Machine drive (motors): The direct process end use in which thermal or electric energy is converted into mechanical energy. Motors are found in almost every process in manufacturing. Therefore, when motors are found in equipment that is wholly contained in another end use (such as process cooling and refrigeration), the energy is classified there rather than in machine drive.
Made available (vehicle): A vehicle is considered "Made available" if it is available for delivery to dealers or users, whether or not it was actually delivered to them. To be "Made available", the vehicle must be completed and available for delivery; thus, any conversion to be performed by an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) Vehicle Converter or Aftermarket Vehicle Converter must have been completed.
Magma: Naturally occurring molten rock, generated within the earth and capable of intrusion and extrusion, from which igneous rocks are thought to have been derived through solidification and related processes. It may or may not contain suspended solids (such as crystals and rock fragments) and/or gas phases.
Main heating fuel: The form of energy used most frequently to heat the largest portion of the floorspace of a structure. The energy source designated as the main heating fuel is the source delivered to the site for that purpose, not any subsequent form into which it is transformed on site to deliver the heat energy (e.g., for buildings heated by a steam boiler, the main heating fuel is the main input fuel to the boiler, not the steam or hot water circulated through the building.) Note: In commercial buildings, the heating must be to at least 50 degrees Fahrenheit.
Maintenance expenses: That portion of operating expenses consisting of labor, materials, and other direct and indirect expenses incurred for preserving the operating efficiency and/or physical condition of utility plants used for power production, transmission, and distribution of energy.
Maintenance of boiler plant (expenses): The cost of labor, material, and expenses incurred in the maintenance of a steam plant. Includes furnaces; boilers; coal, ash-handling, and coal-preparation equipment; steam and feed water piping; and boiler apparatus and accessories used in the production of steam, mercury, or other vapor to be used primarily for generating electricity. The point at which an electric steam plant is distinguished from an electric plant is defined as follows:
Maintenance of structures (expenses): The cost of labor, materials, and expenses incurred in maintenance of power production structures. Structures include all buildings and facilities to house, support, or safeguard property or persons.
Maintenance supervision and engineering expenses: The cost of labor and expenses incurred in the general supervision and direction of the maintenance of power generation stations. The supervision and engineering included consists of the pay and expenses of superintendents, engineers, clerks, other employees, and consultants engaged in supervising and directing the maintenance of each utility function. Direct supervision and engineering of specific activities, such as fuel handling, boiler room operations, generator operations, etc., are charged to the appropriate accounts.
Major electric utility: A utility that, in the last 3 consecutive calendar years, had sales or transmission services exceeding one of the following (1) 1 million megawatthours of total annual sales; (2) 100 megawatthours of annual sales for resale; (3) 500 megawatthours of annual gross interchange out; or (4) 500 megawatthours of wheeling (deliveries plus losses) for others.
Major energy sources: Fuels or energy sources such as electricity, fuel oil, natural gas, district steam, district hot water, and district chilled water. District chilled water is not included in any totals for the sum of major energy sources or fuels; all other major fuels are included in these totals.
MANE-VU (Mid-Atlantic/Northeast Visibility Union) : An organization formed by the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern states, tribes, and federal agencies to coordinate planning activities to reduce haze (air pollution) in the region. The organization encourages a coordinated approach to meeting the requirements of EPA’s Regional Haze Rules and reducing visibility impairment in major national parks and wilderness areas in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions. http://www.otcair.org/manevu/aboutus.asp.
Manhattan Project: The U.S. Government project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. Started in 1942, the Manhattan Project formally ended in 1946. The Hanford Site, Oak Ridge Reservation, and Los Alamos National Laboratory were created for this effort. The project was named for the Manhattan Engineer District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Manufactured gas: A gas obtained by destructive distillation of coal or by the thermal decomposition of oil, or by the reaction of steam passing through a bed of heated coal or coke. Examples are coal gases, coke oven gases, producer gas, blast furnace gas, blue (water) gas, carbureted water gas. Btu content varies widely.
