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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table E11. District heat consumption and energy intensities (Btu) by end use, 2012

Released: May 2016

Total district heat consumption
(trillion Btu)
District heat energy intensity1
(thousand Btu/square foot in buildings
using district heat for the end use)
  Total Space
heating
Water
heating
Cooking Other Total Space
heating
Water
heating
Cooking Other
All buildings 341 240 60 29 Q 57.1 40.5 13.2 30.5 48.8
Building floorspace (square feet)                    
1,001 to 25,000 13 11 Q Q N 75.0 67.1 Q Q N
25,001 to 100,000 69 51 11 Q Q 74.8 56.1 19.1 Q Q
100,001 to 500,000 165 118 30 Q Q 57.5 41.3 13.2 33.9 Q
Over 500,000 94 58 18 15 Q 46.9 29.6 10.9 28.4 Q
Principal building activity                    
Education 65 54 10 Q Q 56.2 47.0 12.3 Q Q
Health care 68 36 19 11 Q 99.3 53.6 33.7 38.9 Q
Lodging 31 9 20 Q Q 49.4 13.8 35.2 Q Q
Office 76 56 5 Q Q 42.3 31.5 3.4 Q Q
Public assembly 64 58 1 Q Q 71.8 65.4 1.1 Q Q
All others 37 26 Q Q Q 45.6 33.2 Q Q Q
Year constructed                    
Before 1945 65 51 8 Q Q 45.7 36.0 6.7 Q Q
1946 to 1979 168 112 28 Q Q 70.8 47.2 15.1 34.3 Q
1980 to 1999 40 27 8 Q Q 36.3 25.1 12.5 Q Q
2000 to 2012 68 49 16 Q Q 63.2 47.1 18.5 Q Q
Census region                    
Northeast 119 83 17 Q Q 60.0 41.8 10.2 34.6 Q
Midwest 58 40 13 Q Q 63.8 44.1 17.2 Q Q
South 119 87 17 10 Q 54.2 40.0 10.8 28.8 Q
West 45 30 Q Q Q 51.0 34.8 22.5 Q Q
Climate region2                    
Very cold/Cold 137 102 26 8 Q 71.3 52.8 17.3 29.5 Q
Mixed-humid 152 103 25 Q Q 50.4 34.2 10.7 30.7 Q
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry Q Q Q Q N 53.8 Q Q Q N
Hot-humid 18 10 3 Q Q 48.8 27.1 Q Q Q
Marine Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Number of floors                    
One Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N
Two Q Q Q Q N 67.7 46.5 Q Q N
Three 47 39 4 Q Q 87.3 71.1 12.2 Q Q
Four to nine 173 123 31 13 Q 61.1 44.2 13.6 32.9 Q
Ten or more 77 46 22 6 Q 40.7 24.3 14.3 22.3 Q
Number of workers (main shift)                    
Fewer than 10 10 8 Q N N 34.5 25.5 Q N N
10 to 99 93 73 14 Q Q 62.3 49.5 15.8 Q Q
100 or more 238 159 43 27 Q 56.9 38.3 12.2 30.6 Q
Weekly operating hours                    
Fewer than 48 22 21 Q N Q 38.0 35.7 Q N Q
49 to 84 81 66 11 Q Q 41.5 34.4 7.9 Q Q
85 to 167 58 49 4 Q Q 92.6 77.7 7.5 Q Q
Open continuously 180 104 44 25 Q 63.8 37.2 18.6 32.9 Q
Ownership and occupancy                    
Nongovernment owned 168 116 39 10 Q 53.5 37.1 15.1 32.3 Q
Owner occupied 115 82 26 5 Q 62.5 45.1 16.4 31.6 Q
Leased to tenant(s) 25 15 Q Q Q 34.8 21.2 Q Q Q
Owner occupied and leased 27 18 6 Q Q 48.9 31.8 11.9 Q Q
Unoccupied Q Q N N N Q Q N N N
Government owned 173 124 21 Q Q 61.1 44.2 10.6 29.5 Q
Federal 27 17 3 Q Q 37.5 24.7 3.7 Q Q
State 105 79 14 Q Q 68.2 51.9 13.4 Q Q
Local 41 28 Q Q Q 70.9 47.5 17.4 Q Q
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
                   
