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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is a national sample survey that collects information on the stock of U.S. commercial buildings, including their energy-related building characteristics and energy usage data (consumption and expenditures). Commercial buildings include all buildings in which at least half of the floorspace is used for a purpose that is not residential, industrial, or agricultural. By this definition, CBECS includes building types that might not traditionally be considered commercial, such as schools, hospitals, correctional institutions, and buildings used for religious worship, in addition to traditional commercial buildings such as stores, restaurants, warehouses, and office buildings.

PDF Monthly Energy Review

Released: January 26, 2023

The Monthly Energy Review (MER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's primary report of recent energy statistics. Included are total energy production, consumption, and trade; energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international petroleum; carbon dioxide emissions; and data unit conversions.

Total Energy Data Browser

Released: January 26, 2023

An interactive format of the Monthly Energy Review. Access and graph data on U.S. energy supply, demand, prices, and environmental emissions from 1973 to current data.

PDF Natural Gas Monthly

Released: December 30, 2022

Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Underground storage data are also reported.

Electric Power Annual

Released: November 7, 2022

The Electric Power Annual 2021 (EPA2021) report is now available with final data through 2021. The EPA2021 presents 11 years (2011–21) of national-level data on electricity generating capacity, electricity generation, and useful thermal output, fuel receipts, consumption, and emissions.

Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price

Released: October 6, 2022

Annual report providing state totals for sales, revenue, customer counts, average retail price, and average monthly bills.

Natural Gas Annual

Released: September 30, 2022

Provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by state for the current year. Summary data are presented for each state for the previous 5 years.

Annual Energy Outlook

Released: March 3, 2022

Our Annual Energy Outlook 2022 provides modeled projections of domestic energy markets through 2050, and it includes cases with different assumptions about macroeconomic growth, world oil prices, future costs of renewable power generation technologies, and technological progress.

PDF Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales

Released: February 14, 2022

Provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No.1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off-highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses.

Analysis and Representation of Miscellaneous Electric Loads in NEMS

Released: April 21, 2021

Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) comprise a growing portion of delivered energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings. Miscellaneous end uses—including televisions, personal computers, security systems, data center servers, and many other devices—have continued to penetrate into building-related market segments. Part of this proliferation of devices and equipment can be attributed to increased service demand for entertainment, computing, and convenience appliances.

Price Elasticities for Energy Use in Buildings of the United States

Released: January 14, 2021

This paper describes how the Annual Energy Outlook 2020 (AEO2020) versions of EIA’s National Modeling System (NEMS) Residential and Commercial Demand Models responded to changes in delivered energy prices. Own-price and cross-price elasticities are described.

Trends in Commercial Whole-Building Sensors and Controls

Released: December 15, 2020

Sensor and control innovations can lower the demand for end-use energy services such as space heating, space cooling, ventilation, and lighting in buildings. Trends in Commercial Whole-Building Sensors and Controls provides a technical overview of key sensor and control technologies and projects the share of commercial floorspace incorporating these technologies, along with estimated energy impacts, through 2050. The report also recommends an approach for modeling sensors and controls in the National Energy Modeling System.

Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

Released: October 16, 2020

Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

Renewable Fuels Module - NEMS Documentation

Released: June 11, 2020

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook forecasts.

Northeast Regional Energy Efficiency Program and Measure Data

Released: May 4, 2020

Energy efficiency (EE) incentives offered by electric and natural gas utilities and state EE organizations are an important component of evolving state and local EE policies. To inform EIA’s assumptions for its Annual Energy Outlook, EIA contracted with the Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships (NEEP) to update its Regional Energy Efficiency Database (REED) and to collect detailed measure-level information on EE program incentives from selected utilities. The report focuses on utilities and state EE organizations in states that were not featured in NEEP’s previous FY 2018 report.

U.S. distillate consumption lower in 2019 after record growth last year

Released: September 5, 2019

This Week in Petroleum article

Virtual Listing in the 2018 CBECS

Released: June 21, 2019

Virtual Listing in the 2018 CBECS describes the new system that EIA and Westat developed to create most of the CBECS sampling frame remotely using satellite imagery.

How Were Buildings Selected for the 2018 CBECS?

Released: June 21, 2019

How Were Buildings Selected for the 2018 CBECS describes the types of sampling frames and how a sample is selected from them.

