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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table E4. Electricity consumption intensities (Btu) by end use, 2012

Released: May 2016

Electricity energy intensity1 (thousand Btu/square foot in buildings using electricity for the end use)
  Total Space
heat-
ing
Cool-
ing
Venti-
lation
Water
heat-
ing
Light-
ing
Cook-
ing
Refrig-
eration
Office
equip-
ment
Com-
puting
Other
All buildings 50.0 1.7 8.3 8.1 0.5 8.7 3.7 9.1 2.1 5.2 9.1
Building floorspace (square feet)                      
1,001 to 5,000 59.4 2.9 8.2 6.5 0.7 8.3 20.4 24.0 3.4 5.9 8.5
5,001 to 10,000 45.5 1.8 6.1 6.1 0.6 7.1 9.9 14.2 2.3 4.7 7.8
10,001 to 25,000 40.0 1.9 5.5 6.0 0.5 6.9 5.0 8.4 2.2 4.1 7.6
25,001 to 50,000 43.5 1.8 7.0 7.4 0.5 8.4 1.9 6.8 1.9 4.3 8.4
50,001 to 100,000 48.1 1.7 8.1 8.1 0.5 8.1 1.8 8.4 2.0 4.5 8.6
100,001 to 200,000 52.3 1.4 8.5 9.5 0.4 9.7 1.6 8.1 1.7 6.0 9.1
200,001 to 500,000 57.7 1.4 11.7 10.0 0.5 10.3 1.7 6.8 1.8 5.9 11.0
Over 500,000 62.9 1.2 13.3 11.8 0.4 11.4 2.3 3.2 2.7 6.9 12.9
Principal building activity                      
Education 37.4 1.6 8.4 5.6 0.7 6.3 0.7 3.6 1.8 6.4 5.4
Food sales 166.1 2.0 5.3 9.4 0.1 12.4 14.8 117.6 1.6 2.0 9.4
Food service 153.2 4.7 18.0 17.2 3.8 10.2 54.3 62.4 4.1 2.7 11.5
Health care 87.9 1.8 17.5 19.9 0.8 14.7 4.2 4.6 4.0 8.2 16.8
Inpatient 105.8 1.6 26.2 19.3 2.3 16.7 4.6 6.0 5.1 9.0 21.1
Outpatient 64.0 2.0 6.4 20.7 0.2 11.9 2.5 2.6 2.5 7.2 11.0
Lodging 52.2 2.1 7.3 8.4 2.3 6.8 4.6 5.7 7.5 1.2 12.8
Mercantile 62.3 1.6 8.2 10.8 0.8 12.4 1.4 18.5 1.6 2.1 8.3
Retail (other than mall) 51.8 1.8 7.6 8.6 0.1 13.3 1.5 11.8 1.3 2.0 8.2
Enclosed and strip malls 72.0 1.5 8.8 12.7 1.3 11.5 1.3 23.6 1.8 2.1 8.5
Office 54.2 1.9 7.6 13.4 0.2 9.2 0.7 2.0 2.3 10.5 8.3
Public assembly 49.4 3.3 17.7 4.4 0.1 6.4 1.8 5.0 1.4 3.0 13.1
Public order and safety 50.7 1.5 11.2 3.7 2.2 10.8 2.2 2.1 2.2 5.4 13.8
Religious worship 17.8 1.1 3.6 2.9 0.1 2.1 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.8 6.2
Service 28.2 1.5 4.3 3.4 0.2 8.4 0.8 1.3 1.0 2.0 8.6
Warehouse and storage 22.6 0.7 3.4 1.2 0.1 7.0 0.1 5.4 0.6 1.5 6.2
Other 96.7 2.5 14.3 8.5 0.1 19.3 Q 8.5 1.3 22.1 25.8
Vacant 15.5 0.8 2.2 3.1 0.0 4.4 Q 1.3 0.5 1.3 6.9
Year constructed                      
Before 1920 28.7 1.3 3.5 5.3 0.2 5.5 2.7 5.0 1.3 3.2 6.6
1920 to 1945 37.4 1.2 6.2 6.2 0.3 6.6 2.2 6.8 1.7 4.4 7.1
1946 to 1959 40.2 1.7 6.4 6.9 0.6 7.1 3.0 6.5 1.7 3.9 8.1
1960 to 1969 49.2 2.1 7.6 7.4 0.6 9.0 3.9 7.9 2.3 5.9 9.5
1970 to 1979 55.2 1.9 8.4 9.6 0.7 9.5 5.2 10.0 2.5 5.9 9.6
1980 to 1989 53.9 1.7 10.1 9.0 0.5 9.0 3.3 9.0 2.2 5.5 9.2
1990 to 1999 55.4 1.9 9.4 8.5 0.6 9.4 4.3 11.1 2.2 5.3 9.7
2000 to 2003 52.8 1.5 8.9 8.7 0.5 9.4 3.9 8.8 2.0 5.7 9.5
2004 to 2007 51.0 1.5 8.4 7.6 0.4 8.9 2.8 11.7 2.5 4.1 9.3
2008 to 2012 53.7 1.5 8.6 8.8 0.4 9.0 4.4 10.9 2.2 4.9 9.6
Census region and division                      
Northeast 49.2 2.4 5.7 9.0 0.4 8.9 3.2 8.9 1.9 5.6 9.4
New England 41.1 2.8 4.0 6.7 0.4 7.3 3.2 9.5 1.7 4.2 8.8
Middle Atlantic 52.2 2.3 6.3 9.8 0.4 9.5 3.1 8.6 1.9 6.1 9.6
Midwest 45.8 2.9 5.7 7.8 0.5 8.5 3.7 7.7 1.9 4.6 9.0
East North Central 47.4 2.9 5.7 8.2 0.5 8.9 3.5 8.0 1.9 4.7 9.4
West North Central 42.5 3.0 5.6 7.0 0.5 7.9 4.0 7.0 1.9 4.5 8.1
South 54.8 1.2 12.3 8.1 0.6 9.1 3.8 9.7 2.3 5.0 9.3
South Atlantic 55.6 1.2 12.0 8.1 0.6 8.8 3.3 10.1 2.5 5.4 9.2
East South Central 49.9 1.7 9.0 7.8 0.5 8.5 4.4 9.2 2.5 4.1 8.5
West South Central 55.7 1.1 14.4 8.2 0.6 9.7 4.6 9.2 1.9 4.8 9.8
West 46.1 1.3 5.7 7.8 0.5 7.8 4.0 9.7 2.3 5.6 8.4
Mountain 47.5 1.7 7.1 8.3 0.5 8.1 3.5 8.3 2.9 5.0 8.5
Pacific 45.5 1.2 5.3 7.6 0.5 7.7 4.3 10.3 2.2 5.8 8.4
Climate region2                      
Very cold/Cold 45.7 2.9 4.8 8.1 0.5 8.4 3.3 8.6 2.0 4.8 9.0
Mixed-humid 51.7 1.8 8.7 8.2 0.5 9.0 3.9 9.0 2.4 5.4 9.1
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 44.3 0.5 7.3 6.8 0.4 7.4 4.7 9.4 2.1 5.6 8.0
Hot-humid 62.7 0.5 18.3 8.9 0.6 9.8 4.0 10.6 2.2 4.7 10.0
Marine 49.8 1.6 3.2 9.7 0.5 8.7 3.0 8.9 2.1 7.6 10.7
Number of floors                      
One 48.9 1.8 7.7 6.7 0.6 8.7 5.7 14.0 1.8 3.8 8.0
Two 44.4 1.7 6.7 7.1 0.4 7.8 2.2 7.4 1.9 5.3 8.0
Three 46.1 1.8 7.4 8.1 0.4 7.9 3.1 5.3 2.3 5.5 9.2
Four to nine 58.7 1.7 11.8 11.7 0.5 9.6 2.8 4.0 2.9 7.2 12.2
Ten or more 62.3 1.3 12.2 12.6 0.3 10.2 2.0 3.1 3.5 7.7 12.4
Elevators and escalators
(more than one may apply)
                     