Manufacturing: An energy-consuming subsector of the industrial sector that consists of all facilities and equipment engaged in the mechanical, physical, chemical, or electronic transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. Assembly of component parts of products is included, except for that which is included in construction.
Manufacturing division: One of 10 fields of economic activity defined by the Standard Industrial Classification Manual. The manufacturing division includes all establishments engaged in the mechanical or chemical transformation of materials or substances into new products. The other divisions of the U.S. economy are agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting, and trapping; mining; construction; transportation, communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; personal, business, professional, repair, recreation, and other services; and public administration. The establishments in the manufacturing division constitute the universe for the MECS (an EIA survey).
MARAMA (Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association, Inc.) : A voluntary, non-profit association of ten Mid-Atlantic state and local air pollution control agencies. http://www.marama.org/about-us.
Market price contract: A contract in which the price of uranium is not specifically determined at the time the contract is signed but is based instead on the prevailing market price at the time of delivery. A market price contract may include a floorprice, that is, a lower limit on the eventual settled price. The floorprice and the method of price escalation generally are determined when the contract is signed. The contract may also include a price ceiling or a discount from the agreed-upon market price reference.
Market price settlement (uranium): The price paid for uranium delivery under a market-price contract. The price is commonly (but not always) determined at or sometime before delivery and may be related to a floor price, ceiling price, or discount.
Market-based pricing: Prices of electric power or other forms of energy determined in an open market system of supply and demand under which prices are set solely by agreement as to what buyers will pay and sellers will accept. Such prices could recover less or more than full costs, depending upon what the buyers and sellers see as their relevant opportunities and risks.
Marketable coke: See Petroleum coke, marketable .
Marketed energy: An energy source that is commercially traded. Typically, this energy is sold by a producer, such as a petroleum refiner, through a transmission and distribution network (e.g., pipelines and trucks) to an end-use consumer (e.g., gasoline sold at the pump).
Marketed production: Gross withdrawals less gas used for repressuring, quantities vented and flared, and nonhydrocarbon gases removed in treating or processing operations. Includes all quantities of gas used in field and processing plant operations.
Masonry: A general term covering wall construction using masonry materials such as brick, concrete block, stone, and tile that are set in mortar; also included is stucco. The category does not include concrete panels because concrete panels represent a different method of constructing buildings. Concrete panels are reported separately.
Masonry stove: A type of heating appliance similar to a fireplace, but much more efficient and clean burning. They are made of masonry and have long channels through which combustion gases give up their heat to the heavy mass of the stove, which releases the heat slowly into a room. Often called Russian or Finnish fireplaces.
Master-metering: Measurement of electricity or natural gas consumption of several tenants or housing units using a single meter. That is, one meter measures the energy usage for several households collectively.
Maximum dependable capacity, net: The gross electrical output measured at the output terminals of the turbine generator(s) during the most restrictive seasonal conditions, less the station service load.
Maximum established site capacity (reactors): The maximum established spent fuel capacity for the site is defined by DOE as the maximum number of intact assemblies that will be able to be stored at some point in the future (between the reporting date and the reactor's end of life) taking into account any established or current studies or engineering evaluations at the time of submittal for licensing approval from the NRC.
Mean indoor temperature: The "usual" temperature. If different sections of the house are kept at different temperatures, the reported temperature is for the section where the people are. A thermostat setting is accepted if the temperature is not known.
Measured heated area of residence: The floor area of the housing unit that is enclosed from the weather and heated. Basements are included whether or not they contain finished space. Garages are included if they have a wall in common with the house. Attics that have finished space and attics that have some heated space are included. Crawl spaces are not included even if they are enclosed from the weather. Sheds and other buildings that are not attached to the house are not included. "Measured" area means the measurement of the dimensions of the home, using a metallic, retractable, 50-foot tape measure. "Heated area" is that portion of the measured area that is heated during most of the season. Rooms that are shut off during the heating season to save on fuel are not counted. Attached garages that are unheated and unheated areas in the attics and basements are also not counted.
