U.S. Energy Information Administration logo
‹ Consumption & Efficiency

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

‹ BACK TO ALL 2012 CBECS TABLES

Table E9. Fuel oil consumption and energy intensities (Btu) by end use, 2012

Released: May 2016

Total fuel oil consumption
(trillion Btu)
Fuel oil energy intensity1
(thousand Btu/square foot in buildings
using fuel oil for the end use)
  Total Space
heating
Water
heating
Other Total Space
heating
Water
heating
Other
All buildings 133.9 92.5 0.8 40.6 6.6 21.5 0.4 2.5
Building floorspace (square feet)                
1,001 to 5,000 20.8 19.3 Q Q 34.4 46.8 Q Q
5,001 to 10,000 10.2 9.7 Q 0.6 18.3 26.4 Q 2.8
10,001 to 25,000 20.2 17.6 Q 2.5 18.0 24.7 Q 6.4
25,001 to 50,000 14.0 9.7 Q 4.2 9.4 17.1 Q 4.2
50,001 to 100,000 23.5 16.4 Q 6.9 8.3 23.6 Q 3.0
100,001 to 200,000 20.1 14.1 0.1 5.9 7.1 25.8 0.4 2.5
200,001 to 500,000 13.5 2.8 0.0 10.7 2.5 4.6 Q 2.2
Over 500,000 11.6 2.9 0.0 8.7 2.2 7.6 0.1 1.7
Principal building activity                
Education 28.2 22.6 0.1 5.5 12.9 21.5 0.2 4.0
Food sales Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Food service Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Health care 19.6 11.0 0.1 8.5 7.0 22.9 0.3 3.3
Inpatient 16.1 9.5 0.1 6.5 7.1 23.4 0.5 3.1
Outpatient Q Q Q Q 6.7 Q Q Q
Lodging 8.4 Q Q 3.6 4.1 Q Q 2.0
Mercantile 9.4 8.0 Q 1.4 8.4 27.4 Q 1.9
Retail (other than mall) 7.3 6.9 Q Q 16.0 28.3 Q Q
Enclosed and strip malls Q Q Q 1.0 Q Q Q 1.8
Office 18.1 9.0 Q 9.1 3.4 16.1 Q 1.9
Public assembly 6.6 Q Q 2.4 3.9 Q Q 1.6
Public order and safety 2.3 Q Q 1.7 2.5 Q Q 1.9
Religious worship 5.3 Q Q Q 13.7 Q Q Q
Service 16.3 15.4 Q 0.9 22.2 39.3 Q 2.3
Warehouse and storage 5.3 Q Q 2.5 3.0 Q Q 2.0
Other 9.8 Q Q 3.3 13.2 Q Q 6.8
Vacant Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Year constructed                
Before 1920 16.4 15.5 Q 0.5 14.9 24.9 Q 1.3
1920 to 1945 14.4 10.7 Q 3.6 9.9 19.4 Q 3.6
1946 to 1959 18.3 15.3 0.1 2.9 11.9 25.8 0.2 2.9
1960 to 1969 19.7 15.5 0.1 4.1 8.2 22.3 0.3 2.3
1970 to 1979 16.3 9.8 Q 6.4 6.2 16.7 Q 2.9
1980 to 1989 15.7 7.5 Q 8.0 4.1 17.9 Q 2.4
1990 to 1999 13.5 7.4 Q 6.0 4.2 20.3 Q 2.1
2000 to 2003 10.3 Q Q 2.9 7.0 Q Q 2.3
2004 to 2007 3.0 Q Q 2.3 2.0 Q Q 1.7
