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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table E8. Natural gas consumption and conditional energy intensities (cubic feet) by end use, 2012

Released: May 2016

Total natural gas consumption
(billion cubic feet)
Natural gas energy intensity1
(cubic feet/square foot in buildings
using natural gas for the end use)
  Total Space
heating
Water
heating
Cooking Other Total Space
heating
Water
heating
Cooking Other
All buildings 2,193 1,307 414 384 89 37.3 26.4 10.5 15.5 9.8
Building floorspace (square feet)                    
1,001 to 5,000 249 119 52 76 Q 66.4 36.0 24.9 92.4 Q
5,001 to 10,000 242 135 38 64 4 50.2 31.0 13.7 51.3 16.5
10,001 to 25,000 297 198 50 46 3 33.6 24.7 8.9 21.4 5.5
25,001 to 50,000 277 187 54 28 8 34.0 25.9 9.5 12.2 9.3
50,001 to 100,000 330 210 70 31 19 33.2 24.7 9.3 6.9 11.7
100,001 to 200,000 283 160 60 38 26 30.1 21.3 8.8 8.1 10.2
200,001 to 500,000 302 189 53 46 14 36.4 27.0 8.9 9.0 6.9
Over 500,000 214 109 36 Q 12 38.6 30.3 12.2 Q 11.0
Principal building activity                    
Education 284 207 53 10 14 29.8 26.0 6.8 1.8 5.5
Food sales 52 28 3 19 Q 61.3 42.2 4.3 32.0 Q
Food service 222 34 39 148 Q 159.2 33.2 38.2 117.6 Q
Health care 258 155 60 32 11 78.5 59.4 23.2 15.9 18.3
Inpatient 214 118 56 30 10 101.1 72.4 33.4 16.2 24.4
Outpatient 45 38 3 Q Q 38.0 38.1 3.8 Q Q
Lodging 215 45 110 Q 6 43.8 14.1 25.8 Q 6.4
Mercantile 284 156 57 64 7 33.5 20.9 10.3 13.2 5.9
Retail (other than mall) 72 61 4 6 Q 21.5 20.0 2.4 5.8 Q
Enclosed and strip malls 212 95 53 59 6 41.3 21.6 13.7 15.0 6.8
Office 275 214 28 Q 12 26.8 25.1 4.7 Q 9.2
Public assembly 132 115 6 9 2 33.9 34.4 2.0 6.2 4.6
Public order and safety 40 21 16 2 Q 39.5 25.2 20.9 3.4 Q
Religious worship 85 65 Q 10 Q 28.1 24.4 Q 5.4 Q
Service 119 96 21 Q Q 42.7 34.7 14.7 Q Q
Warehouse and storage 136 106 10 Q 6 19.4 16.3 2.8 Q 6.9
Other 79 53 2 Q Q 57.2 43.7 2.3 Q Q
Vacant 12 11 Q Q Q 13.9 14.6 1.3 Q Q
Year constructed                    
Before 1920 85 63 6 12 Q 36.8 32.0 4.9 18.6 Q
1920 to 1945 141 95 27 17 3 37.3 29.7 11.4 11.0 9.1
1946 to 1959 195 132 31 26 5 36.1 26.9 8.5 11.5 7.5
1960 to 1969 307 198 58 30 Q 40.6 30.2 10.3 9.0 Q
1970 to 1979 332 184 79 59 10 41.6 28.1 14.1 17.9 9.3
1980 to 1989 327 179 68 66 Q 33.0 22.3 10.9 15.8 Q
1990 to 1999 330 184 59 78 9 36.0 24.1 9.7 17.8 9.1
2000 to 2003 154 98 23 24 9 32.6 26.0 7.4 13.5 7.1
2004 to 2007 167 82 31 Q 6 40.9 23.6 11.0 Q 8.0
2008 to 2012 156 93 30 24 9 40.7 26.7 11.3 16.7 8.1
Census region and division                    
Northeast 487 322 78 62 26 44.0 34.4 10.3 11.6 10.1
