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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table E7. Natural gas consumption and conditional energy intensities (Btu) by end use, 2012

Released: May 2016

Total natural gas consumption
(trillion Btu)
Natural gas energy intensity1
(thousand Btu/square foot in buildings
using natural gas for the end use)
  Total Space
heating
Water
heating
Cooking Other Total Space
heating
Water
heating
Cooking Other
All buildings 2,248 1,339 424 394 91 38.3 27.1 10.7 15.9 10.0
Building floorspace (square feet)                    
1,001 to 5,000 256 122 53 78 Q 68.0 36.9 25.5 94.7 Q
5,001 to 10,000 248 138 39 66 4 51.4 31.8 14.0 52.6 16.9
10,001 to 25,000 304 203 52 47 3 34.5 25.3 9.1 22.0 5.6
25,001 to 50,000 284 192 55 28 9 34.8 26.5 9.7 12.5 9.5
50,001 to 100,000 338 215 71 32 19 34.0 25.3 9.5 7.0 12.0
100,001 to 200,000 290 164 62 39 26 30.8 21.8 9.0 8.3 10.5
200,001 to 500,000 310 194 54 48 14 37.3 27.7 9.1 9.2 7.1
Over 500,000 219 112 37 Q 13 39.6 31.0 12.5 Q 11.2
Principal building activity                    
Education 291 212 54 10 14 30.6 26.7 7.0 1.8 5.6
Food sales 53 29 3 19 Q 62.8 43.3 4.4 32.8 Q
Food service 227 35 40 152 Q 163.2 34.0 39.2 120.5 Q
Health care 265 159 61 32 12 80.5 60.9 23.7 16.3 18.7
Inpatient 219 121 58 30 10 103.6 74.2 34.3 16.6 25.0
Outpatient 46 39 4 Q Q 39.0 39.1 3.9 Q Q
Lodging 221 46 113 Q 6 44.9 14.5 26.5 Q 6.6
Mercantile 291 159 58 66 8 34.3 21.5 10.6 13.5 6.0
Retail (other than mall) 74 63 4 6 Q 22.0 20.5 2.5 6.0 Q
Enclosed and strip malls 217 97 54 60 6 42.4 22.1 14.1 15.4 6.9
Office 282 220 29 Q 13 27.4 25.7 4.8 Q 9.4
Public assembly 135 118 6 9 2 34.8 35.3 2.1 6.4 4.7
Public order and safety 41 22 16 2 Q 40.4 25.8 21.4 3.5 Q
Religious worship 87 67 Q 10 Q 28.8 25.0 Q 5.6 Q
Service 122 98 21 Q Q 43.7 35.5 15.0 Q Q
Warehouse and storage 139 109 10 Q 7 19.9 16.7 2.9 Q 7.0
Other 81 55 2 Q Q 58.6 44.8 2.3 Q Q
Vacant 13 11 Q Q Q 14.3 15.0 1.4 Q Q
Year constructed                    
Before 1920 87 65 6 13 Q 37.7 32.8 5.0 19.1 Q
1920 to 1945 145 97 28 17 3 38.2 30.4 11.7 11.3 9.4
1946 to 1959 199 135 32 27 5 37.0 27.6 8.7 11.7 7.7
1960 to 1969 314 203 60 31 Q 41.6 30.9 10.6 9.3 Q
1970 to 1979 340 188 81 60 10 42.6 28.8 14.5 18.4 9.5
1980 to 1989 335 183 70 68 Q 33.9 22.9 11.2 16.2 Q
1990 to 1999 338 188 61 80 9 36.9 24.7 10.0 18.2 9.3
2000 to 2003 158 100 24 24 10 33.4 26.7 7.6 13.8 7.3
2004 to 2007 172 84 32 Q 6 41.9 24.2 11.3 Q 8.2
2008 to 2012 159 95 30 24 10 41.7 27.3 11.5 17.1 8.3
Census region and division                    
Northeast 499 330 80 64 26 45.1 35.3 10.6 11.9 10.3