Any elevators 57.6 1.7 10.8 11.0 0.4 9.6 2.2 4.6 2.6 7.5 11.2
Number of elevators                      
One 45.0 1.7 7.2 8.6 0.4 7.9 1.6 5.0 2.2 5.3 8.5
Two to five 59.7 1.8 10.8 11.0 0.5 9.7 2.4 4.4 2.6 9.6 11.6
Six or more 71.5 1.4 15.7 14.1 0.4 11.6 2.5 4.2 3.4 7.3 14.3
Any escalators 62.0 1.6 12.5 11.8 0.4 11.6 2.2 4.8 3.3 4.6 12.9
Number of workers (main shift)                      
Fewer than 5 29.3 1.9 4.8 3.4 0.4 5.5 4.7 9.0 2.0 2.4 7.2
5 to 9 42.5 1.8 6.3 5.7 0.5 6.8 9.3 10.6 1.9 2.9 7.9
10 to 19 46.9 2.0 6.2 6.4 0.6 7.4 10.0 12.1 2.3 3.4 7.9
20 to 49 51.7 1.7 7.4 7.8 0.6 8.7 4.5 11.1 2.1 5.1 8.5
50 to 99 54.2 1.6 9.1 8.8 0.6 9.5 1.7 9.3 2.0 5.5 8.9
100 to 249 57.8 1.5 9.9 10.0 0.5 10.7 1.5 8.2 1.9 6.3 10.4
250 or more 71.1 1.6 14.1 14.6 0.5 12.1 2.2 4.4 2.8 9.2 13.0
Weekly operating hours                      
Fewer than 40 18.2 1.6 4.1 1.4 0.4 3.1 1.3 3.4 1.4 3.0 5.1
40 to 48 33.5 1.4 6.2 4.8 0.3 6.3 1.0 3.0 1.8 5.5 6.3
49 to 60 39.8 1.8 6.7 6.9 0.3 7.3 1.2 3.7 1.7 6.2 7.4
61 to 84 53.8 1.7 8.6 9.5 0.7 9.0 2.7 11.9 1.6 4.3 8.3
85 to 167 72.9 2.2 10.0 10.2 0.5 11.4 11.2 25.0 1.5 3.1 10.6
Open continuously 73.4 1.7 12.5 12.6 0.8 12.4 5.0 10.6 4.1 6.1 14.9
Ownership and occupancy                      
Nongovernment owned 51.4 1.7 8.0 8.4 0.5 8.9 4.8 10.8 2.2 4.9 9.2
Owner occupied 51.2 1.9 8.6 7.6 0.4 8.8 5.3 10.0 2.5 4.3 9.9
Leased to tenant(s) 52.6 1.7 7.5 9.3 0.6 9.0 5.0 12.5 2.0 5.1 8.4
Owner occupied and leased 51.2 1.3 7.5 8.9 0.4 9.0 2.8 8.6 1.8 6.2 9.0
Unoccupied 8.6 Q 1.7 0.1 Q 1.9 Q Q Q Q 6.2
Government owned 45.2 1.7 9.6 7.3 0.6 8.0 1.5 3.9 1.9 6.0 8.8
Federal 49.2 1.4 9.1 10.9 0.2 9.7 1.3 1.9 1.2 4.8 11.2
State 49.8 2.0 8.6 10.2 0.4 9.3 2.1 4.6 2.4 6.4 10.0
Local 42.6 1.7 10.1 5.5 0.7 7.2 1.4 3.8 1.8 6.0 7.9
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
                     