New England 108 79 10 11 8 48.1 39.7 6.6 11.3 12.0
Middle Atlantic 379 243 68 51 18 43.0 33.0 11.3 11.6 9.5
Midwest 627 487 75 53 11 41.7 34.7 7.1 9.4 4.8
East North Central 482 376 57 40 9 44.6 37.2 7.2 9.2 4.6
West North Central 145 111 19 14 2 34.3 28.3 6.9 10.2 5.6
South 600 274 151 149 26 30.2 17.8 12.3 17.4 8.9
South Atlantic 298 133 77 76 11 29.8 18.2 13.6 17.2 6.0
East South Central 101 51 27 22 2 29.4 19.0 12.7 14.6 4.9
West South Central 202 91 47 51 Q 31.1 16.6 10.5 19.2 Q
West 479 224 109 120 26 37.6 20.9 12.0 23.1 20.4
Mountain 159 86 25 Q 4 42.3 27.2 9.3 Q 7.5
Pacific 320 137 85 75 Q 35.7 18.3 13.1 21.5 Q
Climate region2                    
Very cold/Cold 1,070 783 129 127 32 43.7 34.9 7.6 13.1 7.0
Mixed-humid 641 350 145 123 22 33.1 22.2 12.2 14.6 7.2
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 249 87 76 69 Q 33.1 13.9 12.8 22.6 Q
Hot-humid 167 47 51 55 Q 31.4 14.3 14.7 19.3 Q
Marine 67 39 13 10 Q 32.7 22.9 10.2 14.1 Q
Number of floors                    
One 896 528 153 189 27 36.6 24.0 9.8 22.2 9.7
Two 499 307 94 81 17 34.0 24.4 9.3 13.6 6.9
Three 219 153 40 19 7 36.0 28.7 8.6 7.9 7.4
Four to nine 432 255 99 48 30 44.3 34.2 13.7 9.2 13.3
Ten or more 147 65 28 Q 8 39.7 29.9 13.4 Q 12.4
Number of workers (main shift)                    
Fewer than 5 258 179 46 29 4 32.8 25.1 9.8 16.3 Q
5 to 9 197 116 36 42 3 36.8 24.9 10.9 38.6 8.0
10 to 19 291 153 56 79 2 42.8 25.9 12.4 52.8 6.0
20 to 49 369 219 68 69 12 34.8 23.7 9.1 15.4 8.5
50 to 99 352 222 74 40 16 34.1 24.8 9.5 7.8 7.6
100 to 249 329 201 52 42 34 37.0 26.8 8.2 8.6 14.0
250 or more 398 216 81 83 18 44.7 35.5 15.2 14.0 9.5
Weekly operating hours                    
Fewer than 40 95 77 9 8 Q 25.6 23.0 3.5 6.2 Q
40 to 48 252 199 32 15 7 25.3 22.2 5.0 5.3 6.0
49 to 60 360 285 36 25 14 25.7 23.4 4.3 6.6 6.7
61 to 84 458 265 76 106 11 39.9 26.7 9.7 18.2 6.6
85 to 167 340 183 51 93 13 50.5 30.7 10.2 29.4 8.5
Open continuously 688 297 211 137 44 53.6 32.6 22.3 17.5 17.5
Ownership and occupancy                    
Nongovernment owned 1,704 966 320 348 70 38.3 25.8 11.4 19.8 11.7
Owner occupied 868 477 169 176 46 42.3 28.4 12.8 21.8 15.0
Leased to tenant(s) 618 342 117 144 15 35.6 22.6 11.1 22.4 8.0
Owner occupied and leased 213 143 33 28 9 34.1 27.1 8.1 9.2 9.0
Unoccupied 4 4 Q Q N 12.5 11.9 Q Q N
Government owned 489 340 94 36 18 34.3 28.3 8.2 5.1 6.0
Federal 29 21 4 3 Q 34.0 31.2 6.7 11.4 Q
State 165 101 39 Q 8 42.0 32.8 12.7 Q 9.7
Local 294 219 50 15 9 31.2 26.4 6.6 2.9 4.4
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
                   