New England 111 81 10 12 8 49.3 40.7 6.7 11.6 12.3
Middle Atlantic 389 249 70 52 19 44.1 33.8 11.5 11.9 9.7
Midwest 642 499 77 55 11 42.8 35.6 7.3 9.7 4.9
East North Central 494 386 58 41 9 45.7 38.1 7.3 9.4 4.7
West North Central 149 114 19 14 2 35.1 29.1 7.1 10.4 5.7
South 615 281 155 153 26 30.9 18.2 12.6 17.8 9.1
South Atlantic 305 137 79 78 12 30.6 18.7 14.0 17.7 6.2
East South Central 104 52 27 22 2 30.1 19.5 13.1 14.9 5.0
West South Central 207 93 49 52 Q 31.9 17.0 10.8 19.7 Q
West 491 229 112 123 27 38.6 21.4 12.3 23.6 20.9
Mountain 163 89 25 Q 4 43.4 27.8 9.5 Q 7.7
Pacific 328 141 87 77 Q 36.5 18.7 13.5 22.0 Q
Climate region2                    
Very cold/Cold 1,097 802 132 130 33 44.8 35.8 7.8 13.4 7.2
Mixed-humid 657 359 149 126 22 33.9 22.8 12.5 14.9 7.4
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 255 89 78 71 Q 33.9 14.2 13.1 23.1 Q
Hot-humid 171 48 52 57 Q 32.2 14.6 15.1 19.8 Q
Marine 68 40 13 10 Q 33.6 23.4 10.4 14.4 Q
Number of floors                    
One 918 541 156 194 27 37.5 24.6 10.1 22.7 10.0
Two 511 314 96 83 17 34.8 25.1 9.6 13.9 7.1
Three 224 157 41 19 7 36.9 29.4 8.8 8.1 7.5
Four to nine 443 261 102 50 31 45.4 35.1 14.1 9.4 13.6
Ten or more 151 66 28 Q 9 40.7 30.6 13.8 Q 12.7
Number of workers (main shift)                    
Fewer than 5 264 184 47 29 4 33.6 25.7 10.1 16.7 Q
5 to 9 202 119 37 43 3 37.7 25.5 11.2 39.6 8.2
10 to 19 298 157 57 81 2 43.8 26.6 12.7 54.1 6.2
20 to 49 379 225 70 71 12 35.7 24.2 9.3 15.8 8.7
50 to 99 360 227 75 41 16 34.9 25.4 9.7 8.0 7.8
100 to 249 337 206 54 43 34 38.0 27.5 8.4 8.8 14.3
250 or more 408 221 83 85 19 45.8 36.4 15.5 14.4 9.7
Weekly operating hours                    
Fewer than 40 97 79 9 8 Q 26.2 23.6 3.6 6.3 Q
40 to 48 259 204 33 15 7 26.0 22.7 5.1 5.4 6.1
49 to 60 369 292 37 26 15 26.4 24.0 4.4 6.8 6.8
61 to 84 469 272 78 109 11 40.8 27.4 9.9 18.7 6.7
85 to 167 349 188 52 95 13 51.8 31.5 10.5 30.2 8.7
Open continuously 705 304 216 140 45 55.0 33.4 22.9 17.9 18.0
Ownership and occupancy                    
Nongovernment owned 1,747 991 328 356 72 39.3 26.4 11.7 20.3 12.0
Owner occupied 890 489 174 180 47 43.3 29.1 13.1 22.4 15.3
Leased to tenant(s) 634 351 120 147 16 36.5 23.2 11.3 22.9 8.3
Owner occupied and leased 219 147 34 29 9 35.0 27.8 8.3 9.4 9.3
Unoccupied 4 4 Q Q N 12.9 12.2 Q Q N
Government owned 501 349 96 37 19 35.2 29.0 8.4 5.2 6.1
Federal 30 21 4 4 Q 34.8 32.0 6.9 11.6 Q
State 169 103 40 Q 8 43.0 33.6 13.1 Q 9.9
Local 302 225 52 16 10 32.0 27.1 6.7 2.9 4.5
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
                   