Northeast Regional Energy Efficiency Database, Program and Measure Data: Report on Results of Investigations

Released: February 7, 2019

Energy efficiency (EE) incentives offered by electric and natural gas utilities and state EE organizations are an important component of evolving state and local EE policies. To understand how these incentives affect energy consumption and technology choices in buildings, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) incorporates sub-federal EE incentives for a variety of end-use technologies into its National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) residential demand module (RDM) and commercial demand module (CDM). The NEMS RDM and CDM subtract incentives (equipment subsidies or rebates) from installed equipment costs for high-efficiency equipment—namely, those equipment or appliances that meet or exceed ENERGY STAR® specifications—in RDM and CDM technology choice menus. This approach lowers the relative cost of efficiency adoption when consumers choose between equipment that meets federal minimum EE standards and equipment that is more efficient. EIA and others use NEMS to produce long-term projections of energy use within the United States.

AEO Table Browser

Released: January 24, 2019

Provides custom data views of all Annual Energy Outlook 2019 cases. All available cases can be charted and the data for them downloaded.

PDF Monthly Energy Review - natural gas section

Released: November 20, 2018

Monthly and latest annual time-series and recent statistics on natural gas supply, disposition, and price.

PDF Monthly Energy Review - electricity section

Released: November 20, 2018

Monthly and latest annual statistics on electricity generation, capacity, end-use, fuel use and stocks, and retail price.

Assessing Existing Energy Efficiency Program Activity

Released: June 18, 2018

Given the increasing prevalence of energy efficiency (EE) activity and development of state-level energy efficiency resource standards (EERSs), understanding the effects that EE programs have on energy consumption and technology choice within buildings in the United States is important. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) contracted with ICF Incorporated, LLC (ICF) to identify and characterize a variety of EE incentives available from state efficiency organizations and electric and natural gas utilities. These incentives are used to develop analytic assumptions and modeling structure within EIA’s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) residential demand module (RDM) and commercial demand module (CDM).

Updated Buildings Sector Appliance and Equipment Costs and Efficiency

Released: June 15, 2018

EIA works with technology experts to project the cost and efficiency of future HVAC, lighting, and other major end-use equipment rather than developing residential and commercial technology projections in-house. These reports have always been available by request. By providing the reports online, EIA is increasing transparency for some of the most important assumptions used for our AEO projections of buildings energy demand.

PDF U.S. District Energy Services Market Characterization

Released: February 14, 2018

In a district energy system, a central plant or plants produce steam, hot water, or chilled water, which is then pumped through a network of insulated pipes to provide space heating, cooling, and/or hot water for nearby connected customer buildings. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) contracted this report from ICF L.L.C. to inform modeling and analysis of domestic district energy systems.

PDF Development of Commercial Building Shell Heating and Cooling Load Factors

Released: February 13, 2018

Shell energy efficiency of a building envelope is an important determinant of the heating and cooling load. Improvements in the heating and cooling loads of buildings reduce the amount of energy these buildings need. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) contracted this report from ICF L.L.C., in order to inform modeling and analysis of domestic commercial building energy consumption. As part of its Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), EIA models the consumption of commercial building energy in the Commercial model. The efficiency of building envelopes influences building energy consumption by affecting heat and/or cooling losses by the heating and cooling equipment through the envelope such as walls, floors, roofs, and windows. Building shell efficiencies were calculated for existing building stock in 2012 and for new construction in 2012 and in the AEO projection years 2020, 2030, 2040, and 2050.

State Energy Data System

Released: June 30, 2017

The State Energy Data System (SEDS) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) source for comprehensive state energy statistics. Included are estimates of energy production, consumption, prices, and expenditures broken down by energy source and sector. Production and consumption estimates begin with the year 1960 while price and expenditure estimates begin with 1970. The multidimensional completeness of SEDS allows users to make comparisons across states, energy sources, sectors, and over time.

Trends in Lighting in Commercial Buildings

Released: May 1, 2017

This report uses information from EIA’s Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to review trends in commercial lighting.

Water Consumption in Large Buildings Summary, 2012 CBECS

Released: February 9, 2017

Using water consumption data from the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), EIA estimates that the 46,000 large commercial buildings (greater than 200,000 square feet) used about 359 billion gallons of water (980 million gallons per day) in 2012. On average, these buildings used 7.9 million gallons per building, 20 gallons per square foot, and 18,400 gallons per worker in 2012. The types of buildings that are the most intensive water users are inpatient healthcare buildings, public order and safety buildings (which include prisons) and lodging buildings (which include hotels). For the second time in its history, EIA has collected water usage data through the CBECS.

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey 2012 - Detailed Tables

Released: May 17, 2016

The 2012 CBECS consumption and expenditures detailed tables are comprised of Tables C1-C38, which cover overall electricity, natural gas, fuel oil and district heat consumption, and tables E1-E11, which disaggregate the same energy sources by end use (heating, cooling, lighting, etc.). All of the detailed tables contain extensive row categories of building characteristics.

