan statistical area or a consolidated metropolitan statistical area as defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

Metropolitan statistical area (MSA):  A county or group of contiguous counties (towns and cities in New England) that has (1) at least one city with 50,000 or more in habitants; or (2) an urbanized area of 50,000 inhabitants and a total population of 100,000 or more inhabitants (75,000 in New England). These areas are defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget. The contiguous counties or other jurisdictions to be included in an MSA are those that, according to certain criteria, are essentially metropolitan in character and are socially and economically integrated with the central city or urbanized area.

Microcrystalline wax:  Wax extracted from certain petroleum residues having a finer and less apparent crystalline structure than paraffin wax and having the following physical characteristics penetration at 77 degrees Fahrenheit (D1321)-60 maximum; viscosity at 210 degrees Fahrenheit in Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS); (D88)-60 SUS (10.22 centistokes) minimum to 150 SUS (31.8 centistokes) maximum; oil content (D721)-5 percent minimum.

Microgroove:  A small groove scribed into the surface of a solar photovoltaic cell which is filled with metal for contacts.

Micrometer (or Micron):  One-millionth of a meter. It can also be expressed as 10-6 meter.

Microwave oven:  A household cooking appliance consisting of a compartment designed to cook or heat food by means of microwave energy. It may also have a browning coil and convection heating as additional features.

Mid-size passenger car:  A passenger car with between110 and 119 cubic feet of interior passenger and luggage volume.

Middle distillates:  A general classification of refined petroleum products that includes distillate fuel oil and kerosene.

Middlings:  In coal preparation, this material called mid-coal is neither clean nor refuse; due to their intermediate specific gravity, middlings sink only partway in the washing vessels and are removed by auxiliary means.

Midgrade gasoline:  Gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than or equal to 88 and less than or equal to 90. Note: Octane requirements may vary by altitude. See Octane Rating.

Miles per gallon (MPG):  A measure of vehicle fuel efficiency. Miles per gallon or MPG represents "Fleet Miles per Gallon. "For each subgroup or "table cell," MPG is computed as the ratio of the total number of miles traveled by all vehicles in the subgroup to the total number of gallons consumed. MPGs are assigned to each vehicle using the EPA certification files and adjusted for on-road driving.

Military use:  Includes sales to the Armed Forces, including volumes sold to the Defense Fuel Supply Center (DFSC) for use by all branches of the Department of Defense (DOD).

Mill:  A monetary cost and billing unit used by utilities; it is equal to 1/1000 of the U.S. dollar (equivalent to 1/10of 1 cent).

Mill capital:  Cost for transportation and equipping a plant for processing ore or other feed materials.

Mill feed:  Uranium ore supplied to a crusher or grinding mill in an ore-dressing process.

Milling:  The grinding or crushing of ore, concentration, and other beneficiation, including the removal of valueless or harmful constituents and preparation for market.

Milling capacity:  The maximum rate at which a mill is capable of treating ore or producing concentrate.

Milling of uranium:  The processing of uranium from ore mined by conventional methods, such as underground or open-pit methods, to separate the uranium from the undesired material in the ore.

Million British Thermal Units:  MMBtu. See Btu.

Minable:  Capable of being mined under current mining technology and environmental and legal restrictions, rules, and regulations.

Mine capital:  Cost for exploration and development, pre-mining stripping, shaft sinking, and mine development (including in-situ leaching), as well as the mine plant and its equipment.

Mine count:  The number of mines, or mines collocated with preparation plants or tipples, located in a particular geographic area (state or region). If a mine is mining coal across two counties within a state, or across two states, then it is counted as two operations. This is done so that EIA can separate production by state and county.

Mine Type:  See Surface Mine and Underground Mine.

Mineral:  Any of the various naturally occurring in organic substances, such as metals, salt, sand, stone, sulfur, and water, usually obtained from the earth. Note For reporting on the Financial Reporting System the term also includes organic non-renewable substances that are extracted from the earth such as coal, crude oil, and natural gas.