Building owner 1,852 1,131 339 302 80 37.7 27.7 10.1 14.6 10.4
Business owner or tenant 343 181 71 81 10 41.6 23.8 13.7 24.7 8.0
Property management 27 13 9 4 Q 34.2 21.2 16.7 10.5 Q
Other 27 15 5 6 Q 44.1 33.4 15.0 18.5 Q
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
                   
Building owner 1,915 1,165 354 313 82 37.6 27.4 10.2 14.5 10.3
Business owner or tenant 264 138 54 65 8 43.9 25.1 14.4 27.4 8.8
Property management 17 10 4 3 Q 33.1 22.9 10.7 9.9 Q
Other 52 26 12 13 Q 42.0 24.5 14.8 23.3 Q
Number of establishments                    
One 1,527 877 306 278 65 41.1 27.9 11.7 19.2 10.6
2 to 5 429 286 67 58 17 34.5 26.8 9.1 12.0 10.1
6 to 10 107 71 17 17 2 34.7 26.9 9.4 12.7 7.2
11 to 20 112 66 20 23 3 40.7 26.8 9.4 13.0 6.6
More than 20 67 33 14 17 4 23.4 17.7 8.1 7.5 7.6
Currently unoccupied 6 6 Q Q N 14.5 15.8 Q Q N
Predominant exterior wall material                    
Brick, stone, or stucco 1,160 686 238 193 43 40.0 28.3 11.6 14.2 8.7
Concrete (block or poured) 535 294 115 99 28 36.8 24.4 11.9 14.4 11.6
Concrete panels 208 130 26 Q 6 35.1 25.9 6.8 Q 6.7
Siding or shingles 134 77 25 30 Q 46.4 28.7 11.8 35.5 Q
Metal panels 126 104 9 7 Q 28.7 25.5 3.8 10.4 15.9
Window glass 48 30 Q 4 Q 45.5 43.4 Q 8.2 Q
Other Q 7 2 Q Q 47.2 17.0 6.3 Q Q
No one major type 14 11 Q Q Q 31.4 32.0 Q Q Q
Predominant roof material                    
Metal surfacing 241 155 36 41 9 30.8 21.9 7.7 20.9 9.0
Synthetic or rubber 850 536 130 147 38 43.0 31.3 9.7 16.4 10.3
Built-up 582 335 125 89 33 36.3 25.2 11.0 11.5 12.7
Slate or tile shingles 114 50 29 32 Q 40.7 26.0 15.0 25.8 Q
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
41 22 9 10 Q 67.3 43.7 21.7 53.3 Q
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
368 214 83 65 6 37.2 26.0 12.6 16.6 5.6
Concrete 24 12 9 2 Q 28.2 18.3 15.9 7.4 Q
Other 18 8 Q Q Q 33.7 18.3 Q Q Q
No one major type 10 Q Q Q Q 24.1 Q Q Q Q
Roof characteristics                    
Roof tilt                    
Flat 1,455 860 292 236 67 40.6 28.7 11.6 14.5 11.6
Shallow pitch 481 291 68 105 18 33.2 23.3 7.7 21.9 7.7
Steeper pitch 312 189 64 53 6 37.2 26.8 11.5 14.4 6.1
Cool roof 602 332 119 108 43 42.0 28.6 12.3 14.4 15.8
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
                   
Any type of renovation 1,230 732 223 218 58 39.7 28.6 10.8 14.8 12.5
Addition or annex 468 276 77 99 15 46.3 33.1 10.6 16.6 8.8
Reduction in floorspace 70 28 Q Q Q 50.2 32.0 24.7 24.0 Q
Roof replacement 681 413 125 102 41 42.2 31.2 11.2 12.2 16.6
Exterior wall replacement 129 64 24 35 6 38.1 23.5 10.5 18.4 11.9
Interior wall reconfiguration 644 390 104 121 29 40.1 29.6 10.2 16.3 10.8
Window replacement 387 225 67 74 22 41.7 29.8 10.6 16.5 13.3
HVAC equipment upgrade 842 487 153 158 44 41.2 28.8 11.0 15.1 13.7
Lighting upgrade 810 477 140 146 47 42.0 29.8 10.8 15.0 14.9
Electrical upgrade 551 307 87 117 39 44.5 30.7 10.4 18.0 18.3
Plumbing system upgrade 515 273 93 112 38 48.8 31.4 12.4 19.9 21.9
Insulation upgrade 269 142 34 75 18 45.6 30.0 8.7 23.9 20.4
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 569 326 113 89 41 43.0 30.3 11.9 12.2 17.0
Structural upgrade 151 57 20 Q Q 53.4 26.4 11.4 36.7 Q
Other 14 9 Q 1 Q 24.5 22.1 9.7 3.3 Q
No renovations 859 513 171 152 24 35.9 25.1 10.5 17.6 7.2
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 159 95 30 24 10 41.7 27.3 11.5 17.1 8.3
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                   
Electricity 2,248 1,339 424 394 91 38.3 27.1 10.7 15.9 10.0
Natural gas 2,248 1,339 424 394 91 38.3 27.1 10.7 15.9 10.0
Fuel oil 623 364 122 112 25 45.6 35.6 12.8 13.6 15.4
District heat 108 13 Q Q Q 37.8 36.9 Q Q Q
District chilled water 133 33 Q Q Q 54.9 47.3 26.0 Q Q
Propane 146 69 26 Q Q 43.1 25.7 12.4 Q Q
Other 108 68 14 9 Q 41.1 28.6 7.6 7.5 Q
Space-heating energy sources                    
Natural gas 1,971 1,339 324 255 53 39.8 27.1 9.3 13.2 7.5
Natural gas main 1,769 1,271 260 195 43 41.2 29.6 8.5 11.7 7.0
Natural gas secondary 202 68 64 60 9 30.9 10.4 15.7 23.1 11.1
Other excluding natural gas 252 N 85 131 36 29.2 N 19.6 25.2 18.0
Buildings without heating 25 N 15 8 Q 42.1 N 33.0 24.5 Q
Primary space-heating
energy source
                   