2008 to 2012 6.3 Q Q 3.7 5.6 Q Q 3.8
Census region and division                
Northeast 89.6 73.2 0.4 16.0 14.7 25.9 0.3 4.3
New England 47.3 41.9 0.2 5.2 25.3 33.0 0.3 6.1
Middle Atlantic 42.3 31.3 0.2 10.8 10.1 20.1 0.3 3.7
Midwest 14.8 9.1 Q 5.7 3.8 13.6 Q 1.7
East North Central 9.6 Q Q 3.7 3.7 Q Q 1.6
West North Central 5.3 3.2 Q 2.0 4.0 Q Q 2.0
South 22.9 8.8 Q 13.8 3.2 12.1 Q 2.2
South Atlantic 16.2 6.8 Q 9.0 3.7 15.8 Q 2.3
East South Central 2.9 Q Q 1.3 3.7 Q Q 1.8
West South Central 3.8 Q Q 3.5 2.1 Q Q 2.1
West 6.6 Q Q 5.1 2.1 Q Q 1.7
Mountain Q Q Q Q 1.8 Q Q 1.7
Pacific 4.7 Q Q 3.4 2.3 Q Q 1.7
Climate region2                
Very cold/Cold 81.4 63.1 0.3 18.0 10.2 26.6 0.3 3.0
Mixed-humid 43.2 29.3 0.5 13.4 5.9 17.6 0.7 2.3
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 2.5 Q Q 2.5 1.5 Q Q 1.6
Hot-humid 5.8 Q Q 5.8 2.3 Q Q 2.5
Marine 1.0 Q Q 1.0 1.5 Q Q 1.5
Number of floors                
One 42.1 31.3 Q 10.6 10.2 22.9 0.5 3.6
Two 32.0 24.5 0.1 7.4 9.5 25.4 0.2 2.9
Three 22.9 19.2 0.1 3.6 11.0 26.6 0.3 2.6
Four to nine 28.5 15.2 Q 12.9 4.6 15.9 Q 2.4
Ten or more 8.5 Q Q 6.2 2.0 8.2 Q 1.6
Number of workers (main shift)                
Fewer than 5 31.2 29.3 Q 1.8 21.0 29.4 0.1 3.8
5 to 9 8.9 8.1 Q 0.4 12.5 23.3 Q 1.3
10 to 19 11.4 9.1 Q Q 14.9 29.4 Q 4.5
20 to 49 16.8 11.3 Q 5.4 9.2 20.9 Q 3.9
50 to 99 21.1 13.9 Q 7.0 6.7 17.8 Q 2.8
100 to 249 22.2 12.3 0.1 9.9 5.5 17.8 0.2 2.8
250 or more 22.3 8.4 0.1 13.8 2.7 13.5 0.3 1.8
Weekly operating hours                
Fewer than 40 9.6 8.6 Q Q 17.9 25.5 Q Q
40 to 48 26.6 21.3 0.0 5.3 10.0 21.2 0.1 3.0
49 to 60 24.9 18.5 Q 6.3 6.4 19.9 Q 2.2
61 to 84 19.6 14.2 Q 5.4 6.3 17.5 Q 2.3
85 to 167 8.8 Q Q 4.5 4.7 Q Q 2.7
Open continuously 44.3 25.5 0.6 18.2 5.5 26.4 1.1 2.4
Ownership and occupancy                
Nongovernment owned 91.1 62.6 0.6 27.8 6.5 22.2 0.6 2.4
Owner occupied 56.5 41.8 0.3 14.4 9.0 24.9 0.4 2.9
Leased to tenant(s) 23.5 16.4 Q 6.7 4.9 22.4 Q 1.7
Owner occupied and leased 10.9 4.2 Q 6.7 3.7 11.2 Q 2.7
Unoccupied Q Q N Q Q Q N Q
Government owned 42.8 29.9 0.2 12.8 7.0 20.2 0.2 2.6
Federal Q Q Q 2.0 Q Q Q 1.9
State 5.3 Q Q 2.5 3.8 Q Q 2.2
Local 34.4 25.9 0.1 8.4 9.4 22.6 0.2 3.1
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
               