Building owner 49.0 1.8 8.5 8.1 0.5 8.6 3.4 7.7 2.2 5.4 9.2
Business owner or tenant 55.7 1.5 7.1 8.2 0.6 9.2 5.3 17.6 1.7 3.6 7.9
Property management 50.5 1.3 9.1 9.9 0.3 7.5 4.4 7.2 2.8 6.0 8.5
Other 55.3 1.8 10.2 6.5 Q 8.2 5.9 12.9 2.3 3.0 9.7
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
                     
Building owner 48.8 1.7 8.4 8.0 0.5 8.6 3.4 7.9 2.2 5.3 9.2
Business owner or tenant 59.4 1.7 7.8 8.7 0.7 9.6 6.5 17.9 1.8 4.1 8.5
Property management 46.0 1.8 6.7 9.5 0.4 7.6 4.3 6.8 2.2 4.0 8.0
Other 55.9 1.3 9.1 8.2 0.4 8.2 4.3 17.4 1.9 3.0 8.1
Number of establishments                      
One 48.7 1.9 8.3 7.4 0.5 8.5 4.7 8.6 2.4 5.0 9.2
2 to 5 47.8 1.5 7.3 8.1 0.4 8.2 2.8 9.4 1.7 4.1 8.8
6 to 10 55.7 1.4 7.9 10.5 0.7 8.5 1.5 12.3 1.9 6.5 8.0
11 to 20 63.6 1.7 10.0 12.5 0.7 10.4 1.4 13.1 2.0 5.3 9.1
More than 20 68.6 1.3 12.6 12.4 0.7 12.6 1.3 7.4 1.9 10.2 10.1
Currently unoccupied 7.5 Q 1.6 0.1 Q 1.6 Q Q Q Q 5.5
Predominant exterior wall material                      
Brick, stone, or stucco 51.4 1.8 8.6 8.6 0.6 8.4 3.9 8.2 2.4 5.5 9.2
Concrete (block or poured) 53.9 1.5 9.1 8.2 0.6 9.2 3.3 12.9 2.0 4.2 9.0
Concrete panels 48.7 1.2 7.1 8.3 0.3 9.2 2.7 6.5 2.2 6.2 9.8
Siding or shingles 43.8 2.5 5.8 6.6 0.5 7.1 6.6 10.2 2.1 4.1 8.3
Metal panels 33.5 1.8 6.9 4.5 0.3 8.5 2.0 5.3 1.1 3.3 7.7
Window glass 79.8 2.5 14.0 16.5 0.2 12.8 2.0 5.7 2.5 15.9 13.2
Other 54.7 2.3 9.1 7.7 0.5 7.6 Q 15.9 1.6 5.0 10.3
No one major type 44.7 1.3 5.3 8.2 0.2 8.0 Q 7.2 1.7 4.0 9.4
Predominant roof material                      
Metal surfacing 38.4 1.8 7.4 4.8 0.3 8.0 3.7 8.5 1.6 3.5 7.5
Synthetic or rubber 56.2 2.0 8.5 9.7 0.5 9.6 3.5 9.7 2.2 5.8 10.1
Built-up 54.0 1.5 9.5 9.5 0.6 9.4 3.5 8.7 2.0 5.8 9.2
Slate or tile shingles 47.3 1.5 8.0 7.4 0.9 7.0 4.4 8.8 3.0 5.1 9.6
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
42.8 0.9 6.2 5.6 0.6 6.3 11.4 13.7 2.4 3.4 7.3
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
45.7 1.9 7.0 6.9 0.6 7.4 4.4 8.9 2.5 4.2 8.5
Concrete 64.5 1.1 13.4 11.2 Q 10.3 2.2 8.3 2.4 11.0 11.1
Other 53.8 0.7 9.0 7.8 Q 7.7 Q 14.7 1.6 3.3 10.1
No one major type 27.4 1.2 4.1 3.8 Q 5.4 Q Q 1.0 2.7 6.7
Roof characteristics                      
Roof tilt                      
Flat 56.0 1.7 9.5 9.7 0.5 9.8 3.8 8.8 2.2 5.9 9.9
Shallow pitch 44.2 1.7 6.8 6.3 0.5 7.8 3.9 11.2 1.9 4.3 7.9
Steeper pitch 37.8 1.9 6.3 5.5 0.5 5.8 3.3 6.7 2.5 3.7 7.9
Cool roof 57.2 1.5 9.5 9.5 0.6 9.7 3.1 10.3 2.1 6.0 9.8
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
                     