Electricity 335 52 125 133 25 29.0 8.9 17.3 22.6 14.2
Natural gas 1,769 1,271 260 195 43 41.2 29.6 8.5 11.7 7.0
Fuel oil 8 Q Q 3 Q 19.5 Q Q 12.2 Q
District heat 106 Q Q Q Q 38.0 Q Q Q Q
Propane Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling energy sources                    
Natural gas 58 36 8 3 11 79.8 50.5 12.7 8.8 15.5
Other excluding natural gas 2,120 1,252 404 388 77 37.7 26.6 10.7 16.1 9.4
Buildings without cooling 70 52 12 4 Q 38.2 30.8 11.5 11.1 Q
Water-heating energy sources                    
Natural gas 1,771 1,013 424 280 54 44.8 29.2 10.7 14.7 8.7
Other excluding natural gas 439 290 N 114 35 25.1 22.1 N 19.8 12.5
Buildings without water heating 38 36 N Q Q 22.5 21.3 N Q Q
Cooking energy sources                    
Natural gas 1,238 542 265 394 37 50.0 28.2 14.0 15.9 8.0
Other excluding natural gas 205 155 46 N 4 32.8 28.5 10.8 N 4.8
Buildings without cooking 805 643 113 N 49 29.1 25.9 6.9 N 14.2
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
                   
Buildings with space heating 2,223 1,339 410 385 89 38.2 27.1 10.5 15.8 9.9
Buildings with cooling 2,178 1,288 412 390 88 38.3 26.9 10.7 16.0 9.9
Buildings with water heating 2,210 1,303 424 394 89 38.8 27.3 10.7 15.9 9.9
Buildings with cooking 1,443 696 311 394 41 46.5 28.2 13.4 15.9 7.5
Buildings with manufacturing 123 79 13 11 20 33.0 23.2 6.5 14.5 21.3
Buildings with electricity
generation
855 492 160 137 66 42.2 31.0 11.2 11.6 8.3
Percent of floorspace heated                    
Not heated 25 N 15 8 Q 42.1 N 33.0 24.5 Q
1 to 50 123 60 23 36 4 21.5 12.2 6.9 31.3 11.8
51 to 99 443 256 76 95 16 39.7 27.5 10.5 16.1 10.3
100 1,657 1,024 310 255 69 40.2 29.0 10.9 14.7 9.7
Percent of floorspace cooled                    
Not cooled 70 52 12 4 Q 38.2 30.8 11.5 11.1 Q
1 to 50 418 315 51 41 11 32.1 26.3 6.5 13.8 7.5
51 to 99 667 401 125 117 24 39.0 27.8 10.5 12.9 8.9
100 1,093 571 236 232 54 40.8 26.7 12.6 18.7 11.2
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
                   
Heat pumps 247 109 71 57 11 32.7 18.3 13.9 14.3 9.5
Furnaces 244 161 35 44 4 34.7 23.6 7.3 19.3 6.4
Individual space heaters 545 373 100 55 17 34.5 26.9 9.7 9.1 7.0
District heat 108 13 Q Q Q 38.1 37.7 Q Q Q
Boilers 984 666 193 85 40 49.2 35.3 11.5 7.5 9.0
Packaged heating units 1,360 805 238 274 43 36.2 24.4 9.6 17.2 8.4
Other 54 25 11 15 3 45.2 23.2 10.0 15.3 7.9
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
                   