Building owner 324 232 58 26 Q 56.1 40.4 13.2 29.7 Q
Business owner or tenant Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Property management Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N
Other Q Q Q N N Q Q Q N N
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
                   
Building owner 325 233 58 26 Q 56.6 40.9 13.3 31.1 Q
Business owner or tenant Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Property management Q Q Q N N Q Q Q N N
Other Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N
Number of establishments                    
One 208 148 38 Q Q 61.1 43.7 14.3 26.9 Q
2 to 5 98 66 18 9 Q 67.5 45.6 14.8 36.6 Q
6 to 10 11 6 Q Q N 30.4 17.9 Q Q N
11 to 20 Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N
More than 20 15 12 Q N Q 33.9 27.8 Q N Q
Currently unoccupied Q Q N N N Q Q N N N
Predominant exterior wall material                    
Brick, stone, or stucco 203 149 35 16 Q 59.3 44.0 12.8 29.0 Q
Concrete (block or poured) 56 36 5 Q Q 48.1 31.1 6.4 Q Q
Concrete panels 38 20 Q Q Q 51.7 27.4 25.4 Q Q
Siding or shingles Q Q N N N Q Q N N N
Metal panels Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N
Window glass 13 13 Q N Q 62.4 59.2 Q N Q
Other Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N Q
No one major type Q Q Q N N Q Q Q N N
Predominant roof material                    
Metal surfacing Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Synthetic or rubber 112 77 28 5 Q 57.1 39.6 19.6 32.8 Q
Built-up 98 64 14 Q Q 51.9 34.2 9.6 33.7 Q
Slate or tile shingles Q Q Q Q N 65.1 55.6 Q Q N
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
Q Q Q N N Q Q Q N N
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
40 Q 10 Q Q 73.0 45.7 22.0 Q Q
Concrete Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No one major type Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N
Roof characteristics                    
Roof tilt                    
Flat 225 155 42 20 Q 53.9 37.5 13.4 34.4 Q
Shallow pitch 64 44 Q Q Q 57.2 39.3 12.4 Q Q
Steeper pitch Q Q Q Q Q 76.7 60.6 13.1 Q Q
Cool roof 94 62 14 Q Q 52.8 35.3 10.6 34.2 Q
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
                   
Any type of renovation 240 162 42 24 Q 60.1 40.8 13.1 33.7 Q
Addition or annex 91 52 27 11 Q 72.7 41.3 26.0 39.8 Q
Reduction in floorspace Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N
Roof replacement 126 79 22 Q Q 62.5 39.4 13.8 33.5 Q
Exterior wall replacement 18 11 2 Q Q 50.1 31.4 6.3 Q Q
Interior wall reconfiguration 157 103 30 13 Q 60.3 40.2 14.0 31.5 Q
Window replacement 68 40 18 6 Q 46.7 28.2 15.1 32.6 Q
HVAC equipment upgrade 177 107 36 22 Q 59.0 35.9 14.5 33.1 Q
Lighting upgrade 180 126 36 15 Q 58.8 41.4 14.4 31.9 Q
Electrical upgrade 116 72 30 12 Q 56.7 35.5 17.9 31.1 Q
Plumbing system upgrade 90 55 23 11 Q 52.4 31.7 16.5 29.8 Q
Insulation upgrade 60 37 Q 6 Q 56.1 34.8 19.2 32.7 Q
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 115 76 23 13 Q 54.9 36.9 14.1 30.8 Q
Structural upgrade 29 17 Q Q Q 41.0 24.1 Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N Q
No renovations 87 67 14 Q Q 48.9 38.1 12.4 Q Q
Buildings constructed 2008 or later Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                   
Electricity 341 240 60 29 Q 57.1 40.5 13.2 30.5 48.8
Natural gas 173 112 38 20 Q 60.5 39.5 17.3 33.3 Q
Fuel oil 171 110 34 16 Q 55.1 35.7 13.6 27.6 Q
District heat 341 240 60 29 Q 57.1 40.5 13.2 30.5 48.8
District chilled water 236 171 37 24 Q 63.2 45.9 13.3 32.8 Q
Propane Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N
Other 15 10 Q Q N 44.0 30.7 Q Q N
Space-heating energy sources                    
District heat 340 240 59 28 Q 57.3 40.5 13.2 30.4 48.8
District heat main 338 239 58 28 Q 58.3 41.2 13.1 30.4 48.8
District heat secondary Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N
Other excluding district heat Q N Q Q N Q N Q Q N
Buildings without heating Q N N Q N Q N N Q N
Primary space-heating
energy source
                   