Any type of renovation 52.8 1.8 8.6 8.9 0.5 8.9 3.5 8.4 2.2 5.7 9.6
Addition or annex 53.8 1.8 10.2 8.7 0.6 9.1 2.5 6.9 2.5 4.6 10.5
Reduction in floorspace 70.0 1.3 13.5 13.2 0.4 13.0 3.2 11.0 2.2 5.6 12.1
Roof replacement 54.1 1.8 8.9 9.5 0.6 9.2 3.3 7.5 2.1 5.9 10.0
Exterior wall replacement 56.8 2.1 9.7 9.1 0.7 8.7 3.0 8.9 2.0 6.8 9.9
Interior wall reconfiguration 57.2 1.8 9.4 10.4 0.5 9.5 2.9 7.3 2.3 7.5 10.1
Window replacement 49.0 1.7 8.2 8.3 0.5 8.0 3.5 5.7 2.5 6.3 9.1
HVAC equipment upgrade 55.4 1.8 9.3 9.5 0.5 9.2 3.0 8.0 2.2 6.1 10.0
Lighting upgrade 55.0 1.7 9.0 9.3 0.5 9.0 3.6 8.7 2.2 5.9 9.7
Electrical upgrade 56.1 1.8 9.5 9.4 0.6 9.0 3.6 8.2 2.3 6.5 10.4
Plumbing system upgrade 54.9 1.7 8.8 9.5 0.6 8.5 4.0 7.6 2.6 6.5 10.1
Insulation upgrade 56.8 1.9 9.5 8.8 0.6 8.4 3.6 9.8 2.6 7.1 10.1
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 56.1 1.8 9.9 9.7 0.5 8.8 3.5 7.4 2.3 6.8 10.0
Structural upgrade 60.0 1.6 11.6 9.0 0.4 8.9 3.0 8.2 2.9 7.7 11.7
Other 52.2 1.3 10.7 10.5 0.3 9.2 Q 4.5 2.1 7.7 9.1
No renovations 46.2 1.7 7.9 7.1 0.5 8.4 3.8 9.7 2.1 4.5 8.4
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 53.7 1.5 8.6 8.8 0.4 9.0 4.4 10.9 2.2 4.9 9.6
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                     
Electricity 50.0 1.7 8.3 8.1 0.5 8.7 3.7 9.1 2.1 5.2 9.1
Natural gas 52.5 1.6 8.3 8.5 0.6 8.8 3.7 9.8 2.2 5.0 9.3
Fuel oil 64.5 1.9 12.3 11.3 0.5 11.1 2.5 6.1 2.6 8.0 12.8
District heat 59.1 1.6 7.3 14.1 0.6 11.5 2.8 4.0 3.3 6.9 14.1
District chilled water 63.3 1.8 7.7 14.7 0.9 12.8 3.6 4.2 3.5 8.8 15.4
Propane 49.0 2.7 7.1 6.3 0.4 8.3 4.2 11.1 2.4 3.1 9.7
Other 44.7 1.4 7.5 8.2 0.3 7.9 2.0 7.1 1.4 4.2 8.1
Space-heating energy sources                      
Electricity 53.9 1.7 8.8 8.3 0.6 8.9 3.5 9.8 2.2 5.2 9.0
Electricity main 57.2 2.0 10.2 8.2 0.6 9.1 4.0 10.3 2.5 6.0 9.3
Electricity secondary 50.0 1.4 7.2 8.4 0.5 8.6 3.0 9.4 1.9 4.4 8.6
Other excluding electricity 46.6 N 6.9 8.1 0.4 8.5 4.1 7.8 2.1 5.2 9.4
Buildings without heating 32.0 N 15.1 4.6 0.3 7.3 4.2 10.6 1.5 3.1 7.7
Primary space-heating
energy source
                     