Residential-type central air
conditioners
416 239 75 84 Q 39.6 25.3 10.3 25.6 Q
Heat pumps 257 118 73 53 13 32.0 18.1 13.6 12.6 9.9
Individual air conditioners 374 222 92 44 16 41.0 29.9 14.4 9.1 10.3
District chilled water 133 33 Q Q Q 54.9 47.3 26.0 Q Q
Central chillers 598 391 118 60 30 43.5 35.0 10.8 7.0 8.7
Packaged air conditioning units 1,318 793 230 248 46 37.7 26.2 9.8 15.3 8.7
Swamp coolers 71 37 15 16 Q 46.2 26.4 12.0 21.7 Q
Other 10 Q Q Q Q 35.9 Q Q Q Q
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
                   
Heating 790 481 161 129 19 37.5 25.8 11.6 14.4 6.7
Cooling 882 532 181 145 23 38.2 26.7 11.7 14.4 7.4
Water-heating equipment                    
Centralized system 1,414 839 283 257 35 41.6 28.8 11.4 19.6 6.8
Distributed system 257 153 38 37 Q 31.3 23.0 9.2 14.9 25.5
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
539 311 104 99 25 36.4 25.9 9.8 10.9 9.2
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
                   
Snack bar or concession stand 364 196 60 93 15 46.3 32.2 10.2 13.9 7.8
Fast food or small restaurant 372 166 72 121 13 44.5 27.2 13.4 16.2 8.1
Cafeteria or large restaurant 587 305 138 123 22 45.0 30.3 13.2 10.7 7.3
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
673 335 171 141 25 47.8 30.0 15.1 11.1 7.9
Small kitchen area 409 243 74 80 12 37.6 27.4 9.3 10.8 6.3
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
                   
Economizer cycle 1,015 602 172 177 65 41.1 28.7 9.7 13.1 12.0
Regular HVAC maintenance 1,991 1,177 376 351 86 39.3 27.5 10.7 15.2 10.1
Building automation system (BAS)2 1,100 644 198 186 72 39.5 28.6 10.0 11.6 11.4
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
                   
Multipaned windows 1,752 1,054 318 311 69 40.0 28.3 10.7 15.9 9.2
Tinted window glass 1,290 743 243 239 64 39.5 26.8 10.7 16.0 12.8
Reflective window glass 541 298 97 127 20 44.9 29.6 11.1 19.9 9.9
External overhangs or awnings 1,030 547 196 246 41 44.4 28.2 12.4 21.0 11.8
Skylights or atriums 681 377 117 137 49 40.6 28.0 10.5 15.7 13.7
Light scheduling 927 538 161 188 40 40.1 28.1 9.8 14.6 8.9
Occupancy sensors 1,067 647 178 175 67 39.6 28.8 9.6 12.6 12.0
Multi-level lighting or dimming 573 273 115 155 31 49.0 28.6 13.2 19.5 16.6
Daylight harvesting 197 116 25 32 Q 40.1 28.7 7.7 10.1 18.1
Demand responsive lighting 127 65 28 28 6 34.6 20.4 10.7 12.9 8.0
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting3 335 205 51 61 18 35.6 25.8 7.5 9.9 7.4
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
                   
Heating 1,675 1,039 283 284 71 35.8 25.6 8.9 14.2 9.3
Cooling 1,644 996 293 287 68 35.9 25.6 9.4 14.4 9.3
Lighting 2,105 1,267 387 366 85 38.3 27.1 10.4 15.9 10.1
Annual consumption
(hundred cubic feet)
                   
1,000 or less 53 44 5 2 1 7.6 8.3 1.7 3.4 Q
1,001 to 5,000 282 213 34 31 4 21.1 18.4 4.4 10.9 3.9
5,001 to 10,000 238 145 41 48 4 29.7 22.2 8.2 16.4 4.7
10,001 to 25,000 459 243 100 106 10 41.2 26.1 12.8 18.8 6.5
25,001 to 50,000 311 191 67 44 9 43.5 30.9 12.0 11.7 6.1
50,001 to 100,000 285 154 62 54 15 54.0 32.1 14.1 14.6 9.6
Over 100,000 621 350 114 108 48 90.5 59.3 20.3 21.0 28.1
1 The natural gas intensity calculation (total natural gas use for the end use divided by the floorspace in buildings that use natural gas for the particular end use) differs from the calculation used in the 2003 CBECS tables, in which the intensities were not conditional on the presence of the end use; the 2003 CBECS denominator was total floorspace in all buildings that use natural gas. In this table, the intensities for each end use do not sum to the total natural gas intensity, whereas they did in the 2003 CBECS table.
2These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
3In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A and C of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.