Electricity Q Q Q N N Q Q Q N N
Natural gas Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N
Fuel oil Q Q N N N Q Q N N N
District heat 338 239 58 28 Q 58.3 41.2 13.1 30.4 48.8
Propane N N N N N N N N N N
Other N N N N N N N N N N
Cooling energy sources                    
District heat 23 7 3 Q Q 91.8 28.5 Q Q 48.8
Other excluding district heat 314 230 56 28 N 55.5 40.9 13.1 30.3 N
Buildings without cooling Q Q Q N N Q Q Q N N
Water-heating energy sources                    
District heat 279 181 60 26 Q 61.3 40.0 13.2 30.0 48.8
Other excluding district heat 57 54 N Q N 45.0 43.0 N Q N
Buildings without water heating Q Q N Q N Q Q N Q N
Cooking energy sources                    
District heat 77 37 11 29 Q 81.6 39.8 12.6 30.5 Q
Other excluding district heat 94 70 21 N Q 42.5 32.1 12.0 N Q
Buildings without cooking 170 133 28 N Q 60.3 47.2 14.4 N Q
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
                   
Buildings with space heating 341 240 60 29 Q 57.1 40.5 13.2 30.5 48.8
Buildings with cooling 337 237 59 29 Q 57.1 40.4 13.1 30.5 48.8
Buildings with water heating 336 235 60 29 Q 57.7 40.7 13.2 30.7 48.8
Buildings with cooking 171 107 32 29 Q 54.2 34.4 12.2 30.5 Q
Buildings with manufacturing Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N Q
Buildings with electricity
generation
208 141 40 16 Q 55.5 38.0 12.8 27.0 Q
Percent of floorspace heated                    
Not heated Q N N Q N Q N N Q N
1 to 50 Q Q Q N N Q Q Q N N
51 to 99 39 25 10 Q Q 35.0 21.9 13.8 Q Q
100 300 214 50 25 Q 63.6 45.7 13.1 30.8 Q
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
                   
Heat pumps 27 16 8 Q Q 48.0 28.5 19.8 Q Q
Furnaces Q Q Q N N Q Q Q N N
Individual space heaters 63 42 9 7 Q 46.3 31.2 8.6 28.8 Q
District heat 340 240 59 28 Q 57.3 40.5 13.2 30.4 48.8
Boilers Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N
Packaged heating units 45 28 6 Q Q 60.0 38.7 12.4 Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N
Water-heating equipment                    
Centralized system 227 155 40 22 Q 63.1 43.5 13.2 31.7 Q
Distributed system 23 19 2 Q Q 46.4 38.8 7.3 Q Q
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
86 61 18 6 Q 49.8 35.3 14.6 26.7 Q
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
                   
Snack bar or concession stand 81 51 16 12 Q 50.1 31.8 11.2 29.4 Q
Fast food or small restaurant 61 39 15 Q Q 51.1 33.2 14.7 Q Q
Cafeteria or large restaurant 105 55 21 26 Q 57.7 30.6 14.3 31.6 Q
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
97 50 20 25 Q 62.0 33.1 13.7 32.8 Q
Small kitchen area 55 34 Q 6 Q 48.0 30.9 12.3 25.5 Q
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
                   
Economizer cycle 245 169 42 27 Q 59.9 41.5 13.1 31.6 Q
Regular HVAC maintenance 319 219 59 29 Q 56.7 39.1 13.3 30.5 48.8
Building automation system (BAS)3 266 186 53 19 Q 53.1 37.4 13.6 29.4 Q
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
                   
Heating 208 151 28 23 Q 51.6 37.6 9.5 29.7 Q
Cooling 209 154 26 22 Q 51.6 38.3 8.7 28.5 Q
Lighting 318 226 52 28 Q 57.7 41.4 12.0 30.8 Q
 
1The district heat intensity calculation (district heat consumption for the end use divided by the floorspace in buildings that use district heat for the particular end use) differs from the calculation used in the 2003 CBECS tables, in which the intensities were not conditional on the presence of the end use; the 2003 CBECS denominator was total floorspace in all buildings that used district heat. In this table, the intensities for each end use do not sum to the total district heat intensity, whereas they did in the 2003 CBECS table.
2These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
3In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A and D of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.