2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy Usage Summary

Released: March 18, 2016

EIA has released summary tables providing energy consumption estimates from the 2012 CBECS. The data show that despite a 14% increase in total buildings and a 22% increase in total floorspace since 2003, energy use in the estimated 5.6 million U.S. commercial buildings was up just 7% during the same period.

Select Results from the Energy Assessor Experiment in the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey

Released: December 15, 2015

As part of an effort to make EIA’s energy consumption surveys as accurate and efficient as possible, EIA invited the National Research Council (NRC) to review the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) data-gathering process and make recommendations for improvements. The NRC suggested sending professional energy assessors to some sites and comparing the data obtained from the survey to the data collected by the assessors. Results from the energy assessment data collection have largely confirmed the quality of data gathered by CBECS interviewers.

A Look at the U.S. Commercial Building Stock: Results from EIA's 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

Released: March 4, 2015

The 2012 CBECS collected building characteristics data from more than 6,700 U.S. commercial buildings. This report highlights findings from the survey, with details presented in the Building Characteristics tables.

Behavioral Economics Applied to Energy Demand Analysis: A Foundation

Released: October 15, 2014

Neoclassical economics has shaped our understanding of human behavior for several decades. While still an important starting point for economic studies, neoclassical frameworks have generally imposed strong assumptions, for example regarding utility maximization, information, and foresight, while treating consumer preferences as given or external to the framework. In real life, however, such strong assumptions tend to be less than fully valid. Behavioral economics refers to the study and formalizing of theories regarding deviations from traditionally-modeled economic decision-making in the behavior of individuals. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has an interest in behavioral economics as one influence on energy demand.

Combined heat and power technology fills an important energy niche

Released: November 21, 2012

Water Data Collection in the 2007 CBECS

Released: August 28, 2012

The 2007 round of the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) was the first time in the 30 year CBECS history that questions about water consumption were asked of respondents. The Energy Information Administration (EIA), in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), added these questions to the CBECS because water and energy consumption are connected in many ways.

Large Hospital Buildings in the United States in 2007

Released: August 17, 2012

Hospitals consume large amounts of energy because of how they are run and the many people that use them. They are open 24 hours a day; thousands of employees, patients, and visitors occupy the buildings daily; and sophisticated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems control the temperatures and air flow. In addition, many energy intensive activities occur in these buildings: laundry, medical and lab equipment use, sterilization, computer and server use, food service, and refrigeration.

An Assessment of EIA's Building Consumption Data

Released: March 15, 2012

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) routinely uses feedback from customers and outside experts to help improve its programs and products. As part of an assessment of its consumption surveys, EIA reached out to the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) asking them to assess the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and recommend improvements in data quality, geographic coverage, timeliness of data releases, and relevance of data for users.

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey - Office Buildings

Released: September 29, 2010

Provides an in-depth look at this building type as reported in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. Office buildings are the most common type of commercial building and they consumed more than 17% of all energy in the commercial buildings sector in 2003. This special report provides characteristics and energy consumption data by type of office building (e.g. administrative office, government office, medical office) and information on some of the types of equipment found in office buildings: heating and cooling equipment, computers, servers, printers, and photocopiers.

Lighting in Commercial Buildings

Released: April 15, 2009

Lighting is a major consumer of electricity in commercial buildings and a target for energy savings through use of energy-efficient light sources along with other advanced lighting technologies. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) collects information on types of lighting equipment, the amount of floorspace that is lit, and the percentage of floorspace lit by each type. In addition, CBECS data are used to model end-use consumption, including energy consumed for lighting in commercial buildings.

Overview of Commercial Buildings, 2003

Released: December 23, 2008

The Energy Information Administration conducts the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to collect information on energy-related building characteristics and types and amounts of energy consumed in commercial buildings in the United States.

Computers and Photocopiers in Commercial Buildings

Released: August 12, 2002

Use of computers and photocopiers in commercial buildings, based on 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey data.

A Look at Building Activities in the 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey

Released: July 24, 2002

Profiles of commercial building types, including office buildings, shopping malls, hospitals, churches, and fire stations. Data from the 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.

Trends in the Commercial Buildings Sector

Released: January 12, 2000

Trends in number of buildings, amount of floorspace, and energy consumption from 1979 to 1999.

A Comparison of Measures by Consumption and Supply Surveys

Released: June 15, 1988

This report was prepared in response to a request from the Office of Policy Integration in the U.S. Department of Energy for an analysis of how Energy Information Administration data from its consumption surveys compares with data from its supply surveys.