Electricity 57.2 2.0 10.2 8.2 0.6 9.1 4.0 10.3 2.5 6.0 9.3
Natural gas 48.5 1.2 7.3 7.9 0.5 8.4 3.6 9.3 1.9 4.8 8.7
Fuel oil 31.8 2.6 4.7 4.7 0.3 6.8 1.5 4.2 1.7 3.7 7.6
District heat 59.5 1.6 7.3 14.2 0.6 11.7 2.9 4.1 3.2 7.0 14.3
Propane 31.3 3.4 3.0 3.2 0.2 4.7 9.6 10.3 1.3 1.6 5.8
Other 27.2 Q 1.7 3.6 0.2 6.5 Q 4.2 1.7 2.4 6.9
Cooling energy sources                      
Electricity 52.0 1.7 8.3 8.1 0.5 8.7 3.7 9.3 2.1 5.1 9.0
Other excluding electricity 59.1 1.6 N 14.1 0.7 12.6 5.1 4.5 3.9 9.0 14.7
Buildings without cooling 16.8 1.3 N 1.0 0.3 5.2 3.2 8.4 1.0 1.8 6.5
Water-heating energy sources                      
Electricity 51.8 1.8 8.4 8.0 0.5 8.9 2.9 9.9 1.8 5.4 8.5
Other excluding electricity 52.7 1.8 8.5 8.9 N 8.8 4.7 8.6 2.7 5.0 10.0
Buildings without water heating 19.4 0.7 5.3 2.7 N 5.7 Q 2.5 1.2 3.1 7.0
Cooking energy sources                      
Electricity 61.5 1.9 10.2 9.2 0.7 8.7 3.7 12.4 2.2 4.9 9.1
Other excluding electricity 62.9 1.6 10.7 10.0 0.9 9.0 N 16.1 2.9 3.8 10.1
Buildings without cooking 40.0 1.6 6.4 6.9 0.3 8.5 N 4.0 1.9 5.7 8.8
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
                     
Buildings with space heating 51.0 1.7 8.1 8.2 0.5 8.7 3.7 9.1 2.2 5.2 9.1
Buildings with cooling 52.3 1.7 8.3 8.4 0.5 8.9 3.7 9.1 2.2 5.3 9.2
Buildings with water heating 52.2 1.8 8.4 8.4 0.5 8.8 3.7 9.3 2.2 5.2 9.2
Buildings with cooking 62.0 1.8 10.4 9.5 0.7 8.8 3.7 13.7 2.5 4.6 9.4
Buildings with manufacturing 44.9 1.3 7.1 5.7 0.3 9.7 3.8 7.1 1.0 3.2 11.2
Buildings with electricity
generation
65.2 1.7 11.5 11.2 0.6 10.7 2.6 8.5 2.5 7.6 11.9
Percent of floorspace heated                      
Not heated 32.0 N 15.1 4.6 0.3 7.3 4.2 10.6 1.5 3.1 7.7
1 to 50 33.0 0.5 4.2 3.7 0.2 6.3 3.5 7.8 1.2 4.3 7.3
51 to 99 54.5 1.3 9.0 8.8 0.6 9.0 3.2 11.7 2.0 4.2 9.0
100 53.4 2.1 8.6 8.9 0.6 9.1 3.8 8.5 2.4 5.7 9.5
Percent of floorspace cooled                      
Not cooled 16.8 1.3 N 1.0 0.3 5.2 3.2 8.4 1.0 1.8 6.5
1 to 50 27.6 1.1 2.2 3.5 0.2 6.5 2.0 5.1 1.0 2.2 7.0
51 to 99 57.2 1.7 8.7 9.4 0.6 9.1 3.2 10.9 2.2 6.2 9.5
100 61.7 2.1 11.3 10.2 0.6 9.9 4.5 9.9 2.8 6.2 10.2
Percent lit when open                      
Zero 10.7 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q 8.0
1 to 50 30.7 1.3 5.0 5.3 0.4 4.0 2.6 5.0 2.0 2.5 8.5
51 to 99 51.5 1.7 8.2 8.6 0.6 8.2 3.4 9.6 2.1 5.2 8.9
100 57.2 1.9 9.6 8.8 0.5 10.8 4.2 9.9 2.2 6.0 9.6
Building never open/electricity
not used
7.8 1.3 2.1 0.1 Q Q Q Q Q Q 4.7
Percent lit during off hours                      
Zero 32.0 1.7 5.6 5.0 0.3 5.4 2.3 5.3 1.5 4.6 6.7
1 to 50 52.7 1.7 8.8 8.6 0.6 9.1 3.5 9.2 2.1 5.1 9.1
51 to 100 81.2 1.8 12.0 12.9 0.7 14.2 7.0 16.1 3.5 7.1 14.5
Building always open with
no "off hours"
87.0 1.4 13.8 13.7 0.5 15.1 5.6 20.0 4.8 5.8 15.5
Electricity not used N N N N N N N N N N N
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Heat pumps 51.7 1.3 9.6 7.3 0.6 8.2 2.2 8.1 2.9 5.3 8.8
Furnaces 41.9 2.2 5.6 6.1 0.4 6.7 4.4 8.9 2.1 3.9 7.3
Individual space heaters 44.6 1.8 6.5 7.2 0.5 8.1 2.7 7.1 2.1 4.3 8.6
District heat 59.1 1.6 7.3 14.0 0.6 11.6 2.8 4.0 3.3 6.9 14.1
Boilers 53.2 1.3 9.8 9.4 0.5 8.8 2.1 5.8 2.4 6.2 10.2
Packaged heating units 53.5 1.8 8.4 8.5 0.5 8.8 4.4 11.2 1.9 4.7 8.8
Other 83.3 3.1 6.0 11.3 0.7 9.8 4.0 39.8 1.2 2.1 8.4
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Residential-type central air
conditioners
43.1 1.7 6.3 5.1 0.5 7.3 3.2 11.1 2.0 3.4 7.5
Heat pumps 51.4 1.3 9.0 7.4 0.6 8.3 2.0 8.5 2.7 5.4 8.6
Individual air conditioners 44.0 1.7 7.1 6.5 0.6 7.2 2.7 6.2 2.8 4.0 8.6
District chilled water 63.3 1.8 7.7 14.7 0.9 12.8 3.6 4.2 3.5 8.8 15.4
Central chillers 65.7 1.5 12.8 12.3 0.4 10.6 2.2 4.9 2.5 8.7 12.4
Packaged air conditioning units 54.9 1.7 8.7 9.2 0.5 9.0 4.3 11.0 1.9 4.6 8.9
Swamp coolers 51.1 1.9 6.9 7.4 0.6 8.4 7.5 13.3 1.7 3.0 7.9
Other 97.8 Q 11.9 15.2 Q 15.4 Q 4.5 1.3 Q 14.2
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
                     