Building owner 1,807 1,103 331 295 78 36.8 27.0 9.9 14.2 10.2
Business owner or tenant 334 176 69 79 10 40.6 23.2 13.4 24.1 7.8
Property management 26 12 9 4 Q 33.3 20.7 16.3 10.3 Q
Other 26 15 5 5 Q 43.0 32.6 14.6 18.0 Q
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
                   
Building owner 1,868 1,137 346 305 80 36.7 26.7 10.0 14.2 10.0
Business owner or tenant 258 134 52 64 8 42.8 24.5 14.1 26.7 8.6
Property management 17 9 4 3 Q 32.3 22.3 10.4 9.7 Q
Other 51 26 12 12 Q 40.9 23.9 14.4 22.7 Q
Number of establishments                    
One 1,490 856 299 272 63 40.1 27.2 11.4 18.7 10.4
2 to 5 418 279 66 56 17 33.6 26.1 8.8 11.7 9.8
6 to 10 105 69 17 17 2 33.8 26.2 9.2 12.4 7.0
11 to 20 110 65 19 23 3 39.7 26.2 9.2 12.7 6.5
More than 20 65 32 13 17 4 22.8 17.3 7.9 7.4 7.4
Currently unoccupied 6 5 Q Q N 14.1 15.4 Q Q N
Predominant exterior wall material                    
Brick, stone, or stucco 1,131 669 232 188 42 39.0 27.6 11.4 13.8 8.5
Concrete (block or poured) 522 287 112 96 27 35.9 23.8 11.6 14.0 11.3
Concrete panels 203 127 25 Q 6 34.2 25.3 6.6 Q 6.6
Siding or shingles 131 75 24 29 Q 45.3 28.0 11.6 34.6 Q
Metal panels 123 101 9 7 Q 28.0 24.9 3.8 10.1 15.5
Window glass 47 30 Q 4 Q 44.4 42.3 Q 8.0 Q
Other Q 7 2 Q Q 46.0 16.6 6.1 Q Q
No one major type 14 11 Q Q Q 30.6 31.2 Q Q Q
Predominant roof material                    
Metal surfacing 235 151 35 40 9 30.1 21.4 7.5 20.4 8.8
Synthetic or rubber 830 523 127 143 37 41.9 30.6 9.5 16.0 10.1
Built-up 568 327 122 87 32 35.5 24.6 10.7 11.2 12.4
Slate or tile shingles 111 49 29 31 Q 39.7 25.4 14.6 25.2 Q
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
40 21 8 10 Q 65.7 42.6 21.1 52.0 Q
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
359 208 81 64 6 36.3 25.3 12.2 16.1 5.5
Concrete 23 11 8 2 Q 27.5 17.8 15.5 7.2 Q
Other 18 8 Q Q Q 32.8 17.8 Q Q Q
No one major type 9 Q Q Q Q 23.5 Q Q Q Q
Roof characteristics                    
Roof tilt                    
Flat 1,420 839 285 230 66 39.6 28.0 11.3 14.1 11.3
Shallow pitch 470 284 66 102 17 32.4 22.7 7.5 21.4 7.5
Steeper pitch 304 184 62 52 6 36.2 26.1 11.2 14.0 6.0
Cool roof 588 324 116 105 42 40.9 27.9 12.0 14.1 15.4
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
                   
Any type of renovation 1,200 714 217 213 56 38.8 27.9 10.6 14.4 12.2
Addition or annex 457 270 75 97 15 45.2 32.3 10.3 16.2 8.5
Reduction in floorspace 68 28 Q Q Q 49.0 31.3 24.1 23.4 Q
Roof replacement 664 403 122 100 40 41.1 30.4 11.0 11.9 16.2
Exterior wall replacement 126 63 24 34 6 37.2 22.9 10.3 18.0 11.6
Interior wall reconfiguration 629 381 101 118 29 39.1 28.8 10.0 15.9 10.5
Window replacement 378 219 65 72 21 40.7 29.0 10.3 16.1 13.0
HVAC equipment upgrade 822 475 149 154 43 40.2 28.1 10.7 14.7 13.4
Lighting upgrade 790 465 137 142 46 40.9 29.1 10.5 14.6 14.5
Electrical upgrade 537 299 85 114 38 43.4 29.9 10.2 17.5 17.8
Plumbing system upgrade 502 266 90 109 37 47.6 30.7 12.1 19.4 21.4
Insulation upgrade 262 139 33 73 18 44.5 29.3 8.5 23.3 19.9
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 555 318 110 87 40 41.9 29.6 11.6 11.9 16.6
Structural upgrade 148 56 20 Q Q 52.1 25.8 11.1 35.8 Q
Other 13 9 Q 1 Q 23.9 21.5 9.4 3.2 Q
No renovations 838 500 167 148 23 35.0 24.4 10.2 17.1 7.1
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 156 93 30 24 9 40.7 26.7 11.3 16.7 8.1
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                   
Electricity 2,193 1,307 414 384 89 37.3 26.4 10.5 15.5 9.8
Natural gas 2,193 1,307 414 384 89 37.3 26.4 10.5 15.5 9.8
Fuel oil 608 355 119 110 25 44.5 34.7 12.5 13.3 15.1
District heat 106 13 Q Q Q 36.9 36.0 Q Q Q
District chilled water 130 33 Q Q Q 53.5 46.2 25.4 Q Q
Propane 143 68 25 Q Q 42.0 25.0 12.1 Q Q
Other 106 66 13 9 Q 40.1 27.9 7.4 7.3 Q
Space-heating energy sources                    
Natural gas 1,923 1,307 316 248 52 38.8 26.4 9.1 12.9 7.4
Natural gas main 1,726 1,240 254 190 42 40.2 28.9 8.3 11.4 6.9
Natural gas secondary 197 66 63 59 9 30.2 10.2 15.3 22.5 10.8
Other excluding natural gas 246 N 83 128 35 28.5 N 19.1 24.5 17.6
Buildings without heating 25 N 14 8 Q 41.1 N 32.2 23.9 Q
Primary space-heating
energy source
                   