Mineral lease:  An agreement wherein a mineral interest owner (lessor) conveys to another party (lessee) the rights to explore for, develop, and produce specified minerals. The lessee acquires a working interest and the lessor retains a non-operating interest in the property, referred to as the royalty interest, each in proportions agreed upon.

Mineral rights:  The ownership of the minerals beneath the earth's surface with the right to remove them. Mineral rights may be conveyed separately from surface rights.

Mineral-matter-free basis:  Mineral matter in coal is the parent material in coal from which ash is derived and which comes from minerals present in the original plant materials that formed the coal, or from extraneous sources such as sediments and precipitates from mineralized water. Mineral matter in coal cannot be analytically determined and is commonly calculated using data on ash and ash-forming constituents. Coal analyses are calculated to the mineral matter free basis by adjusting formulas used in calculations in order to deduct the weight of mineral matter from the total coal.

Minimum streamflow:  The lowest rate of flow of water past a given point during a specified period.

Mining:  An energy-consuming subsector of the industrial sector that consists of all facilities and equipment used to extract energy and mineral resources.

Mining operation:  One mine and/or tipple at a single physical location.

Minivan:  Small van that first appeared with that designation in 1984. Any of the smaller vans built on an automobile-type frame. Earlier models such as the Volkswagen van are now included in this category.

Minority carrier:  A current carrier, either an electron or a hole, that is in the minority in a specific layer of a semiconductor material; the diffusion of minority carriers under the action of the cell junction voltage is the current in a photovoltaic device.

Miscellaneous petroleum products:  Includes all finished products not classified elsewhere (e.g., petrolatum lube refining by products (aromatic extracts and tars), absorption oils, ram-jet fuel, petroleum rocket fuels, synthetic natural gas feed stocks, and specialty oils).

Miscellaneous reserves:  A supply source having not more than 50 billion cubic feet of dedicated recoverable salable reserves and that falls within the definition of Supply Source.

Mixed waste:  Waste containing both radioactive and hazardous constituents.

MM:  Million (106).

MMb/d:  One million (106) barrels of oil per day.

MMBtu:  One million (106) British thermal units.

MMcf:  One million (106) cubic feet.

MMgal/d:  One million (106) gallons per day.

MMmt:  One million (106 ) metric tons.

MMst:  One million (106) short tons.

Mobile home:  A housing unit built on a movable chassis and moved to the site. It may be placed on a permanent or temporary foundation and may contain one room or more. If rooms are added to the structure, it is considered a single-family housing unit. A manufactured house assembled on site is a single-family housing unit, not a mobile home.

Moderator:  A material, such as ordinary water, heavy water, or graphite, used in a reactor to slow down high-velocity neutrons, thus increasing the likelihood of further fission.

Modules:  Photovoltaic cells or an assembly of cells into panels (modules) intended for and shipped for final consumption or to another organization for resale. When exported, incomplete modules and unencapsulated cells are also included. Modules used for space applications are not included.

Moist (coal) basis:  Moist coal contains its natural inherent or bed moisture, but does not include water adhering to the surface. Coal analyses expressed on a moist basis are performed or adjusted so as to describe the data when the coal contains only that moisture that exists in the bed in its natural state of deposition and when the coal has not lost any moisture due to drying.

Moisture content:  The water content of a substance (a solid fuel) as measured under specified conditions being the "dry basis," which equals the weight of the wet sample minus the weight of a (bone) dry sample divided by the weight of the dry sample times 100 (to get percent); "wet basis," which is equal to the weight of the wet sample minus the weight of the dry sample divided by the weight of the wet sample times 100.

Mole:  The quantity of a compound or element that has a weight in grams numerically equal to its molecular weight. Also referred to as "gram molecule" or "gram molecular weight."