Heating 48.0 1.8 7.5 7.3 0.6 7.8 3.7 9.1 2.2 5.2 8.2
Cooling 49.5 1.8 8.0 7.7 0.6 7.9 3.5 8.5 2.3 5.4 8.5
Water-heating equipment                      
Centralized system 52.3 2.0 8.4 8.3 0.6 8.8 4.8 9.0 2.4 5.1 9.6
Distributed system 42.5 1.5 6.8 6.6 0.3 8.3 2.8 7.1 1.5 4.5 7.8
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
58.7 1.5 9.7 9.8 0.6 9.4 2.2 11.3 2.0 6.0 9.1
Lighting equipment types
(more than one may apply)
                     
Incandescent 54.3 1.7 9.5 8.9 0.6 8.9 3.1 9.6 2.3 5.0 9.4
Standard fluorescent 51.0 1.7 8.4 8.3 0.5 8.7 3.6 9.1 2.1 5.2 9.2
Compact fluorescent 56.4 1.8 9.7 9.5 0.6 9.2 3.6 9.0 2.4 5.8 9.7
High-intensity discharge (HID) 55.7 1.5 10.2 9.3 0.5 9.8 2.2 8.7 2.1 4.9 10.1
Halogen 58.2 1.7 9.8 9.7 0.6 9.5 3.1 10.3 2.3 5.0 10.0
LED 64.1 1.7 11.0 11.2 0.6 10.0 2.9 11.9 2.4 5.3 10.9
Other 72.9 Q 12.9 12.1 Q 9.8 3.6 13.9 3.0 5.4 11.8
Refrigeration equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Any refrigeration 53.3 1.7 8.6 8.5 0.5 8.8 3.7 9.1 2.2 5.1 9.2
Walk-in units 72.9 1.8 11.6 10.9 0.8 10.0 4.8 19.3 2.6 4.7 10.3
Cases or cabinets 69.2 1.8 10.4 10.7 0.8 9.8 4.3 18.2 2.4 4.5 10.0
Large cold storage areas 80.1 1.1 9.6 8.8 0.6 10.0 4.1 34.7 1.7 3.1 9.8
Commercial ice makers 68.1 1.8 11.5 10.9 0.7 10.0 4.4 14.0 2.8 5.3 10.6
Residential-type or compact units 49.8 1.7 8.3 8.3 0.5 8.6 2.8 6.6 2.1 5.4 9.1
Vending machines 57.6 1.7 9.7 9.8 0.6 10.0 2.4 8.6 2.3 5.6 10.2
No refrigeration 28.3 1.6 5.8 4.9 0.3 7.6 Q N 1.7 5.2 7.9
Office equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Desktop computers 52.1 1.7 8.4 8.4 0.5 8.9 3.6 8.9 2.1 5.2 9.2
With flat screen monitors 52.2 1.7 8.5 8.5 0.5 8.9 3.6 8.9 2.1 5.2 9.2
With multiple monitors 57.7 1.6 9.8 10.4 0.5 9.6 2.4 7.3 2.2 7.5 10.0
Laptop computers 52.0 1.7 8.9 8.8 0.5 9.0 2.3 7.3 2.1 5.7 9.4
Dedicated servers 55.5 1.7 9.1 9.3 0.5 9.3 2.7 8.5 2.2 6.4 9.5
Laser printers 53.8 1.7 8.7 9.0 0.5 9.1 2.9 8.6 2.3 5.8 9.4
Inkjet printers 49.3 1.8 8.3 7.6 0.5 8.4 4.2 8.5 1.8 4.5 8.8
FAX machines 52.7 1.7 8.5 8.7 0.5 9.2 3.1 8.9 2.1 5.2 9.2
Photocopiers 52.3 1.7 8.8 8.9 0.5 9.1 2.1 7.0 2.2 5.8 9.5
Number of desktop computers                      