Measured reserves: See Proved energy reserves.
Measured resources, coal: Coal resources for which estimates of the rank, quality, and quantity have been computed, within a margin of error of less than 20 percent, from sample analyses and measurements from closely spaced and geologically well known sample sites. Measured resources are computed from dimensions revealed in outcrops, trenches, mine workings, and drill holes. The points of observation and measurement are so closely spaced and the thickness and extent of coals are so well defined that the tonnage is judged to be accurate within 20 percent. Although the spacing of the points of observation necessary to demonstrate continuity of the coal differs from region to region, according to the character of the coalbeds, the point of observation are no greater than 1/2 mile apart. Measured coal is projected to extend as a belt 1/4 mile wide from the outcrop or points of observation or measurement.
Median water condition: The middle precipitation and run-off condition for a distribution of water conditions that have happened over a long period of time. Usually determined by examining the water supply record of the period in question.
Medium-temperature collector: A collector designed to operate in the temperature range of 140 degrees to 180 degrees Fahrenheit, but that can also operate at a temperature as low as 110 degrees Fahrenheit. The collector typically consists of a metal frame, metal absorption panels with integral flow channels (attached tubing for liquid collectors or integral ducting for air collectors), and glazing and insulation on the sides and back.
Medium-volatile bituminous coal: See Bituminous coal.
Mercaptan: An organic chemical compound that has a sulfur like odor that is added to natural gas before distribution to the consumer, to give it a distinct, unpleasant odor (smells like rotten eggs). This serves as a safety device by allowing it to be detected in the atmosphere, in cases where leaks occur.
Merchant facilities: High-risk, high-profit facilities that operate, at least partially, at the whims of the market, as opposed to those facilities that are constructed with close cooperation of municipalities and have significant amounts of waste supply guaranteed.
Merchant MTBE plants: MTBE (methyl tertiary butylether) production facilities primarily located within petrochemical plants rather than refineries. Production from these units is sold under contract or on the spot market to refiners or other gasoline blenders.
Merchant oxygenate plants: Oxygenate production facilities that are not associated with a petroleum refinery. Production from these facilities is sold under contract or on the spot market torefiners or other gasoline blenders.
Meta-anthracite: See Anthracite.
Metal halide lamp: A high-intensity discharge lamp type that uses mercury and several halide additives as light-producing elements. These lights have the best Color Rendition Index (CRI) of the high-intensity discharge lamps. They can be used for commercial interior lighting or for stadium lights.
Metered data: End-use data obtained through the direct measurement of the total energy consumed for specific uses within the individual household. Individual appliances can be submetered by connecting the recording meters directly to individual appliances.
Metered peak demand: The presence of a device to measure the maximum rate of electricity consumption per unit of time. This device allows electric utility companies to bill their customers for maximum consumption, as well as for total consumption.
Methane (CH4): A colorless, flammable, odorless hydrocarbon gas which is the major component of natural gas. It is also an important source of hydrogen in various industrial processes. Methane is a greenhouse gas. See also Greenhouse gases.
Methanol blend: Mixtures containing 85 percent or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70 percent) by volume of methanol with gasoline. Pure methanol is considered an "other alternative fuel."
Methylene chloride: A colorless liquid, nonexplosive and practically nonflammable. Used as a refrigerant in centrifugal compressors, a solvent for organic materials, and a component in nonflammable paint removers.
Metric conversion factors (for floorspace): Floorspace estimates may be converted to metric units by using the relationship, 1 square foot is approximately equal to .0929 square meters. Energy estimates may be converted to metric units by using the relationship, 1 Btu is approximately equal to 1,055 joules. One kilowatthour is exactly 3,600,000 joules. One gigajoule is approximately278 kilowatthours (kWh).