Electricity 327 51 122 130 24 28.3 8.7 16.9 22.1 13.9
Natural gas 1,726 1,240 254 190 42 40.2 28.9 8.3 11.4 6.9
Fuel oil 8 Q Q 3 Q 19.0 Q Q 11.9 Q
District heat 103 Q Q Q Q 37.1 Q Q Q Q
Propane Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling energy sources                    
Natural gas 57 35 8 3 11 77.9 49.3 12.4 8.6 15.1
Other excluding natural gas 2,068 1,221 394 378 75 36.8 25.9 10.4 15.7 9.1
Buildings without cooling 68 50 12 4 Q 37.3 30.0 11.2 10.8 Q
Water-heating energy sources                    
Natural gas 1,728 989 414 273 52 43.7 28.5 10.5 14.4 8.5
Other excluding natural gas 428 283 N 111 34 24.5 21.6 N 19.3 12.2
Buildings without water heating 37 35 N Q Q 22.0 20.8 N Q Q
Cooking energy sources                    
Natural gas 1,208 528 259 384 36 48.7 27.5 13.6 15.5 7.8
Other excluding natural gas 200 151 45 N 4 32.0 27.8 10.6 N 4.7
Buildings without cooking 786 627 110 N 48 28.4 25.2 6.8 N 13.8
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
                   
Buildings with space heating 2,169 1,307 400 376 86 37.3 26.4 10.2 15.4 9.6
Buildings with cooling 2,125 1,256 402 381 86 37.4 26.3 10.4 15.6 9.6
Buildings with water heating 2,156 1,271 414 384 87 37.8 26.6 10.5 15.5 9.7
Buildings with cooking 1,408 679 304 384 40 45.4 27.6 13.1 15.5 7.3
Buildings with manufacturing 120 77 12 11 20 32.2 22.7 6.4 14.2 20.8
Buildings with electricity
generation
834 480 156 134 65 41.1 30.3 10.9 11.3 8.1
Percent of floorspace heated                    
Not heated 25 N 14 8 Q 41.1 N 32.2 23.9 Q
1 to 50 120 59 23 35 3 21.0 11.9 6.7 30.5 11.5
51 to 99 432 249 74 92 16 38.8 26.8 10.2 15.7 10.1
100 1,617 999 302 248 67 39.2 28.3 10.6 14.3 9.4
Percent of floorspace cooled                    
Not cooled 68 50 12 4 Q 37.3 30.0 11.2 10.8 Q
1 to 50 408 308 50 40 11 31.3 25.7 6.3 13.4 7.3
51 to 99 651 391 122 114 23 38.0 27.1 10.3 12.6 8.7
100 1,066 557 230 227 52 39.8 26.0 12.3 18.3 10.9
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
                   
Heat pumps 241 106 69 55 11 31.9 17.9 13.6 13.9 9.3
Furnaces 238 158 34 43 4 33.8 23.0 7.1 18.9 6.2
Individual space heaters 532 364 97 53 17 33.6 26.2 9.5 8.8 6.9
District heat 105 13 Q Q Q 37.2 36.8 Q Q Q
Boilers 960 650 189 83 39 48.0 34.4 11.2 7.3 8.8
Packaged heating units 1,327 785 233 268 41 35.3 23.8 9.3 16.8 8.2
Other 53 25 11 14 3 44.1 22.6 9.7 14.9 7.7
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
                   