None 28.6 2.2 6.3 3.7 0.6 5.5 7.2 12.3 2.6 Q 7.5
1 to 4 44.7 1.8 5.8 5.4 0.5 6.8 11.9 14.3 1.9 1.4 8.2
5 to 9 48.4 1.7 6.5 6.6 0.5 8.2 5.2 13.0 2.1 2.8 8.5
10 to 19 46.9 1.8 6.4 7.5 0.5 8.4 2.9 9.5 1.8 4.4 8.3
20 to 49 54.7 1.7 8.9 9.0 0.6 10.0 2.2 10.1 2.2 4.2 9.6
50 to 99 49.2 1.9 8.7 8.8 0.5 9.3 1.6 5.9 1.9 5.0 8.7
100 to 249 56.0 1.5 8.8 10.1 0.6 10.4 1.4 5.1 2.5 8.4 10.3
250 or more 65.5 1.4 14.3 12.6 0.3 10.1 1.7 3.1 2.4 11.5 10.9
Number of laptop computers                      
None 43.9 1.9 6.2 5.9 0.5 7.6 10.6 15.9 2.2 2.8 8.1
1 to 4 44.0 1.9 6.8 6.0 0.5 7.8 4.4 9.8 1.9 2.8 8.3
5 to 9 51.6 1.4 8.2 8.9 0.6 9.7 2.4 9.5 1.9 3.9 9.1
10 to 19 53.4 1.9 9.5 9.4 0.6 9.0 2.0 8.1 2.0 4.6 9.3
20 to 49 54.5 1.5 8.3 9.9 0.6 9.4 1.8 6.1 2.6 7.6 9.9
50 to 99 55.7 1.6 11.1 10.1 0.4 9.8 1.6 4.3 2.0 7.1 10.5
100 to 249 59.0 1.4 11.2 11.1 0.4 9.6 1.4 3.4 2.3 11.7 10.2
250 or more 67.1 1.7 14.3 13.1 0.4 10.3 1.5 3.3 2.7 10.8 11.3
Number of dedicated servers                      
None 40.5 1.9 6.8 5.9 0.6 7.5 6.4 10.3 2.1 2.5 8.3
1 to 4 49.7 1.7 7.4 7.8 0.5 8.7 3.4 9.8 2.0 4.0 8.7
5 to 9 55.0 1.6 8.9 9.5 0.7 9.4 1.8 9.2 2.0 5.6 9.0
10 to 19 65.3 1.6 12.3 13.0 0.4 11.0 1.9 6.3 2.8 8.9 11.3
20 to 49 63.7 1.7 13.8 11.9 0.3 10.5 1.8 3.6 2.4 9.6 10.8
50 or more 88.0 1.6 17.1 14.5 0.4 11.9 2.0 4.1 2.7 23.3 14.0
Number of photocopiers                      
None 44.6 1.9 7.0 6.1 0.6 7.6 10.6 15.3 1.9 3.1 8.1
One 42.9 1.7 6.3 6.0 0.5 7.4 3.3 9.3 1.8 2.9 8.3
2 to 4 49.1 1.8 7.9 8.2 0.5 8.8 1.6 7.3 2.2 5.2 8.5
5 to 9 55.5 1.5 9.1 9.5 0.6 10.3 1.4 6.8 1.9 7.5 9.3
10 or more 67.3 1.5 13.9 13.4 0.4 11.0 2.0 3.9 3.0 9.5 12.5
Number of TVs or video displays                      
None 34.5 1.6 5.1 4.9 0.3 6.9 6.6 9.3 0.8 4.2 7.5
One 41.2 1.5 5.2 6.0 0.3 7.5 5.7 9.6 1.3 3.4 7.7
2 to 4 48.9 1.7 7.8 7.6 0.5 8.9 4.6 9.2 1.6 4.2 8.9
5 to 9 62.9 2.5 10.1 9.9 0.6 9.6 5.4 11.8 2.0 7.3 9.6
10 to 19 61.3 1.7 10.7 11.1 0.7 10.3 2.8 9.8 2.0 6.7 9.7
20 to 49 59.1 1.6 10.3 10.6 0.8 10.0 1.3 9.5 2.6 5.8 8.9
50 to 99 60.3 2.0 9.8 9.9 0.9 9.9 1.7 6.7 4.3 8.7 10.4
100 or more 67.3 1.4 14.3 11.5 0.6 9.6 3.3 5.5 6.1 4.9 13.8
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
                     