Metropolitan statistical area (MSA): A county or group of contiguous counties (towns and cities in New England) that has (1) at least one city with 50,000 or more in habitants; or (2) an urbanized area of 50,000 inhabitants and a total population of 100,000 or more inhabitants (75,000 in New England). These areas are defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget. The contiguous counties or other jurisdictions to be included in an MSA are those that, according to certain criteria, are essentially metropolitan in character and are socially and economically integrated with the central city or urbanized area.
Microcrystalline wax: Wax extracted from certain petroleum residues having a finer and less apparent crystalline structure than paraffin wax and having the following physical characteristics penetration at 77 degrees Fahrenheit (D1321)-60 maximum; viscosity at 210 degrees Fahrenheit in Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS); (D88)-60 SUS (10.22 centistokes) minimum to 150 SUS (31.8 centistokes) maximum; oil content (D721)-5 percent minimum.
Microwave oven: A household cooking appliance consisting of a compartment designed to cook or heat food by means of microwave energy. It may also have a browning coil and convection heating as additional features.
Middlings: In coal preparation, this material called mid-coal is neither clean nor refuse; due to their intermediate specific gravity, middlings sink only partway in the washing vessels and are removed by auxiliary means.
Midgrade gasoline: Gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than or equal to 88 and less than or equal to 90. Note: Octane requirements may vary by altitude. See Octane Rating.
Miles per gallon (MPG): A measure of vehicle fuel efficiency. Miles per gallon or MPG represents "Fleet Miles per Gallon. "For each subgroup or "table cell," MPG is computed as the ratio of the total number of miles traveled by all vehicles in the subgroup to the total number of gallons consumed. MPGs are assigned to each vehicle using the EPA certification files and adjusted for on-road driving.
Million British Thermal Units: MMBtu. See Btu.
Mine count: The number of mines, or mines collocated with preparation plants or tipples, located in a particular geographic area (state or region). If a mine is mining coal across two counties within a state, or across two states, then it is counted as two operations. This is done so that EIA can separate production by state and county.
Mineral: Any of the various naturally occurring in organic substances, such as metals, salt, sand, stone, sulfur, and water, usually obtained from the earth. Note For reporting on the Financial Reporting System the term also includes organic non-renewable substances that are extracted from the earth such as coal, crude oil, and natural gas.
Mineral lease: An agreement wherein a mineral interest owner (lessor) conveys to another party (lessee) the rights to explore for, develop, and produce specified minerals. The lessee acquires a working interest and the lessor retains a non-operating interest in the property, referred to as the royalty interest, each in proportions agreed upon.
Mineral-matter-free basis: Mineral matter in coal is the parent material in coal from which ash is derived and which comes from minerals present in the original plant materials that formed the coal, or from extraneous sources such as sediments and precipitates from mineralized water. Mineral matter in coal cannot be analytically determined and is commonly calculated using data on ash and ash-forming constituents. Coal analyses are calculated to the mineral matter free basis by adjusting formulas used in calculations in order to deduct the weight of mineral matter from the total coal.
Minivan: Small van that first appeared with that designation in 1984. Any of the smaller vans built on an automobile-type frame. Earlier models such as the Volkswagen van are now included in this category.
Minority carrier: A current carrier, either an electron or a hole, that is in the minority in a specific layer of a semiconductor material; the diffusion of minority carriers under the action of the cell junction voltage is the current in a photovoltaic device.
Miscellaneous petroleum products: Includes all finished products not classified elsewhere (e.g., petrolatum lube refining by products (aromatic extracts and tars), absorption oils, ram-jet fuel, petroleum rocket fuels, synthetic natural gas feed stocks, and specialty oils).
Mobile home: A housing unit built on a movable chassis and moved to the site. It may be placed on a permanent or temporary foundation and may contain one room or more. If rooms are added to the structure, it is considered a single-family housing unit. A manufactured house assembled on site is a single-family housing unit, not a mobile home.