Residential-type central air
conditioners
406 234 73 82 Q 38.7 24.7 10.1 25.0 Q
Heat pumps 250 115 71 52 12 31.2 17.6 13.3 12.2 9.6
Individual air conditioners 365 217 90 43 15 40.0 29.2 14.1 8.9 10.0
District chilled water 130 33 Q Q Q 53.5 46.2 25.4 Q Q
Central chillers 584 381 115 58 29 42.5 34.1 10.5 6.8 8.5
Packaged air conditioning units 1,286 774 224 242 45 36.8 25.6 9.6 14.9 8.4
Swamp coolers 69 36 15 16 Q 45.1 25.8 11.7 21.1 Q
Other 10 Q Q Q Q 35.0 Q Q Q Q
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
                   
Heating 771 469 157 126 19 36.6 25.2 11.3 14.1 6.5
Cooling 860 519 177 142 22 37.2 26.1 11.5 14.0 7.2
Water-heating equipment                    
Centralized system 1,380 819 276 251 34 40.6 28.1 11.1 19.1 6.7
Distributed system 251 150 37 36 Q 30.5 22.4 9.0 14.6 24.8
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
526 303 101 97 24 35.5 25.3 9.5 10.6 9.0
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
                   
Snack bar or concession stand 355 192 59 91 15 45.2 31.4 10.0 13.5 7.7
Fast food or small restaurant 363 162 70 118 12 43.4 26.6 13.1 15.8 7.9
Cafeteria or large restaurant 572 297 134 120 21 43.9 29.6 12.9 10.5 7.1
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
657 327 167 138 25 46.6 29.3 14.7 10.8 7.7
Small kitchen area 399 237 72 78 12 36.7 26.8 9.1 10.6 6.1
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
                   
Economizer cycle 991 587 168 173 63 40.1 28.0 9.5 12.7 11.7
Regular HVAC maintenance 1,942 1,148 367 343 84 38.3 26.8 10.5 14.8 9.8
Building automation system (BAS)3 1,073 628 194 181 70 38.6 27.9 9.7 11.4 11.1
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
                   
Multipaned windows 1,709 1,028 310 304 67 39.0 27.6 10.4 15.6 9.0
Tinted window glass 1,259 725 237 234 63 38.6 26.1 10.5 15.6 12.5
Reflective window glass 528 290 94 124 20 43.8 28.8 10.9 19.4 9.7
External overhangs or awnings 1,005 534 192 240 40 43.3 27.5 12.1 20.5 11.5
Skylights or atriums 664 368 114 134 48 39.7 27.3 10.3 15.3 13.4
Light scheduling 905 525 157 184 39 39.2 27.4 9.6 14.3 8.7
Occupancy sensors 1,041 631 173 171 66 38.6 28.1 9.4 12.3 11.7
Multi-level lighting or dimming 560 267 112 151 30 47.8 27.9 12.9 19.0 16.2
Daylight harvesting 192 114 25 32 Q 39.1 28.0 7.5 9.9 17.6
Demand responsive lighting 124 64 27 27 6 33.7 19.9 10.5 12.6 7.8
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting3 327 200 50 59 17 34.8 25.2 7.3 9.6 7.3
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
                   
Heating 1,635 1,013 276 277 69 34.9 25.0 8.6 13.8 9.1
Cooling 1,604 972 286 280 66 35.1 25.0 9.2 14.1 9.1
Lighting 2,054 1,236 377 357 83 37.3 26.4 10.1 15.5 9.8
Annual consumption
(hundred cubic feet)
                   
1,000 or less 51 43 5 2 1 7.4 8.1 1.6 3.3 Q
1,001 to 5,000 275 207 34 30 4 20.6 18.0 4.3 10.6 3.8
5,001 to 10,000 232 141 40 46 4 29.0 21.7 8.0 16.0 4.6
10,001 to 25,000 448 237 97 104 10 40.1 25.5 12.5 18.4 6.3
25,001 to 50,000 304 187 66 43 9 42.4 30.1 11.7 11.4 6.0
50,001 to 100,000 278 150 61 53 14 52.7 31.3 13.7 14.2 9.4
Over 100,000 606 342 111 105 47 88.3 57.9 19.8 20.5 27.4
1 The natural gas intensity calculation (natural gas consumption for the end use divided by the floorspace in buildings that use natural gas for the particular end use) differs from the calculation used in the 2003 CBECS tables, in which the intensities were not conditional on the presence of the end use; the 2003 CBECS denominator was total floorspace in all buildings that used natural gas. In this table, the intensities for each end use do not sum to the total natural gas intensity, whereas they did in the 2003 CBECS table.
2These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
3In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A and C of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.