Snack bar or concession stand 65.9 1.7 12.8 10.0 0.6 9.4 2.1 13.3 2.6 5.2 10.4
Fast food or small restaurant 78.2 1.3 12.6 12.4 0.8 11.6 2.3 20.6 3.0 4.4 11.3
Cafeteria or large restaurant 58.5 1.6 12.4 10.2 0.6 9.1 1.8 6.9 2.7 5.7 9.9
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
61.7 1.7 11.5 9.7 0.7 8.8 2.3 12.4 2.9 4.0 10.2
Small kitchen area 49.3 1.6 9.5 7.5 0.5 7.3 1.8 7.7 2.4 4.0 9.1
Separate computer areas
(more than one may apply)
                     
Data center or server farm 73.3 1.9 16.2 12.7 0.3 11.2 1.9 4.3 2.8 13.6 12.4
Computer-based training room 57.7 1.5 11.3 10.0 0.5 9.8 1.6 7.1 2.2 6.9 9.5
Student or public computer center 48.3 1.7 9.8 7.9 0.7 7.7 1.6 5.7 2.5 5.5 8.3
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
                     
Economizer cycle 59.8 1.8 9.6 11.1 0.5 10.2 2.7 8.3 2.2 6.5 10.7
Regular HVAC maintenance 54.6 1.7 8.9 9.0 0.5 9.3 3.6 9.2 2.2 5.6 9.6
Building automation system (BAS)3 61.7 1.7 10.9 10.9 0.5 10.3 2.4 8.9 2.2 6.9 10.8
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
                     
Multipaned windows 53.1 1.9 8.4 8.7 0.6 8.9 3.8 9.5 2.3 5.4 9.3
Tinted window glass 55.2 1.6 9.5 9.2 0.6 9.4 3.2 9.1 2.2 5.6 9.6
Reflective window glass 64.7 1.8 11.3 11.1 0.5 10.3 2.5 10.5 2.6 7.6 10.5
External overhangs or awnings 58.5 1.7 9.3 9.3 0.7 9.3 4.6 13.0 2.3 5.1 9.3
Skylights or atriums 51.2 1.4 9.1 9.4 0.5 9.0 2.2 7.0 2.1 4.9 9.7
Light scheduling 61.0 1.7 10.0 10.6 0.6 9.4 2.9 11.6 2.3 6.2 10.0
Occupancy sensors 57.9 1.6 9.8 10.2 0.5 9.2 2.4 9.3 2.2 6.4 10.4
Multi-level lighting or dimming 63.9 1.9 10.7 11.1 0.6 9.1 3.1 13.1 2.7 5.0 10.6
Daylight harvesting 60.7 1.6 10.4 11.3 0.6 9.9 2.6 10.8 2.0 4.8 10.7
Demand responsive lighting 57.4 1.4 8.8 9.6 0.8 9.4 1.8 14.8 2.1 3.5 8.7
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting3 67.6 1.6 11.1 12.0 0.7 10.8 2.3 14.1 1.7 5.9 10.4
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
                     
Heating 48.2 1.8 8.0 8.0 0.5 8.1 2.9 8.5 1.9 4.9 8.4
Cooling 49.2 1.7 8.3 8.1 0.5 8.2 3.0 8.4 1.9 4.9 8.4
Lighting 49.4 1.7 8.2 8.1 0.5 8.5 3.5 8.6 2.1 5.0 8.9
Annual consumption
(kilowatthours)
                     
10,000 or less 4.5 0.7 1.1 0.4 0.1 1.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.7 1.9
10,001 to 50,000 16.2 1.1 2.4 2.0 0.2 3.4 1.1 1.6 1.1 2.1 4.3
50,001 to 100,000 28.0 1.7 4.0 3.7 0.3 5.4 3.1 4.2 1.6 3.3 6.4
100,001 to 500,000 45.3 1.8 6.0 6.3 0.5 7.4 6.7 11.5 2.2 3.9 7.7
500,001 to 1,000,000 55.9 1.9 8.6 8.8 0.8 8.7 6.3 9.5 2.8 5.6 9.3
1,000,001 to 5,000,000 62.3 1.7 9.7 10.8 0.5 10.8 2.7 12.2 2.1 5.2 10.4
Over 5,000,000 88.5 2.0 18.7 15.5 0.7 15.2 2.5 8.3 2.9 10.7 16.7
 
1The electricity intensity calculation (electricity consumption for the end use divided by the floorspace in buildings that use electricity for the particular end use) differs from the calculation used in the 2003 CBECS tables, in which the intensities were not conditional on the presence of the end use; the 2003 CBECS denominator was total floorspace in all buildings that used electricity. In this table, the intensities for each end use do not sum to the total electricity intensity, whereas they did in the 2003 CBECS table.
2These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
3In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Site electricity is the amount of electricity delivered to commercial builidngs. Primary electricity, which is not included in the Total of major fuelscategory, is site electricity plus the conversion losses in the generation, transmission, and distribution processes. • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A and E of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.