Building owner 120.8 83.3 0.8 36.7 6.7 21.1 0.4 2.5
Business owner or tenant 9.6 7.2 Q 2.4 6.8 24.1 Q 2.2
Property management 1.0 Q Q 0.9 2.1 Q Q 2.2
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
               
Building owner 123.1 85.2 0.8 37.1 6.7 20.9 0.4 2.5
Business owner or tenant 6.4 Q Q 2.0 5.6 Q Q 2.1
Property management 1.6 Q Q 0.9 4.6 Q Q 2.8
Other 2.8 Q Q 0.7 6.7 Q Q 1.8
Number of establishments                
One 98.4 74.0 0.8 23.6 8.5 23.9 0.5 2.6
2 to 5 24.6 13.2 0.0 11.3 5.0 16.1 0.1 2.7
6 to 10 5.2 Q Q Q 5.9 Q Q 3.3
11 to 20 1.1 Q Q 0.9 1.2 Q Q 1.2
More than 20 4.4 Q N 2.3 2.3 Q N 1.3
Currently unoccupied Q Q N Q Q Q N Q
Predominant exterior wall material                
Brick, stone, or stucco 59.3 39.2 0.6 19.6 6.7 19.0 0.5 2.7
Concrete (block or poured) 27.9 17.8 0.1 10.1 6.3 21.3 0.3 2.6
Concrete panels 7.1 Q Q 6.1 2.3 Q Q 2.2
Siding or shingles 21.2 19.9 Q 1.1 19.4 30.3 0.4 2.3
Metal panels 13.5 12.0 Q 1.4 11.3 28.8 Q 1.9
Window glass 2.2 Q Q 1.2 2.6 Q Q 1.6
Other Q Q N Q 3.4 Q N Q
No one major type Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant roof material                
Metal surfacing 23.0 20.2 Q 2.7 11.3 25.9 Q 2.1
Synthetic or rubber 39.6 24.3 0.1 15.2 5.0 18.2 0.1 2.3
Built-up 31.5 18.6 0.4 12.5 5.4 18.1 Q 2.5
Slate or tile shingles 4.5 Q Q 1.5 6.2 Q Q 2.4
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
26.8 20.8 0.2 5.8 10.4 26.2 0.5 3.2
Concrete 3.1 Q Q Q 4.9 Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No one major type Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Roof characteristics                
Roof tilt                
Flat 68.2 38.7 0.6 28.9 4.7 15.3 0.5 2.4
Shallow pitch 34.0 26.0 Q 8.0 8.7 27.1 0.5 2.7
Steeper pitch 31.7 27.8 Q 3.7 16.4 34.4 Q 3.2
Cool roof 32.6 21.0 0.1 11.5 5.4 23.2 0.2 2.2
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
               
Any type of renovation 80.3 54.3 0.7 25.3 6.4 20.4 0.5 2.5
Addition or annex 34.1 22.4 0.2 11.6 7.4 20.5 0.3 2.9
Reduction in floorspace Q Q Q 1.0 Q Q Q 2.6
Roof replacement 54.7 39.8 0.2 14.7 7.4 21.3 0.2 2.6
Exterior wall replacement 11.2 8.4 Q 2.8 6.9 19.2 Q 2.2
Interior wall reconfiguration 38.9 22.1 0.5 16.4 5.1 17.0 0.6 2.5
Window replacement 35.0 26.2 0.5 8.4 8.3 23.7 0.6 2.6
HVAC equipment upgrade 48.1 27.4 0.6 20.1 5.5 17.7 0.6 2.7
Lighting upgrade 52.0 31.9 0.5 19.6 6.0 21.2 0.5 2.6
Electrical upgrade 38.1 23.9 0.4 13.8 6.8 19.8 0.6 2.9
Plumbing system upgrade 33.4 22.7 0.4 10.3 6.8 22.2 0.7 2.6
Insulation upgrade 13.2 7.5 Q 5.4 5.3 14.0 Q 2.5
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 39.0 23.5 0.5 15.0 5.8 19.0 0.7 2.6
Structural upgrade 9.3 5.1 Q 4.2 5.3 13.8 Q 2.7
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No renovations 47.3 35.5 0.1 11.7 7.3 23.2 0.2 2.3
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 6.3 Q Q 3.7 5.6 Q Q 3.8
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 133.9 92.5 0.8 40.6 6.6 21.5 0.4 2.5
Natural gas 41.0 17.5 0.1 23.4 3.0 9.4 0.2 2.0
Fuel oil 133.9 92.5 0.8 40.6 6.6 21.5 0.4 2.5
District heat 6.4 Q Q 6.1 2.1 Q Q 2.0
District chilled water 4.4 Q Q 4.3 2.0 Q Q 2.1
Propane 43.1 32.0 0.6 10.5 14.0 25.5 0.7 4.8
Other 8.1 4.1 Q 3.9 7.2 13.3 Q 4.3
Space-heating energy sources                
Fuel oil 103.6 92.5 0.4 10.7 23.8 21.5 0.2 8.3
Fuel oil main 98.3 88.6 0.4 9.3 38.7 34.8 0.3 16.3
Fuel oil secondary 5.3 3.9 Q 1.4 2.9 2.2 Q 1.9
Other excluding fuel oil 28.5 N Q 28.1 1.9 N Q 1.9
Buildings without heating 1.8 N Q 1.8 3.5 N Q 4.3
Primary space-heating
energy source
               
Electricity 9.7 0.4 Q 8.9 2.1 1.0 Q 2.1
Natural gas 16.0 2.1 0.0 13.9 1.8 2.0 0.1 1.8
Fuel oil 98.3 88.6 0.4 9.3 38.7 34.8 0.3 16.3
District heat 5.2 Q Q 5.2 1.7 Q Q 1.8
Propane Q Q N Q Q Q N Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling energy sources                
Fuel oil Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other excluding fuel oil 109.2 69.8 0.7 38.7 5.7 19.7 0.4 2.4
Buildings without cooling 22.2 21.6 Q Q 24.9 31.2 Q Q
Water-heating energy sources                
Fuel oil 59.6 48.5 0.8 10.3 31.2 30.0 0.4 11.5
Other excluding fuel oil 65.6 36.8 N 28.8 3.7 15.0 N 1.9
Buildings without water heating 8.7 7.2 N Q 17.7 33.8 N Q
Cooking energy sources                
Fuel oil Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other excluding fuel oil 74.3 49.6 0.7 23.9 5.9 20.9 0.5 2.3
Buildings without cooking 58.2 42.3 Q 15.8 7.8 22.3 Q 2.8
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
               
