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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

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What are the greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions factors for fuels and electricity?

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes emission factors (or coefficients) for the amounts of certain gases that are released when fuels are burned and for when electricity is generated. EIA publishes emission factors for energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which are CO2 emissions related to energy consumption, and for U.S. electricity generation, as well as for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions related to U.S. electricity generation.

SO2 and NOx are criteria pollutants regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act and subsequent amendments. They are not greenhouse gases. The NOx emissions and emissions factors published by EIA do not include emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is a greenhouse gas (GHG). The only GHG emissions estimates and GHG emissions factors that EIA publishes are for energy-related CO2 emissions.

CO2 emission factors/coefficients for:

Emission factors for electricity generation:

EPA is a source for emission factors for all greenhouse gases and other emissions factors.

Learn more:
How much carbon dioxide is produced per kilowatthour of U.S. electricity generation?
Where greenhouse gases come from

Last reviewed: August 2, 2023.

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