Modules: Photovoltaic cells or an assembly of cells into panels (modules) intended for and shipped for final consumption or to another organization for resale. When exported, incomplete modules and unencapsulated cells are also included. Modules used for space applications are not included.
Moist (coal) basis: Moist coal contains its natural inherent or bed moisture, but does not include water adhering to the surface. Coal analyses expressed on a moist basis are performed or adjusted so as to describe the data when the coal contains only that moisture that exists in the bed in its natural state of deposition and when the coal has not lost any moisture due to drying.
Moisture content: The water content of a substance (a solid fuel) as measured under specified conditions being the "dry basis," which equals the weight of the wet sample minus the weight of a (bone) dry sample divided by the weight of the dry sample times 100 (to get percent); "wet basis," which is equal to the weight of the wet sample minus the weight of the dry sample divided by the weight of the wet sample times 100.
Montreal protocol: The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1987). An international agreement, signed by most of the industrialized nations, to substantially reduce the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Signed in January 1989, the original document called for a 50-percent reduction in CFC use by 1992 relative to 1986 levels. The subsequent London Agreement called for a complete elimination of CFC use by 2000. The Copenhagen Agreement, which called for a complete phase out by January 1, 1996, was implemented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Motor gasoline (finished): A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in spark-ignition engines. Motor gasoline, as defined in ASTM Specification D 4814 or Federal Specification VV-G-1690C, is characterized as having a boiling range of 122 to 158 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10 percent recovery point to 365 to 374 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90 percent recovery point. Motor Gasoline includes conventional gasoline; all types of oxygenated gasoline, including gasohol; and reformulated gasoline, but excludes aviation gasoline. Note: Volumetric data on blending components, such as oxygenates, are not counted in data on finished motor gasoline until the blending components are blended into the gasoline.
Motor gasoline blending: Mechanical mixing of motor gasoline blending components, and oxygenates when required, to produce finished motor gasoline. Finished motor gasoline may be further mixed with other motor gasoline blending components or oxygenates, resulting in increased volumes of finished motor gasoline and/or changes in the formulation of finished motor gasoline (e.g., conventional motor gasoline mixed with MTBE to produce oxygenated motor gasoline).
Motor gasoline blending components: Naphthas (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. These components include reformulated gasoline blend stock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) but exclude oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Note Oxygenates are reported as individual components and are included in the total for other hydrocarbons, hydrogens, and oxygenates.
MPG: See Miles Per Gallon
MSA: See Metropolitan Statistical Area
MSW: See Municipal Solid Waste
Multiple completion well: A well equipped to produce oil and/or gas separately from more than one reservoir. Such wells contain multiple strings of tubing or other equipment that permit production from the various completions to be measured and accounted for separately. For statistical purposes, a multiple completion well is reported as one well and classified as either an oil well or a gas well. If one of the several completions in a given well is an oil completion, the well is classified as an oil well. If all of the completions in a given well are gas completions, the well is classified as a gas well.
Multiple purpose project: The development of hydroelectric facilities to serve more than one function. Some of the uses include hydroelectric power, irrigation, water supply, water quality control, and/or fish and wildlife enhancement.
Multiple purpose reservoir: Stored water and its usage governed by advanced water resource conservation practices to achieve more than one water control objective. Some of the objectives include flood control, hydroelectric power development, irrigation, recreation usage, and wilderness protection.
Municipal waste: As defined in the Energy Security Act (P.L. 96-294; 1980) as "any organic matter, including sewage, sewage sludge, and industrial or commercial waste, and mixtures of such matter and inorganic refuse from any publicly or privately operated municipal waste collection or similar disposal system, or from similar waste flows (other than such flows which constitute agricultural wastes or residues, or wood wastes or residues from wood harvesting activities or production of forest products)."
MW: See Megawatt
MWe: See Megawatt electric
MWh: See Megawatthour