Montreal protocol:  The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1987). An international agreement, signed by most of the industrialized nations, to substantially reduce the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Signed in January 1989, the original document called for a 50-percent reduction in CFC use by 1992 relative to 1986 levels. The subsequent London Agreement called for a complete elimination of CFC use by 2000. The Copenhagen Agreement, which called for a complete phase out by January 1, 1996, was implemented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Motor gasoline (finished):  A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in spark-ignition engines. Motor gasoline, as defined in ASTM Specification D 4814 or Federal Specification VV-G-1690C, is characterized as having a boiling range of 122 to 158 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10 percent recovery point to 365 to 374 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90 percent recovery point. Motor Gasoline includes conventional gasoline; all types of oxygenated gasoline, including gasohol; and reformulated gasoline, but excludes aviation gasoline. Note: Volumetric data on blending components, such as oxygenates, are not counted in data on finished motor gasoline until the blending components are blended into the gasoline.

Motor gasoline blending:  Mechanical mixing of motor gasoline blending components, and oxygenates when required, to produce finished motor gasoline. Finished motor gasoline may be further mixed with other motor gasoline blending components or oxygenates, resulting in increased volumes of finished motor gasoline and/or changes in the formulation of finished motor gasoline (e.g., conventional motor gasoline mixed with MTBE to produce oxygenated motor gasoline).

Motor gasoline blending components:  Naphthas (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. These components include reformulated gasoline blend stock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) but exclude oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Note Oxygenates are reported as individual components and are included in the total for other hydrocarbons, hydrogens, and oxygenates.

Motor speed:  The number of revolutions that the motor turns in a given time period (i.e. revolutions per minute, rpm).

MPG:  See Miles Per Gallon

MPG shortfall:  The difference between actual on-road MPG and EPA laboratory test MPG. MPG short fall is expressed as gallons per mile ratio (GPMR).

MSA:  See Metropolitan Statistical Area

MSHA:  Mine Safety and Health Administration

MSHA ID number:  Seven (7)-digit code assigned to a mining operation by the Mine Safety and Health Administration.

MSW:  See Municipal Solid Waste

MTBE:   Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether

MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) (CH3)3COCH3:  An ether intended for gasoline blending as described in "Oxygenates."

Multiple completion well:  A well equipped to produce oil and/or gas separately from more than one reservoir. Such wells contain multiple strings of tubing or other equipment that permit production from the various completions to be measured and accounted for separately. For statistical purposes, a multiple completion well is reported as one well and classified as either an oil well or a gas well. If one of the several completions in a given well is an oil completion, the well is classified as an oil well. If all of the completions in a given well are gas completions, the well is classified as a gas well.

Multiple cropping:  A system of growing several crops on the same field in one year.

Multiple purpose project:  The development of hydroelectric facilities to serve more than one function. Some of the uses include hydroelectric power, irrigation, water supply, water quality control, and/or fish and wildlife enhancement.

Multiple purpose reservoir:  Stored water and its usage governed by advanced water resource conservation practices to achieve more than one water control objective. Some of the objectives include flood control, hydroelectric power development, irrigation, recreation usage, and wilderness protection.

Municipal solid waste (MSW):  Garbage collected from municipalities or a similar customer base (including a mix of residential and commercial entities) consisting of biogenic and non-biogenic fractions that would typically be disposed of at a landfill or incinerated. Useful energy may be extracted from MSW either by capturing the heat produced by burning it to produce steam and electricity or by separating and processing the organic materials to produce higher-value fuels.

Municipal waste:  As defined in the Energy Security Act (P.L. 96-294; 1980) as "any organic matter, including sewage, sewage sludge, and industrial or commercial waste, and mixtures of such matter and inorganic refuse from any publicly or privately operated municipal waste collection or similar disposal system, or from similar waste flows (other than such flows which constitute agricultural wastes or residues, or wood wastes or residues from wood harvesting activities or production of forest products)."

Municipal waste to energy project or plant:  A facility that produces fuel or energy from municipal solid waste.

Municipality:  A village town, city, county, or other political subdivision of a State.

MW:  See Megawatt

MWe:  See Megawatt electric

MWh:  See Megawatthour