Buildings with space heating 132.1 92.5 0.8 38.8 6.7 21.5 0.4 2.4
Buildings with cooling 111.7 70.9 0.7 40.1 5.8 19.7 0.4 2.5
Buildings with water heating 125.2 85.3 0.8 39.1 6.4 20.9 0.4 2.4
Buildings with cooking 75.7 50.2 0.7 24.8 6.0 21.0 0.5 2.3
Buildings with manufacturing 6.4 Q Q 3.4 7.4 Q Q 6.5
Buildings with electricity
generation
67.6 28.9 0.3 38.4 4.0 18.1 0.3 2.4
Percent of floorspace heated                
Not heated 1.8 N Q 1.8 3.5 N Q 4.3
1 to 50 9.5 6.1 Q 3.4 4.7 8.1 Q 2.7
51 to 99 18.2 11.3 0.0 6.9 4.8 18.8 0.1 2.2
100 104.4 75.1 0.7 28.5 7.5 25.5 0.6 2.5
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Heat pumps 12.1 4.4 Q 7.4 4.0 8.6 Q 2.7
Furnaces 7.4 5.9 Q 1.5 8.5 32.2 Q 2.1
Individual space heaters 37.8 27.1 0.1 10.6 6.4 16.6 0.3 2.3
District heat 6.1 Q Q 5.8 2.0 Q Q 1.9
Boilers 80.1 57.3 0.4 22.4 8.6 22.8 0.3 3.1
Packaged heating units 46.1 29.3 0.1 16.8 4.8 16.9 0.2 2.1
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Water-heating equipment                
Centralized system 84.6 63.3 0.7 20.6 7.7 22.3 0.5 2.5
Distributed system 13.5 7.4 Q 6.0 5.4 14.4 Q 3.0
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
27.1 14.6 0.1 12.4 4.4 20.2 0.3 2.2
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
               
Snack bar or concession stand 15.7 7.3 0.1 8.3 3.2 13.9 0.2 1.9
Fast food or small restaurant 8.2 Q Q 5.8 2.3 Q Q 1.7
Cafeteria or large restaurant 42.1 26.6 0.3 15.2 5.9 20.1 0.3 2.5
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
32.5 18.4 0.5 13.6 4.9 16.5 0.8 2.3
Small kitchen area 30.9 22.5 0.1 8.4 6.6 24.7 0.2 2.2
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
               
Economizer cycle 43.1 19.9 0.1 23.0 3.8 13.9 0.2 2.3
Regular HVAC maintenance 111.2 70.9 0.8 39.5 5.9 20.5 0.4 2.5
Building automation system (BAS)3 58.1 28.8 0.2 29.1 4.2 18.3 0.3 2.3
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
               
Heating 92.5 66.9 0.6 25.1 6.5 20.9 0.4 2.3
Cooling 77.9 51.7 0.5 25.6 5.6 19.5 0.4 2.2
Lighting 123.3 85.0 0.7 37.6 6.5 21.0 0.4 2.5
Annual consumption
(gallons)
               
1,000 or less 13.5 8.1 Q 5.3 1.5 5.5 Q 0.8
1,001 to 5,000 32.8 23.8 Q 8.7 6.8 22.8 Q 2.2
5,001 to 10,000 26.1 17.8 Q 8.2 10.3 38.8 Q 3.7
10,001 to 25,000 21.5 13.7 0.0 7.7 9.3 26.8 0.1 3.9
Over 25,000 40.0 29.0 0.2 10.8 26.7 36.6 0.4 8.9
 
1 The fuel oil intensity calculation (fuel oil consumption for the end use divided by the floorspace in buildings that use fuel oil for the particular end use) differs from the calculation used in the 2003 CBECS tables, in which the intensities were not conditional on the presence of the end use; the 2003 CBECS denominator was total floorspace in all buildings that used fuel oil. In this table, the intensities for each end use do not sum to the total fuel oil intensity, whereas they did in the 2003 CBECS table.
2These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
3In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A and F of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.